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Designing for behaviour change

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Behaviour change is the measurable outcome of good UX design. Here's a review of a few design techniques and processes to help UX designers to create sustainable behaviour change.

Behaviour change is the measurable outcome of good UX design. Here's a review of a few design techniques and processes to help UX designers to create sustainable behaviour change.

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  • 1. Designing for behaviour change Phil Barrett Director Flow Interactive South Africa A few techniques
  • 2. Flickr:HeatherHopkins/ClevergrrlFlickr:Mel/Karamellzucker Flickr:DarrenTunnicliff/ĐāżŦ{mostlyabsent} Flickrr:Etolane Remove the negative posts: 
 people post more positive stuff. Facebook manipulated 689,003 users’ emotions for science Flickr:quantumbunny Remove the positive posts: 
 people post more negative stuff.
  • 3. “I am worried about the ability of Facebook and others to manipulate people’s thoughts […] If people are being thought-controlled in this kind of way, there needs to be protection and they at least need to know about it. Jim Sheridan, MP
 Member of Commons Media Select committee
  • 4. Facebook’s real motives Facebook wants you to use Facebook more. Facebook always builds a user’s feed by compiling “the content they will find most relevant and engaging.” Facebook has built a behaviour in users: Smartphone users check Facebook 14 times a day. …keeping us on Facebook!
  • 5. Computers can change people’s behaviour
  • 6. …So can TV, Radio, Books, Speeches, Posters, Games, Smells, Conversations, Balloons…
  • 7. Behaviour-change is the 
 measurable outcome of UX work
  • 8. “Behaviour is our medium. Robert Fabricant
 Frog Design
  • 9. Sustained behaviour change. Creating an itch that people want to keep on scratching HayDay:Agreatgameonfacebook.Playitnow!
  • 10. And what about in the real world? Exercise more, eat better, save for retirement, recycle, use less electricity, volunteer to help a charity, spend more time with the kids… Flickr:ElAlvi/alvi2047
  • 11. Mindbloom Fitbit Do these kinds of things work? A show of hands…
  • 12. What kinds of behaviour change can we hope to achieve? What techniques can we use? Flickr:JackKeane/whatknot
  • 13. These are helping Sebastian Deterding
 CodingConduct.cc
  • 14. Get people to take an action Exploit mental quirks to persuade Build habits Design a compelling behavioural plan Cheat Flickr:JackKeane/whatknot
  • 15. CONCEPT 1 Getting people to take action is hard
  • 16. “ BJ Fogg, 
 Professor of Persuasive Tech Stanford University Three elements must converge at the same moment for a behavior to occur: Motivation, Ability, and Trigger. Easy to doHard to do Low 
 motivation High 
 motivation No action: Triggers fail here Ability Motivation Action! Triggers succeed here
  • 17. Easy to doHard to do Low 
 motivation High 
 motivation No action: Triggers fail here Action! Triggers succeed here Ability Motivation More compelling Less effort
  • 18. Fogg’s motivation factors Attain Avoid Pleasure Pain Hope Fear Social acceptance Social rejection
  • 19. Even harder: Behaviour change funnel Execute action CUE REACTION EVALUATION ABILITY TIMING Distractions Distractions Distractions Distractions Distractions Doesn’t notice Negative reaction Cost > benefit Can’t act No urgency CREATE action funnel
  • 20. CONCEPT 2 You can exploit mental quirks to get a more positive reaction
  • 21. “System 1” “System 2” Automatic vs deliberate thinking • Does the job properly but uses a lot of glucose.• Substitutes easy questions for hard ones • Believes things that are easy to believe • Operates using habits
  • 22. System 2 System 1 Flickr:Thomas/Infidelic
  • 23. Exploiting system 1: some examples § Free stuff. People make irrational decisions when things are free. § Loss aversion: People are more motivated by avoiding a loss than by acquiring a similar gain. If the same choice is framed as a loss, rather than a gain, people will behave differently. § Ikea effect: We value things we have made more highly. § Social proof: Everyone else is doing it, so it must be a good thing.
  • 24. People behave strangely when things are free
  • 25. Framing a choice as a loss makes it less popular Imagine that the US is preparing for the outbreak of a lethal flu, which is expected to kill 600 people. Choose a program to address the problem. ! a) 200 people will be saved ! b) 1/3rd chance that 600 people will be saved. 2/3rd chance that no people will be saved. 72%
  • 26. Framing a choice as a loss makes it less popular Imagine that the US is preparing for the outbreak of a lethal flu, which is expected to kill 600 people. Choose a program to address the problem. ! a) 400 people will die. ! b) 1/3rd that no-one will die. 2/3rd chance that 600 people will die. 22%
  • 27. The IKEA effect. With origami frogs. They were hard to make and most people did a bad job. How much would people bid for their own frogs? And the frogs of others? And expert -made frogs? Flickr:ToddJordan/Tojosan
  • 28. We become attached to the things we make. • Average bid for expert-made frog: 27¢ • Average bid for own frog: 23¢ • Average bid by someone else for that same frog: ¢5c Flickr:Nanimo
  • 29. What’s this one? And this one?
  • 30. CONCEPT 3 For sustained behaviour change you need to create habits
  • 31. Habits let system 2 offload much of the day’s effort onto system 1. Create a habit, and the action can be performed many times without conscious thought from the rider. Flickr:Thomas/Infidelic
  • 32. Habit loop Icons made by Icons8 from flaticon.com Cue Routine Reward triggers provides becomes associated with…
  • 33. Habit loop: key details Cue must be clear, unambiguous, single-purpose. User must be motivated and able to do the routine. User must know about the reward, want it and get it immediately after the routine.
  • 34. Rewards
  • 35. “Promising a reward for an activity is tantamount to declaring that the activity is not worth doing for its own sake. Remove the reward and the behaviour stops
  • 36. But in the commercial world, rewards don’t have to stop.
  • 37. Variable reward Variability causes increased levels of dopamine, the neurotransmitter that drives us to search for rewards.
  • 38. Types of reward TribeHunt Self
  • 39. Old habits never die. 
 But sometimes you can get past them. • Avoid the cue • Replace the routine • Get people to think about the habit • Mindfulness • Crowd out the old habit with new behaviour
  • 40. CONCEPT 4 Design a behaviour plan that helps people build ability and stay motivated
  • 41. Behavioural plan* Get shoes Decide route Set date 1st run! Expensive Not sure of right distance Feels unfamiliar Can’t commit Might forget or chicken out *AKA Customer journey
  • 42. Behavioural plan* Get shoes Decide route Set date 1st run! Expensive Not sure of right distance Feels unfamiliar Can’t commit Might forget or chicken out *AKA Customer journey Suggest distance Suggest route Social proof Social proof Behavioural bridge Reminder Commitment contract Target/goal Social proof Behavioural bridge
  • 43. Learn from game design!
  • 44. We don’t need no stinkin’ badges Adding points and badges does not make a bad game fun.
  • 45. 7 principles of good games • Clear, worthwhile goal • Clear, bite-sized actions and choices • Clear action-goal relations • Clear status • Lots of positive feedback • Scaffolded challenges • Social comparison
  • 46. Ingredients for a state of Flow • Clear goal: You know what you’re trying to achieve • Rapid Feedback: Visibility of distance to go and of motion towards the goal • Challenge/mastery: You have to play better over time if you want to win Skills Challenge Anxiety Boredom Flow
  • 47. A state of “Flow” • Optimal performance • Intense focus and concentration • Time flies by • Feels good Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Author of Flow
  • 48. Epic meaning: Real or imaginary
  • 49. Epic meaning: Real or imaginary
  • 50. Epic meaning: Real or imaginary
  • 51. Lots of positive feedback Peggle
  • 52. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Scaffolded challenges Small challenges building to bigger ones. Social, hunt and intrinsic rewards.
  • 53. Like in Plants vs Zombies
  • 54. Make the behaviour more challenging, 
 not the interface Sebastian Deterding, Just add points?
  • 55. CONCEPT 5 Cheat
  • 56. Choice architecture In some situations you can make a lasting impact by choosing a positive default and allowing people to opt out.
  • 57. “Employees did not have to spend time choosing a savings rate and an asset allocation; they could just tick a yes box for participation. As a result, participation rates jumped from 9 percent to 34 percent. People really do want to join the plan, and if you dig a channel for them to slide down that removes the seemingly tiny barriers that are getting in their way, the results can be quite dramatic.” Cheat for pension sign-up
  • 58. Cheat for organ donation Austria Germany 99% registered donors 12% registered donors Opt in on driving licence application Opt out on driving licence application
  • 59. Libertarian paternalism In unfamiliar and complex situations where people often make the wrong choice, it’s best to make a choice for them but important to allow them the freedom to do what they want.
  • 60. To create sustained behaviour change ! • Be realistic: it’s hard! • Exploit mental quirks to persuade • Build habits • Design a compelling 
 behavioural plan • Cheat
  • 61. Thanks! Phil Barrett @philbuktoo @Flow_SA www.userexperience.co.za

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