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UXWeek 2015 - Designing for Behavior Change

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These are the full slides from my 3.5 hour workshops at UX Week 2015 - on how to design products that use behavioral economics and psychology to overcome obstacles and help users take action.

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UXWeek 2015 - Designing for Behavior Change

  1. 1. UX Week August 2015 Stephen Wendel Head of Behavioral Science @sawendel Designing for Behavior Change An Introduction
  2. 2. Hi! I’m Steve. Head of Behavioral Science Morningstar
  3. 3. Until recently, I was here Update screen Personalized financial guidance that transforms financial lives through behavioral economics
  4. 4. Now, I’m at Leading provider of independent investment advice serving millions of people everyday, around the world
  5. 5. My Job
  6. 6. A new wave of behavioral research
  7. 7. Some cool gadgets and products
  8. 8. Powering leading companies behind the scenes
  9. 9. And that’s what we’re talking about today Understand the decision making process and potential behavioral obstacles. Discover the appropriate behavioral intervention and target audience. Design the product or communication, from concept to implementation Refine the products and materials iteratively, using rigorous experimental testing. Image from Designing for Behavior Change
  10. 10. And you? I don’t understand why our users don’t ______?
  11. 11. The Path Ahead 1 Oh, so very limited 2 The obstacles we face 3 Three big strategies for overcoming them 4 Exercise
  12. 12. Four Big Lessons 1: We’re of two minds 2: We’re imperfect 4: Our choices are relative, contextual & social 3: Friction Matters
  13. 13. Justice is Blind?
  14. 14. No, Justice is Hungry
  15. 15. Just add the logo. 300% boost in enrollment
  16. 16. The Path Ahead 1 A new wave of products 2 Obstacles we face 3 Three big strategies for overcoming them 4 Exercise
  17. 17. We are all unique. To From To But our minds go through a similar process.
  18. 18. 6 Potential Obstacles to Consumer Action Image by Katie Palermo, and from Improving Employee Benefits
  19. 19. Cue: The Power of Simple Reminders For Example, see: Karlan et al. 2010
  20. 20. Reaction: What does it evoke?
  21. 21. Reaction: Make It Normal With Peer Comparisons or Social Proof For Example, see: Allcott 2011
  22. 22. Evaluation: Do they know the benefits (and costs)?
  23. 23. Evaluation: Most than economic costs 52% increase in clicks See https://whichtestwon.com/
  24. 24. Ability: Can they actually take action (and do they know it)?
  25. 25. Timing: Is there urgency to act now?
  26. 26. Timing: Time-based incentives can work “...If you sign up by 7PM today, you are eligible to win a free iPad mini!” “...If you are one of the first 100 people to sign up, you are eligible to win a free iPad mini!” 7.5% clicked 9.6% clicked 13.1% clicked See Balz and Wendel 2014
  27. 27. Today’s Path 1 Oh, so very limited 2 Obstacles we face 3 Three big strategies to overcome them 4 Exercise
  28. 28. So what’s a habit? Adapted from ABC Model (eg Miltenberger 2011) and Duhigg 2012
  29. 29. 3 strategies to pass the CREATE funnel
  30. 30. Today’s Path 1 A new wave of products 2 Obstacles we face 3 Three big strategies to overcome them 4 Exercise
  31. 31. Exercise! {Page 8: Using the CREATE Action Funnel} {Pick a volunteer & do the exercise as a group}
  32. 32. Practical Exercises: Identifying Obstacles with the CREATE Model
  33. 33. Practical Exercises: Evaluating Two Alternatives
  34. 34. UX Week August 2015 Stephen Wendel Head of Behavioral Science @sawendel Discovering the right behavior to target
  35. 35. The Path Ahead 1 Taking a step back 2 Three things that can help 3 Exercise
  36. 36. What’s the best way to lose weight?
  37. 37. What’s the best way to lose weight?
  38. 38. What’s the best way to engage your users?
  39. 39. The Path Ahead 1 Taking a step back 2 Three things that can help 3 Exercise
  40. 40. Discover the Outcome, Actor & Action Image from Designing for Behavior Change
  41. 41. The Outcome: How will the world change?
  42. 42. Make it tangible Why do you really care? Why would your users really care?
  43. 43. Make sure you can measure it “Users will gain experience with exercise” vs “Americans will have an average BMI of 25”
  44. 44. Actions: What Might –Someone– Do?
  45. 45. Actor: Who’s your audience?
  46. 46. Who’s your audience? Impact, Ease, Cost & Fit
  47. 47. Elicit additional constraints Channel? Timeframe? “Tone” of App? Constraints make us free
  48. 48. The Path Ahead 1 Taking a step back 2 Three things that can help 3 Exercise
  49. 49. Exercise! {Page 10-13: Group exercise} {Pick a behavioral problem, Discover the right action to target}
  50. 50. Practical Exercises: Discover - Outcome & Action
  51. 51. Practical Exercises: Discover - Personas
  52. 52. Practical Exercises: Discover - Evaluate
  53. 53. UX Week August 2015 Stephen Wendel Head of Behavioral Science @sawendel Designing the product around that target action
  54. 54. Please don’t yell at the fish.
  55. 55. Three strategies for changing behavior Image from Designing for Behavior Change
  56. 56. The Path Ahead 1 Structure the action 2 Design the environment 3 Prepare the user 4 Exercise
  57. 57. Write out the sequence of steps. Make each step pleasant. Straightforward. “Easy”. Tailor it to their prior experiences. Skip ahead where possible. Take the garden path. Structure the action: Break down hard problems
  58. 58. Conceptual design: develop a story How consumers progress from “just starting out” to “success!” Customer experience map by Mel Edwards, desonance.wordpress.com
  59. 59. Example: Structure the Action
  60. 60. The Path Ahead 1 Structure the action 2 Design the environment 3 Prepare the user 4 Exercise
  61. 61. Grab the person’s attention. Make sure the motivation is clear. Provide urgency. Remove distractions. Construct the environment to support action
  62. 62. Examples: Construct the environment
  63. 63. The Path Ahead 1 Structure the action 2 Design the environment 3 Prepare the user 4 Exercise
  64. 64. Help consumers see and tell the story of their successes. Build on related, positive experiences. Educate consumers about how to do take action. Prepare the person for the action
  65. 65. Examples: Prepare the person
  66. 66. Another exercise graphic! {Page 14: Pick a volunteer} {Design the behavioral plan}
  67. 67. Practical Exercises: The Behavioral Plan
  68. 68. UX Week August 2015 Stephen Wendel Head of Behavioral Science @sawendel Designing the user interface
  69. 69. The Path Ahead 1 Take a break 2 A Bag of Tricks 3 Some Tips 4 Exercise
  70. 70. Let designers do their magic.
  71. 71. The Path Ahead 1 Take a break 2 A Bag of Tricks 3 Some Tips 4 Exercise
  72. 72. Techniques 1 2 3 4 Obstacle: Try This: Cue Tell the Person What the Action Is Make It Clear Where to Act Clear the Page of Distractions Reaction Make Site Beautiful and Professional Deploy Social Proof Display Strong Authority on the Subject Be Authentic and Personal Evaluation Prime Relevant Associations Leverage Loss Aversion Use Peer Comparisons Run a Competition Avoid Cognitive Overhead Avoid Choice Overload Avoid Direct Payments Ability Elicit Implementation Intentions Default Everything Lessen Burden of Action and Information Deploy (Positive) Peer Comparisons Timing Frame text to avoid temporal myopia Remind of prior commitment to act Make it scarce
  73. 73. Cue
  74. 74. Give people a clear target
  75. 75. Two powerful cue words: You and Free
  76. 76. Align with when people have time 10:30am Monday 10:30am Tuesday 8pm Tuesday 3.7% clicked 7.1% clicked 1.6% clicked
  77. 77. Reaction
  78. 78. Build on a trusted relationship. 300% increase in engagement - from adding a logo. Randomized control trial conducted by Pizarro and Wendel, 2014
  79. 79. Make It Normal With Peer Comparisons or Social Proof For Example, see: Allcott 2011
  80. 80. Beauty and Scan-ability Matter Which version is more inviting? 27% boost in account creation vs.
  81. 81. Evaluation
  82. 82. Losses loom larger than gains
  83. 83. Offer dominated alternatives
  84. 84. Don’t Offer Lots of Choices At Once (Simplify or use a hierarchy)
  85. 85. Describe the Benefit of Action, Not Just the Content Describing the content versus describing the benefit? 62% increase Source: WhichTestWon.com
  86. 86. Ability
  87. 87. Use Defaults (especially where engagement isn’t needed) Employees joining shortly before Apr. 1st Employees joining shortly after Apr. 1st 49% 86% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Opt In Opt Out Madrian and Shea (2001)
  88. 88. Make sure they know they’ll succeed 5.5% clicked8.5% clicked See Wendel and Balz 2014
  89. 89. Ability: Elicit Plans to Act (Implementation Intentions) See Milkman et al. 2011
  90. 90. Timing
  91. 91. Make the Future into the Present From Dan Goldstein
  92. 92. Limited Time Offers Still Work How can you create urgency? “...If you sign up by 7PM today, you are eligible to win a free iPad mini!” “...If you are one of the first 100 people to sign up, you are eligible to win a free iPad mini!” 7.5% clicked 9.6% clicked 13.1% clicked
  93. 93. The Path Ahead 1 Take a break 2 A Bag of Tricks 3 Some Tips 4 Exercise
  94. 94. Exercise! {Page 15: Pick a volunteer} {Design a simple user interface: email}
  95. 95. Practical Exercises: Designing the invite email
  96. 96. UX Week August 2015 Stephen Wendel Head of Behavioral Science @sawendel Refining the design and learning faster
  97. 97. The Path Ahead 1 One Big Lesson 2 How Experiments Work 3 Fitting it Together: A Three-Step Process 4 Exercise
  98. 98. Hundreds of RCTs – Big and Small – On Usage and Impact “...If you sign up by 7PM today, you are eligible to win a free iPad mini!” “...If you are one of the first 100 people to sign up, you are eligible to win a free iPad mini!”
  99. 99. Most of our efforts just don’t do much.
  100. 100. Lots of possible solutions
  101. 101. Applicability, not generalizability
  102. 102. How?
  103. 103. Checking whether the darned thing works Impact Experiment: The Gold Standard Statistical Models w. Controls: Harder Work, For a Silver Medal
  104. 104. The Path Ahead 1 One Big Lesson: Learn Faster 2 How Experiments Work 3 Fitting it Together: A Three-Step Process 4 Exercise
  105. 105. Experiments in 2 Minutes
  106. 106. Step 1: Define Success. What metric, by what amount?
  107. 107. Step 2: Develop the approach(es).
  108. 108. Step 3: Apply the behavioral bag of tricks.
  109. 109. Step 4: Take Stock: What Do You Want to Learn?
  110. 110. 1) Does the darned thing work? Type of Test: an “Impact Test” Version A: Do Nothing Version B: Your Communication
  111. 111. 2) Can we get anything to work better? Type of Test: a “Kitchen Sink Test” Version A: Current Underperforming Version Version B: Your Best Shot, with everything
  112. 112. 3) What fundamentally resonates with our readers more, X or Y? Type of Test: an “Archetype Test” Version A: Everything is X Version B: Everything is Y
  113. 113. 4) What exactly drives a result? Type of Test: “Isolated Intervention” (Aka “Microscope Test”) Version A: A baseline communication Version B: The exact same communication, with a single small change
  114. 114. Step 5: Do you have enough people?
  115. 115. Step 6: Measure the Impact, Test if it’s Real
  116. 116. The Path Ahead 1 One Big Lesson: Learn Faster 2 How Experiments Work 3 Fitting it Together: A Three-Step Process 4 Exercise
  117. 117. Impact – Ideas – Measured Changes
  118. 118. Generating Ideas: Where’s the problem?
  119. 119. Generating Ideas: Why is there a problem?
  120. 120. Find the leading indictors that save waiting time.
  121. 121. Vet ideas cheaply, before proving their impact expensively.
  122. 122. It all starts by being wrong.
  123. 123. The Path Ahead 1 One Big Lesson: Learn Faster 2 How Experiments Work 3 Fitting it Together: A Three-Step Process 4 Exercise
  124. 124. Practical Exercises: Calc Sample Size (1 of 2)
  125. 125. Practical Exercises: Calculate Sample Size
  126. 126. Practical Exercises: Refine
  127. 127. UX Week August 2015 Stephen Wendel Head of Behavioral Science @sawendel A quick recap
  128. 128. It’s not enough to have an awesome product or communication
  129. 129. We’re all pretty limited
  130. 130. Understand: 6 Obstacles to Action
  131. 131. Discover: Outcome, Actor, Action
  132. 132. Design: 3 Strategies for Action
  133. 133. Refine: Learn Faster
  134. 134. Comments? Suggestions? steve.wendel@morningstar.com

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