Listening skills

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"Presentation on Listening Skills. Lear ways to
Become a good listener. See to learn basic listening skills.
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Listening skills

  1. 1. LISTENING SKILLS
  2. 2. Basic Communication Skills Profile ________________________________________________ Communication Order Learned Extent Used Extent Taught ____________________________________________ Listening First First Fourth Speaking Second Second Third Reading Third Third Second Writing Fourth Fourth First
  3. 3. Meaning  Listening Is With The Mind  Hearing With The Senses  Listening Is Conscious.  An Active Process Of Eliciting Information  Ideas, Attitudes And Emotions  Interpersonal, Oral Exchange
  4. 4. Fallacies about Listening  Listening is not my problem!  Listening and hearing are the same  Good readers are good listeners  Smarter people are better listeners  Listening improves with age  Learning not to listen  Thinking about what we are going to say rather than listening to a speaker  Talking when we should be listening  Hearing what we expect to hear rather than what is actually said  Not paying attention ( preoccupation, prejudice, self-centeredness, stero-type)  Listening skills are difficult to learn
  5. 5. Stages of the Listening Process  Hearing  Focusing on the message  Comprehending and interpreting  Analyzing and Evaluating  Responding  Remembering
  6. 6. Types of Listening  Informative Listening  Vocabulary  Concentration  Memory  Relationship Listening  Attending  Supporting  Empathizing  Appreciative Listening  Presentation  Perception  Previous experience
  7. 7. Types of Listening (Cont.)  Critical Listening  Ethos  Logos  Pathos  Discriminative Listening  Hearing Ability  Awareness of Sound Structure  Integration of non-verbal cues
  8. 8. Barriers to Active Listening  Environmental barriers  Physiological barriers  Psychological barriers  Selective Listening  Negative Listening Attitudes  Personal Reactions  Poor Motivation
  9. 9. How to Be an Effective Listener  What You Think about Listening ?  Understand the complexities of listening  Prepare to listen  Adjust to the situation  Focus on ideas or key points  Capitalize on the speed differential  Organize material for learning
  10. 10. How to Be an Effective Listener (cont.)  What You Feel about Listening ?  Want to listen  Delay judgment  Admit your biases  Don’t tune out “dry” subjects  Accept responsibility for understanding  Encourage others to talk
  11. 11. How to Be an Effective Listener (cont.)  What You Do about Listening ?  Establish eye contact with the speaker  Take notes effectively  Be a physically involved listener  Avoid negative mannerisms  Exercise your listening muscles  Follow the Golden Rule
  12. 12. Improving Listening Comprehension  Listening comprehension is the act of understanding an oral message  It involves speech decoding, comprehending, and oral discourse analysis
  13. 13. Speech Decoding  Sound Perception and Recognition (Recognising sounds and sound patterns accurately, recognising the way sounds combine to form syllables and utterances)
  14. 14. Speech Decoding (Cont..)  Word recognition ( Recognising words accurately, understanding the definitions of the words being use, recognising the way words are used un context, identifying attention signals)
  15. 15. Speech Decoding (Cont..)  Accent recognition ( recognise stress, identify pauses, hesitations )
  16. 16. Comprehending Comprehending a verbal message involves the ability to: • Identify the central theme, main ideas and supporting details; • Concentrate and understand long speeches • Identify the level of formality • Deduce incomplete information • Deduce unfamiliar vocabulary
  17. 17. Oral Discourse Analysis  Is the process of identifying relationships among different units within the speech or oral message:  Critical skills  Attitude analysis  Inferential skills
  18. 18. Listening to structured talks  Pre-listening analysis-determining the purpose, knowing your speaker  Predicting about the content of a verbal message  Using background knowledge  Intensive listening
  19. 19. Intensive Listening 1. Listening to the introduction? • What is the position, knowledge, background, experience of the speaker? • What is his credibility? • What is the overall purpose of the talk? • What is the central idea or theme? • What is the overall structure? • What does the speaker intend to do? • What are the main points of the talk?
  20. 20. Intensive listening (Cont…) 2. Listening to the Body • Contains the main message-pay attention • Concentrate on verbal signposts • Recognise main supporting details of the oral message • Concentrate on visual aids
  21. 21. Intensive Listening ( Cont..) 3. Listening to the conclusion • Understand the main themes of the verbal message • Recognise the speaker`s focus of the talk • Concentrate on what the speaker wants the listener`s to do, or remember
  22. 22. Signal Phrases Purpose of the speaker Signal phrases * Introduces a topic Today, I`d like to talk about…, What I am going to discuss is… * Develops an idea If we critically examine the situation.., The most significant point is… * Emphasises a point I am sure you will agree with me.., I`d like to emphasise.. * Contrasts several ideas On the other hand., In contrast,… * Shows transition of ideas My next point is… * Concludes Finally.., I`d like to sum up
  23. 23. Logical Connectors and Transitional Signals Purpose of the speaker Logical connectors Adds a point Moreover, in addition compares Similarly, likewise contrasts In contrast, However, Shows segmentation Right, OK, And, Now, That`s all Exemplifies In other words, For instance Temporal Eventually, For the time being, Before Explains Therefore, Thus
  24. 24. Effective Note Making  Note making is essential in college:  For lectures, which are a highly condensed methods of passing on information  For reading, because what you don't write down, you don't remember
  25. 25. Effective Note Making (Cont.)  Note making is a skill:  Most people feel deficient  It can be learned  This takes understanding of what you're doing  It takes practice, which involves effort
  26. 26. Effective Note Making (Cont.)  Note making is difficult because:  Spoken language is more diffuse than written  Speaker's organization is not immediately apparent  Immediate feedback seldom occurs  Spoken language is quickly gone  This makes analysis difficult
  27. 27. Five purposes for note making:  Provides a written record for review  Provides a definite, limited learning task  Forces you to pay attention  Requires organization, and active effort on the part of the listener  Listener must condense and rephrase, which aids understanding
  28. 28. Sequence  Listen and focus on meaning  Evaluate what is being said  Is it relevant to your purpose? What are the high points?  Record the information  Make use of it
  29. 29. Physical factors  Seating  Near the front and center - easier to see and hear  Avoid distractions - doorways, windows, glare; friends, foes  Materials  Loose leaf notebook: lies flat - organization and additions are easier  Two pens, wide-lined, easy-eye paper; use dividers  Course, date, and topic clearly labeled
  30. 30. Before taking notes - PREVIEW  Prepare yourself mentally - What do you need to get out of this?  Review notes from last time and homework. Nail your attention down tight.  Review the outline from your reading assignment  Think through what has happened in the class to date  Generate enthusiasm and interest  Increased knowledge results in increased interest  A clear sense of purpose on your part will make the course content more relevant  Acting as if you are interested can help  Don't let the personality or mannerisms of a speaker put you off  Be ready to understand and remember  Anticipate the next step and compare what you've guessed with what happens
  31. 31. Get Involved!  Tune-in, look, listen for clues:  Tone or gesture of Professor  Repetition; cue words: "remember!"  Notice what conflicts with your current opinions  They are harder to understand and remember  Keep thinking...  Look for emerging patterns  Write questions in margins to be answered later
  32. 32. While taking notes  Don't try for a verbatim transcript  Get all of the main ideas  Record some details. illustrations, implications, etc.  Leave plenty of wide space for later additions - underscore or star major points  Note speaker's organization of material  Organization aids memory  Organization indicates gaps when they occur - you fill in later  Be accurate  Listen carefully to what is being said  Pay attention to qualifying words like: sometimes, usually, rarely, etc.  Notice signals that a change of direction is coming: but, however, on the other hand
  33. 33. While taking notes (Cont.)  Be an aggressive, not a passive, listener  Jot questions in your notes  Do you believe what you're hearing? What do you believe?  Seek out meanings. Look for implications beyond what is being said.  Relate the material to your other classes and your life outside of school.  Develop a shorthand of your own  Jot down words or phrases; use contractions and abbreviations  Leave out small service words, use symbols: +, =,&, ~)  Try to get the hang of listening and writing at the same time. It can be done  You may practice listening to the news on TV and taking notes
  34. 34. POST VIEW: Don't move - go over notes at once!  Review and reword them as soon after class as possible  Build review time into your schedule  Don't just recopy or type without thought  "Reminiscing" may provide forgotten material later  Rewrite incomplete or skimpy parts in greater detail  Fill in gaps as you remember points heard but not recorded  Arrange with another student to compare notes  Find answers to any questions remaining unanswered  Write a brief summary of the class session  Formulate several generalized test questions based on the material
  35. 35. POST VIEW: Don't move - go over notes at once! (Cont.)  Use your notes as a learning tool  Review at spaced intervals it is more effective than the same effort spent cramming  We forget 50% of what we hear immediately, two days later, another 25% is gone.  But relearning is rapid if regular review is used.  Compare the information in your notes with your own experience - don't swallow everything uncritically  Don't reject what seems strange or incorrect. Check it out. Be willing to hold some seeming inconsistencies in your mind over a period of time.  Build a good "thought map" of the ideas. Explain it to anyone who'll listen.  Memorize that which must be memorized.
  36. 36. THE TEN COMMANDMENTS – KEITH DAVIS  Stop Talking.  Put The Talker At Ease.  Show Him That You Want To Listen.  Remove Distractions.  Empathize With Him.  Be Patient.  Hold Your Temper.  Go Easy On Arguments And Criticism.  Ask Questions.  Stop Talking!
  37. 37.  Thank You

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