Language Communication skills
The ability to convey information to another effectively
and efficiently. Business managers with good
verbal, non verbal and written communication skills
help facilitate the sharing of information between
people within a company for its commercial benefit.
Four Type of Language
Listening is the ability to accurately receive and
interpret messages in the communication process.
Listening is key to all effective
communication, without the ability to listen effectively
messages are easily misunderstood – communication
breaks down and the sender of the message can easily
become frustrated or irritated.
10 Principles of Listening
1. Stop Talking
2. Prepare Yourself to Listen
3. Put the Speaker at Ease
4. Remove Distractions
6. Be Patient
7. Avoid Personal Prejudice
8. Listen to the Tone
9. Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words
10. Wait and Watch for Non-Verbal Communication
Barriers In Listening
Barriers to listening take many forms. It is inevitable that barriers will exist in
any interaction, but anything which stops concentration, allowing the mind to
wander off the topic, must be recognized and overcome if fully successful
communication is to take place.
The following, if encountered, can make us switch off from what is being said,
to allow our minds to temporarily concentrate on our surroundings:
1. The room too hot or too cold
2. The chair uncomfortable
3. The lighting too bright or too dim
4. Bad ventilation; stuffy/smoky atmosphere
Linguistic barriers derive from the speaker and make it difficult for them to be
listened to. They can be summarized as follows :
1. Jargon or specialist language
6. Complex sentences
7. Complex vocabulary
4. Hesitant manner
5. Badly organized material
8. Delivery too fast
9. Delivery too slow and
10. Delivery too loud
11. Delivery too quiet
Emotional states which are brought to the communication or result from it can
come between what is being said and effective listening and understanding, for
2. Own anxiety
3. Frustration, inability to
put across ideas
4. Status difference
What the speaker is saying may also be a barrier to the listener:
1. Subject of the discussion does not interest us
2. Speaker goes on for too long
3. Speaker is saying what we don't want to hear
4. We have heard it all before
5. Content is too difficult/simplistic
6. Content is repetitious
The listener may put up personal barriers:
1.Preoccupied with own problems
2.Thinking about own response without
4.Monopolizing the conversation, dominant
3.Looking for every opportunity to
How can listening skills be improved?
We should practice concentrating. If we listen to a ten minute news broadcast
how much of it can we remember?
We should use spare thinking time more effectively and we should think about
what the speaker is saying and what the non verbal signals are telling us.
We must practice mentally summarizing what the speaker is saying.
We must listen analytically.
Without interrupting, we should join in the conversation by asking for
We should make encouraging noises to let the speaker know that you are still
We must maintain good eye contact. We must show in your posture that we are
interested in what is being said.
Speaking is an act of making vocal sounds. We can say that
speaking means to converse, or expressing one's thoughts and
feelings in spoken language. To speak often implies conveying
information. It may be from an informal remark to a scholarly
presentation to a formal address.
Speaking skills are the skills that give us the ability to
These skills allow the speaker, to convey his message in a
passionate, thoughtful, and convincing manner.
Speaking skills also help to assure that one won't be
misunderstood by those who are listening
What to do before speaking?
The first step to speaking is to think and the first step to perfect speaking is to thick positive. Good
speakers have the ability to quickly analyze and absorb the information given to them, assess it fast
and to make a decision and communicate that decision to other. Keep in mind to:
1. Be an active listener:
The key ingredient towards making you a person who can think on the spot and respond intelligently
is to be an active listener. This means listening carefully and giving your full attention to the
words, tone, emotion and logic behind what the other one is saying.
2. Be a quick organiser of thoughts:
All of us have the ability to think fast. The trick is to adopt some frameworks or models to structure
new information into something coherent that we can respond with. One can break down issues or
ideas into past, present and future.
3. Structure your speech in your mind:
These are useful frameworks to organise ideas and thoughts quickly.
The basic structure of any speech involves:
It is very useful in delivering speeches and especially for speaking in situations such as table topics
during meetings or other times when called upon to "say some words". Thinking before speaking is
important for us to add value in terms of communicating our thoughts, ideas and feelings. We can
touch lives through deeds and we can touch lives through speech.
Principal of Speaking skills
1. Be prepared and practice.
The more you know what you want to say, the better you'll
get at it. First, brainstorm the topic of your speech and
research it, if you need to. Write down all the points you
want to make and then organize them into an outline.
Then, practice your speech out loud at least 3 to 5 times.
2. Know your audience.
The better you know your audience or listeners, the easier it
will be to connect to them as you speak. When you are able
to make that connection, you'll hold their attention.
4. Interact with your audience.
Lectures will rarely have the same impact on an audience that an open
discussion will. Look for opportunities to involve your audience in what you are
speaking about. Ask for validation of points you are making ("Am I right?" "Has
that ever happened to you?") Or allow time for questions. Also, make sure to
establish eye contact with your audience, and keep it throughout your speech.
5. Speak with sincerity and passion.
When a person wants to leave a lasting impression with the audience about
one’s topic then be sure that you are true to yourself and your topic as you
speak .Don't be afraid to inject enthusiasm and passion into the speech as well.
6. Close your speech in a memorable way.
Give your audience something to think about as you finish up your speech.
Certainly, it's a good idea to summarize your main points one more time, but
then finish up with an inspiring story or quote, or leave them with a thought
The main goal is fluency. Remember that one don't have to know many
complex grammatical structures to achieve that goal! First of all try to speak as
fluent as possible (even making some grammar mistakes). Then, after making
one’s speaking fluent, one can focus on grammar aspects.
Here are some of the micro-skills involved in speaking.
The speaker has to Pronounce the distinctive sounds of a
language clearly enough so that people can distinguish
them. This includes making tonal distinctions.
Use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for
example, changes in the tense, case, or gender.
Put words together in correct word order.
Use vocabulary appropriately.
Use the language that is appropriate to the situation and
the relationship to the conversation partner.
Make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or
Barriers while speaking:
2. Lack of consistency in the communication process.
3. Incomplete sentences.
4. Not understanding the receiver.
5. Words can have different meanings to different
6. Use of negative words.
How to improve speaking skills:
Practice where you can, when you can: Any practice is
good whether you speak to someone who is a native
English speaker or not.
It's important to build your confidence. If possible, use
simple English sentence structure that you know is
correct, so that you can concentrate on getting your
Try to respond to what people say to you. You can often
get clues to what people think by looking at their body
language. Respond to them in a natural way.
Try NOT to translate into and from your own language. This
takes too much time and will make you more hesitant.
If you forget a word do what native English speakers do all the
time, and say things that 'fill' the conversation. This is better
than keeping completely silent. Try using um, or err, if you forget
Don't speak too fast! It's important to use a natural rhythm when
speaking English, but if you speak too fast it will be difficult for
people to understand you.
Remember, when speaking English Try to become less hesitant
and more confident. Don’t be shy to speak the more you do
it, the more confident you'll become. Remember to be polite use
"please" and "thank you" if you ask someone to do something for
Writing is a process where symbols have to be
arranged according to a certain conventions to form
words and words have to be arranged to form
Writing skills are an important part of
communication. Good writing skills allow you to
communicate your message with clarity and ease to a far
larger audience than through face-to-face or telephone
Why Writing is important
Writing aims to capture a thought or idea, to transfer it
to a permanent format, making it tangible.
The responsibility for that transfer falling squarely on the
If communication is the ultimate goal, write for your
audience, not for personal style.
Writing has to be much clearer than spoken language
because it lacks these assisting cues
Great care is required to ensure that your message is
accurately interpreted by its audience.
1. Pre-writing: This is the planning phase of the writing process, when students
brainstorm, research, gather and outline ideas, often using diagrams for mapping out
their thoughts. Audience and purpose should be considered at this point, and for the
older students, a working thesis statement needs to be started.
2. Drafting: Students create their initial composition by writing down all their ideas in
an organized way to convey a particular idea or present an argument. Audience and
purpose need to be finalized.
3. Revising: Students review, modify, and reorganize their work by
rearranging, adding, or deleting content, and by making the tone, style, and content
appropriate for the intended audience. The goal of this phase of the writing process is to
improve the draft.
4. Editing: At this point in the writing process, writers proofread and correct errors in
grammar and mechanics, and edit to improve style and clarity. Having another writer’s
feedback in this stage is helpful.
5. Publishing: In this last step of the writing process, the final writing is shared with the
group. Sharing can be accomplished in a variety of ways, and with the help of
computers, it can even be printed or published online.
Tips to Improve Your English Writing Skills:
1. Keep All of your Writing in One Place
Buy a notebook or journal or start an electronic journal. By keeping your writing all in the same
place, you will be able to see how much you are improving and keep it organized.
2. Practice Writing in English Daily
The importance of writing daily is that you start to create a new habit. Writing every day in English
will soon become natural and something you look forward to. You will not see a significant
improvement if you are not dedicated to becoming a better writer in English. You cannot create
awesome stories and papers if you never try.
3. Pick a Topic and WRITE!
Don’t get stuck on figuring out what to write about. You can write about anything. You can write
about what you do, things you hear or see, news, or make up a story. If you do get stuck, use some of
English Tonight’s writing prompts to help you get started.
4. Write More than One Draft
Draft means a preliminary version of piece of writing. Sometimes, your best writing becomes better
after you take a break and work on a second or third draft. When you revise (or rewrite) your work you
are often able to get your message across more clearly. You make think of things that you did not think
to write in the first draft and you can add it in a later draft.
5. Use Online Resources to Correct your Grammar
Yes, grammar is a pain. You don’t need to know everything about English grammar. Use
online resources, such as Grammarly, GrammarCheck or GrammarBook.com to help you
answer a grammar question when it comes up. You could also switch the spell and
grammar check on MS Word, your iPad or Google Doc to check your spelling and
grammar in English.
6. Think Outside the Box (or Lines)
Don’t write about the same thing every day or you will get bored. Try writing the same
story from different perspectives or different tenses. If you are writing a story about a
baby that won’t stop crying; first, it could be the mother telling the story; then from the
perspective of the baby. Or you could write it in present moment…. ‘My baby hasn’t
stopped crying in five days…’ and then write in the perspective of a pregnant woman that
is thinking about having a baby that won’t stop crying. Don’t write about topics in the
obvious way. Be creative!
7. Have a Friend Edit Your Writing
Have a friend that knows English correct or edit your work. Having another person read
your work helps generate more ideas to better your writing. You could have them edit
everything or just a part that you are stuck on. Often having another set of eyes look at
your writing helps find mistakes that you have overlooked.
Reading:- It is a dynamic process in whioch reader
interact with th word to contruct the meaing in his
1. Styles of reading
Scanning: for a specific focus
The technique you use when you're looking up a name
in the phone book: you move your eye quickly over the
page to find particular words or phrases that are
relevant to the task you're doing.
It's useful to scan parts of texts to see if they're going to
be useful to you:
the introduction or preface of a book
the first or last paragraphs of chapters
the concluding chapter of a book.
Skimming: for getting the gist of something
The technique you use when you're going through a
newspaper or magazine: you read quickly to get the
main points, and skip over the detail. It's useful to
to preview a passage before you read it in detail
to refresh your understand of a passage after you've
read it in detail.
Use skimming when you're trying to decide if a book
in the library or bookshop is right for you.
Detailed reading: for extracting information
Where you read every word, and work to learn from
In this careful reading, you may find it helpful to skim
first, to get a general idea, but then go back to read in
detail. Use a dictionary to make sure you understand
all the words used.
3. A tip for speeding up your
Gather the information you need to focus on the work and
Read the title to help prepare for the subject
Read the introduction or summary to see what the author
thinks are the key points
Notice the boldface headings to see what the structure is
Notice any maps, graphs or charts. They are there for a
Notice the reading aids, italics, bold face, questions at the
end of the chapter. They are all there to help you
understand and remember.
Help your mind to engage and concentrate. Your mind
is engaged in learning when it is actively looking for
answers to questions.
Try turning the boldface headings into questions you
think the section should answer.
Read the first section with your questions in mind.
Look for the answers, and make up new questions if
After each section, stop and think back to your
questions. See if you can answer them from memory. If
not, take a look back at the text. Do this as often as you
Once you have finished the whole chapter, go back
over all the questions from all the headings. See you if
can still answer them. If not, look back and refresh