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Chapter 28 From Sandra


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Chapter 28 From Sandra

  1. 1. Chapter 28 Oral Communication
  2. 2. Speaking up: <ul><li>How do you feel about speaking in front of a large group? </li></ul><ul><li>What, if anything, about the experience makes you nervous? </li></ul><ul><li>What might help you feel better? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Communication Flow <ul><li>Oral communication has three basic elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Message </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback (if it is a two way communication) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Communication Barriers <ul><li>Can be EXTERNAL and are caused by stimuli in the surrounding environment such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Other stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Information overload </li></ul>
  5. 5. Communication Barriers <ul><li>Barriers can also come from the SPEAKER . </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Mannerisms </li></ul><ul><li>The message itself is unclear or inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker has a bias or a lack of knowledge about the subject </li></ul><ul><li>The person is speaking too fast or too slow </li></ul>
  6. 6. Communication Barriers <ul><li>Barriers coming from the AUDIENCE can be caused by: </li></ul><ul><li>Daydreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Personal worries or concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Physical discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice or lack of knowledge about or interest in the subject </li></ul>
  7. 7. Active Listening <ul><li>ACTIVE LISTENING is a complex process of receiving, interpreting, evaluating and responding to a message. </li></ul><ul><li>It is really listening to the other person, not just hearing. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Active listening Purpose Strategies INFORMATIONAL- Get facts, information, explanations, instructions Take notes Ask questions CRITICAL-Examine and judge a message Separate fact & opinion Listen for evidence Look for the motivation CREATIVE- Create mental pictures of stories, etc. and solve problems Visualize images & events Brainstorm solutions Keep an open mind Empathic-Listening and understanding another person’s feelings, etc. Imagine the other’s feelings Respond by showing you care Don’t feel you have to solve the person’s probs.
  9. 9. Examining Verbal Cues <ul><li>A VERBAL CUE is any of the sound qualities of the speaker’s voice such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Volume- loudness or softness of the voice </li></ul><ul><li>Stress- emphasis on a word or phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch- highness or lowness of the voice </li></ul><ul><li>Tone- emotional quality of the voice </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation- clarity of pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Rate- speed of speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Pausing- use of silences between words </li></ul>
  10. 10. Examining Nonverbal Cues <ul><li>A NONVERBAL CUE is a message expressed without words. It is also known as body language and include: </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact- Looking at an individual in an audience helps make a connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expression- Smiling, frowning, etc. reveal the speaker’s feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures- Pointing, waving arms, etc. can show emphasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Posture- Standing straight with head up shows confidence and self respect. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Analyzing Word Choice <ul><li>Word choice is a speaker’s particular selection of words . It can help communicate exactly what the speaker means, but it can also be used to manipulate the audience by using: </li></ul><ul><li>Vague terms </li></ul><ul><li>Technical terms </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperboles </li></ul><ul><li>Loaded language </li></ul>
  12. 12. Evaluating a Message <ul><li>When you evaluate a message you judge it for accuracy, reliability, usefulness, or relevance. To do that you must: </li></ul><ul><li>Consider what you and the speaker know about the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of bias (the speaker’s and yours) </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an open mind </li></ul>
  13. 13. Preparing a Speech <ul><li>It involves the following three steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Planning- It’s like planning a written paper. You must focus the content to fit the occasion, identify purpose and audience, research and then organize and outline. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing- Use clear and simple language and short and direct sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearsing- It will help you spot things like awkward phrasing or irritating mannerisms. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Delivering a Speech <ul><li>You can choose one of the following methods to deliver a speech: </li></ul><ul><li>Manuscript- You write the speech and read it in its entirety to the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Memorization- You write it, memorize it an recite it to the audience word for word. </li></ul><ul><li>Extemporaneous- Write the key concepts as entries in an outline or on note cards and use those as prompts- </li></ul><ul><li>Impromptu- Speak off the top of your head without a prepared draft or notes. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Evaluating Speeches <ul><li>Judging Content and Delivery- See table p.527 of the textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Giving verbal feedback- Follow these suggestions: </li></ul><ul><li>Be specific </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss only the most important points </li></ul><ul><li>Point out the positive and the negative </li></ul><ul><li>Offer concrete ways to improve </li></ul>
  16. 16. Interviewing <ul><li>It is a way to gather information </li></ul><ul><li>FOUR rules to follow to conduct a successful interview: </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Structure the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Be a good listener </li></ul><ul><li>Build trust and respect </li></ul>
  17. 17. Interviewing <ul><li>BE PREPARED </li></ul><ul><li>You need to know something about the PERSON and the SUBJECT so your questions will be well informed </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on the PURPOSE of your interview </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate your goals to the interviewee </li></ul>
  18. 18. Interviewing <ul><li>2. STRUCTURE THE INTERVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>Plan your QUESTIONS, putting them IN ORDER in the direction you hope it will go. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep questions SHORT. </li></ul><ul><li>Start with BASICS: The biographical (name, address, age) and demographic (job, education) </li></ul><ul><li>Then lead into more personal information </li></ul><ul><li>Explore areas that you are CURIOUS about </li></ul>
  19. 19. Interviewing <ul><li>2. STRUCTURE THE INTERVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>Chances others will be interested in this, too. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a question to GATHER INFORMATION or a “KNOWN INFORMATION QUESTION”- when the interviewer already knows the answer but asks the question anyway.- </li></ul><ul><li>An interview often has a THIRD PARTY- the reader or the AUDIENCE. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Interviewing <ul><li>3 . BE A GOOD LISTENER </li></ul><ul><li>After you ask your question, LET THE SUBJECT TALK. </li></ul><ul><li>Be quiet and GIVE him or her TIME to ANSWER </li></ul><ul><li>SUMMARIZE what you understood. </li></ul><ul><li>Though you’ll have a plan, REMAIN FLEXIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>BE PREPARED for UNANTICIPATED topics </li></ul><ul><li>Listen CREATIVELY and CRITICALLY. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Interviewing <ul><li>4. BUILD TRUST AND RESPECT </li></ul><ul><li>Tell your subject why you want the interview </li></ul><ul><li>When he or she answers your questions, EXPRESS INTEREST, SYMPATHY, and UNDERSTANDING </li></ul><ul><li>Remain NEUTRAL if he or she brings up a topic with which you disagree. </li></ul><ul><li>The interview is ABOUT your SUBJECT not about you </li></ul><ul><li>Ask if there’s anything the subject wishes to address . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Group Roles <ul><li>Groups function better when their members have specific roles. The most common group roles are: </li></ul><ul><li>Participants- They contribute ideas, respond constructively to other members, and reach agreements or vote on final decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator. Guides the discussion, keeps group on track, and summarizes or restates discussion throughout or at the end. </li></ul><ul><li>Note taker- Takes notes on discussions, reports on past suggestions and decisions, and organizes and writes up notes. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Group Etiquette <ul><li>When you’re in a group, use these skills: </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared and objective. Keep emotions in check </li></ul><ul><li>Know the points you wish to make. </li></ul><ul><li>Manage conflict. Positive feedback, look for areas of agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Share your ideas thoughtfully </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, this is a group effort </li></ul><ul><li>Speak respectfully to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t dominate the discussion and be an active listener </li></ul><ul><li>Support others and avoid barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Think about what you’re hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Give nonverbal feedback </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conflict Resolution <ul><li>Conflicts are inevitable, however you should focus on solving these. To solve conflicts keep the following in mind: </li></ul><ul><li>Listen attentively to each side </li></ul><ul><li>Find reasons for each opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on issues not on personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Agree to disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Look for a reasonable solution </li></ul>