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Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
Linux basics (part 1)
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Linux basics (part 1)

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  • GREG Ask audience about their experience level.
  • GREG History of UNIX GNU/BSD
  • GREG Supercomputers source: http://www.top500.org/overtime/list/32/os Distro count: http://futurist.se/gldt/ Number of devs & commits: http://www.linuxfoundation.org/docs/lf_linux_kernel_development_2010.pdf covers 2.6.11 though 2.6.35 1 commit every 3 minutes, 24/7/365
  • LANCE
  • LANCE Fedora – RHEL – rpm based. 18mo. Release cycle for fedora, X years of support for each major RHEL version Debian – Ubuntu – deb based. Debian is community based, Ubuntu is based off of debian, targets ease of use for end-user. Has short and long-term supported releases Gentoo – ebuild based, much more customizable, but can be more difficult to deploy/maintain
  • LANCE Fedora – RHEL – rpm based. 18mo. Release cycle for fedora, X years of support for each major RHEL version Debian – Ubuntu – deb based. Debian is community based, Ubuntu is based off of debian, targets ease of use for end-user. Has short and long-term supported releases Gentoo – ebuild based, much more customizable, but can be more difficult to deploy/maintain
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  • GREG Bash is the default shell on Linux machines Explain architecture: built in commands vs. external binaries Quick overview of filesystem, ie. Full vs. relative paths
  • GREG Demo commands: Directory movement and file manipulation: Cd, pwd, ls, rm, mv, touch User info: id, whoami, w Pipes, redirection (pipe.txt, redirect.txt) Special variables: $?, $$ (pid.sh), !!, !*, !$
  • GREG
  • GREG
  • GREG
  • GREG
  • LANCE
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  • Transcript

    • 1. <ul>Linux Basics Part 1 </ul><ul>OSU Picture © Greg Keene </ul>
    • 2. <ul>Introductions </ul><ul>Lance Albertson Greg Lund-Chaix </ul><ul>source: http://shesawake.com/ </ul>
    • 3. <ul>Goals for this Talk </ul><ul><ul><li>Linux Overview
    • 4. Linux distributions
    • 5. System overview
    • 6. More detail: permissions, processes, package management, services </li></ul></ul>
    • 7. <ul>Linux Overview </ul><ul><ul><li>Unix-like operating system
    • 8. Free, open source software
    • 9. Runs servers, desktops, phones, tablets, network equipment and more. </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. <ul>Linux Statistics </ul><ul><ul><li>Supercomputers More than 90% of the top 500
    • 11. Number of distributions More than 350
    • 12. Number of developers 1,000 developers contributed in 2010
    • 13. Number of commits to linux kernel last year 195,579 commits in 2010 </li></ul></ul>
    • 14. <ul>Linux Distributions </ul><ul><ul><li>Packaging of applications around a Linux kernel
    • 15. Different distributions have different target audiences
    • 16. Distribution lifecycles vary </li></ul></ul><ul>source: http://www.guilfordlug.org </ul>
    • 17. <ul>Common Linux Distributions </ul><ul><ul><li>Fedora / RedHat Enterprise / CentOS
    • 18. Debian / Ubuntu / Mint
    • 19. Gentoo / Arch </li></ul></ul><ul>source: http://www.guilfordlug.org </ul>
    • 20. <ul>Choosing a Distribution </ul><ul><ul><li>Server/desktop/other
    • 21. Existing infrastructure
    • 22. Admin experience
    • 23. Support contract
    • 24. Release supported lifetime </li></ul></ul>
    • 25. <ul>Linux System Overview </ul><ul>source: wikipedia </ul>
    • 26. <ul>bash: Bourne Again SHell </ul><ul><ul><li>Default shell on Linux
    • 27. Originally based off of the Bourne Shell (sh)
    • 28. Learn it, live it, love it </li></ul></ul>
    • 29. <ul>Basic bash commands </ul><ul>ls *.txt file1.txt  file2.txt  file3.txt ls *.txt > list for i in `cat list`;       do cp &quot;$i&quot; &quot;$i&quot;.bak ;  done ls *.txt* file2.txt  file1.txt.bak  file2.txt  file2.txt.bak  file3.txt  file3.txt.bak </ul>
    • 30. <ul>Documentation </ul><ul><ul><li>Most packages include man pages for documentation
    • 31. More extensive than the --help flag on CLI
    • 32. Stored in different 'sections' </li></ul></ul><ul>Picture © Flickr user 'bobeirasa' </ul>
    • 33. <ul>Users and Groups </ul><ul><ul><li>Users and groups are stored in /etc/passwd and /etc/group
    • 34. Each user name and group name is linked to a number (UID/GID)
    • 35. UID 0 = root
    • 36. 0-99 typically used for system/service accounts </li></ul></ul>
    • 37. <ul>File Permissions </ul><ul><ul><li>Three roles: user (file owner), group, other (“world”)
    • 38. Three permissions: read, write, execute </li></ul></ul><ul>Picture © Flickr user 'amagil' </ul>
    • 39. <ul>root user </ul><ul><ul><li>root user = full access to everything on the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sudo , su – change user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't use root user unless you have to! </li></ul></ul><ul>Comic: http://xkcd.com/149/ </ul>
    • 40. <ul>Components of a process </ul><ul><ul><li>PID: Process ID number
    • 41. PPID: Parent PID
    • 42. UID & EUID: real & effective user ID
    • 43. GID & EGID: real & effective group ID
    • 44. Niceness
    • 45. Control terminal </li></ul></ul>
    • 46. <ul>Signals </ul><ul><ul><li>Sent to procs as communication
    • 47. Sent to terminal driver to kill, interrupt, or suspend
    • 48. Sent by admin to kill
    • 49. Sent by kernel </li></ul></ul><ul>Picture © Flickr user 'atomicshark' </ul>
    • 50. <ul>Signals: Types you should know </ul><ul><ul><li>HUP, INT, QUIT, KILL, BUS, SIGV, TERM, STOP, TSTP, CONT, WINCH, USR1, USR2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can catch, block, or dump core? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUS & SEGV  – error signals
    • 51. KILL & STOP  – cannot be blocked
    • 52. WINCH  – term emulators </li></ul></ul>
    • 53. <ul>ps: monitor processes </ul><ul><ul><li>primary tool for monitoring processes
    • 54. differ between UNIX's
    • 55. show PID, UID, priority, control term, memory, status, etc
    • 56. complex over the years, archaic
    • 57. pstree </li></ul></ul>
    • 58. <ul>top: monitor in real-time </ul><ul><ul><li>“ big picture” in real time
    • 59. refreshes every 2-3 seconds
    • 60. kill, renice, sort, memory, etc.
    • 61. htop – even better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>color, prettier, more configurable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul>Picture © United Artists from 'Hackers' </ul>

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