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The Semantic Web
 

The Semantic Web

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The Semantic Web

The Semantic Web

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The Semantic Web The Semantic Web Presentation Transcript

  • The Semantic Web An introduction
    • In linguistics , semantics is … devoted to the study of meaning … on the syntactic levels of words, phrases, sentences
    • http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic
  • Title Author Publisher Genre Price
    • “ The Semantic Web is a web of data , in some ways like a global database” 1
    • “ first step is putting data on the Web in a form that machines can naturally understand, or converting it to that form.  This creates what I call a Semantic Web-a web of data that can be processed directly or indirectly by machines” 2
    • 1. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Semantic.html
    • 2. Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web . Harper, San Francisco. 1999.
  •  
    • <h1>Library Management Team</h1>
    • <h2>Director of Library Services</h2>
    • <p>Deborah Shorley - Director of Library Services<br />
    • <a href=&quot;mailto:d.shorley@imperial.ac.uk&quot;>d.shorley@imperial.ac.uk</a><br />
    • Telephone: +44 (0)20 7594 8881</p>
    • <h2>Assistant directors</h2>
    • <h3>Assistant Director: Administration and Planning</h3>
    • <p>Susan Howard<br />
    • <a href=&quot;mailto:s.howard@imperial.ac.uk&quot;>s.howard@imperial.ac.uk</a><br />
    • Telephone: +44 (0)20 7594 8622<br />
    • <a href=&quot;http://www.imperial.ac.uk/people/s.howard&quot;>
    • www.imperial.ac.uk/people/s.howard</a></p>
    • <h3>Assistant Director: E-Strategy and Information Resources</h3>
    • <p>Owen Stephens<br />
    • <a href=&quot;mailto:o.stephens@imperial.ac.uk&quot;>o.stephens@imperial.ac.uk</a><br />
    • Telephone: +44 (0)20 7594 8829<br />
    • <a href=&quot;http://www.imperial.ac.uk/people/o.stephens&quot;>
    • www.imperial.ac.uk/people/o.stephens</a></p>
    • <h3>Assistant Director: Faculty Support Services for Learning and Research</h3>
    • <p>Liz Davis<br />
    • <a href=&quot;mailto:e.davis@imperial.ac.uk&quot;>e.davis@imperial.ac.uk</a><br />
    • Telephone: +44 (0)20 7594 8877<br />
    • <a href=&quot;http://www.imperial.ac.uk/people/e.davis&quot;>
    • www.imperial.ac.uk/people/e.davis</a></p>
  •  
  • How do we get a semantic web?
    • Slowly!
    • Applications getting better at understanding human semantics (‘Top Down’)
    • More structured formats are gaining wider use (‘Bottom Up’)
    • More database driven sites, so less need for humans to understand it all
    • ‘Semantic web’ applications appearing
  • Top Down
    • Depends of ‘more intelligent’ computers
      • Google Book Search
      • LibX Toolbar
    • http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/semantic_web_difficulties_with_classic_approach.php
  •  
  •  
  • Bottom Up
    • Depends on more structured data using agreed standards
      • URIs
      • RDF
      • OWL
    • Many sceptics
      • http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/semantic_web_difficulties_with_classic_approach.php
  • URI
    • Uniform Resource Identifier
      • “a simple and extensible means for identifying a resource”
      • A URL is a type of URI
  • What is RDF?
    • Resource Description Framework
      • “ a language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web”
      • “ RDF can also be used to represent information about things that can be identified on the Web, even when they cannot be directly retrieved on the Web”
      • Uses URIs or Literals
    • http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-rdf-syntax/
    • Jane Eyre
    • has a
    • creator
    • whose name is
    • Charlotte Bronte
    Subject Predicate Object
    • Jane Eyre
    • has a
    • creator
    • whose name is
    • Charlotte Bronte
    Subject Predicate Object http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1260/1260-h/1260-h.htm Charlotte Bronte
  •  
  • Jane Eyre Charlotte Bronte Penguin Book is a has creator has publisher Person is a
  • RDF Schemas
    • Define vocabularies for a community
      • Define a class of objects ‘Books’
      • Define a property ‘Creator’
  • OWL (Web Ontology Language)
    • When a Schema just isn’t enough!
    • Allows you to put limits of relationships
      • a Person has one and only one biological mother
    • Allows you to say ‘this is the same as that’
      • This thing that I call a ‘Car’ is the same as that thing that you call an ‘Automobile’
  •  
    • Data:
    • < http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1260/1260-h/1260-h.htm > <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title> “Jane Eyre&quot;
    • Query:
    • SELECT ?title WHERE {< http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1260/1260-h/1260-h.htm > <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title> ?title . }
    • Result:
    • “ Jane Eyre”
  • Some actual applications!
    • Cinespin (Freebase)
    • Nugget, Cenote (Talis)
    • RDA, DCMI, FRBR, FRAD etc.
  • RDA
    • Resource Description and Access
    • New standard for resource description and access designed for the digital world – building on AACR2
    • Uses FRBR and FRAD concepts
    • http:// www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/jsc/rda.html
  • DCMI
    • Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
    • An open organization engaged in the development of interoperable online metadata standards that support a broad range of purposes and business models
    • http:// dublincore.org /
  • RDA and DCMI
    • The participants recommend that the RDA Committee of Principals and DCMI seek funding for work to develop an RDA Application Profile -- specifically that the following activities be undertaken:
    • development of an RDA Element Vocabulary
    • development of an RDA DC Application Profile based on FRBR and FRAD
    • disclosure of RDA Value Vocabularies using RDF/RDFS/SKOS
  • RDA and DCMI
    • Outcomes:
    • The benefits of this activity will be that:
    • the library community gets a metadata standard that is compatible with the Web Architecture and that is fully interoperable with other Semantic Web initiatives
    • the DCMI community gets a libraries application profile firmly based on the DCAM and FRBR (which will be a high profile exemplar for others to follow)
    • the Semantic Web community get a significant pool of well thought-out metadata terms to re-use
    • there is wider uptake of RDA
    • http:// www.bl.uk/services/bibliographic/meeting.html
  • RDF for Bib Metadata
    • http://vocab.org/frbr/core
    • http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr/frbr_drafts.html
    • http:// myee.bol.ucla.edu/rdfmodelintro.html
  • Acknowledgments
    • Jane Eyre
      • http:// www.flickr.com/photos/andthenpatterns /
    • Sad Computer
      • http://www.flickr.com/photos/loririelly/
    • Power of Three
      • http:// www.flickr.com/photos/hale_popoki