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Web 3.0
            The Semantic Web
Hatem Mahmoud
Lead Developer, eSpace
ExpressionLab.com
Agenda
Introduction
The Problem
Solutions
Applications
Summary
Introduction
Every language has its
   own Syntax and
      Semantics
Syntax is the study of
      grammar
Semantics is the study of
       meaning
Syntax is how to say
     something
Semantic is the meaning
  behind what you say
Different syntaxes may
have the same semantic:
         x += y
        x=x+y
Syntax and semantics
    are all about
   communication
Computers use
network protocols
to communicate in
     networks
The Internet is a huge
network of computers
  that use TCP/IP to
    communicate
The Web is a system of
 interlinked documents
accessed via the Internet
Web browsers use HTTP
 to communicate with
      Web servers
You can view Web pages
 and use hyperlinks to
navigate between them
People can easily access
any of these documents
This is the largest source
  of information ever
This is
Web 1.0
Authors started to use
         Ajax
People started to share
  photos and videos
People started to
   interact in
 social networks
People started to publish
    content in blogs
People started to
contribute in wikis
People started to use
    tags and RSS
This is the
Read-Write Web
This is
Web 2.0
The Problem
Web pages are written in
        HTML
HTML describes the
structure of information
HTML describes the
syntax not the semantics
If computers can
understand the meaning
 behind information...
they can learn what we
   are interested in
they can help us better
  find what we want
This is really what the
 Semantic Web is all
         about
This is
Web 3.0
Today's Web is about
    documents
The Semantic Web is
    about things
It can recognize people,
     places, events,
  companies, products,
      movies, etc.
It can understand the
     relationships
    between things
Example?
Solutions
Solution: Top Down
Information analysis,
web scraping, natural
 language processing
Expensive!
human intervention,
 hard to maintain,
    legal issues
Solution: Bottom Up
Embedding semantical
annotations into the data
How?
Available options:
RDFa and microformats
RDFa
RDF is
Resource Description
    Framework
RDF is a W3C standard
for describing resources
       in the Web
RDF identifies things
     using URIs
 (Uniform Resource
    Identifiers)
RDF uses simple
statements (Triples) to
    describe things
Thing-Property-Value
Subject-Predicate-Object
RDF graph
representation
RDF/XML
N3
(Notation3)
RDFa = RDF in attributes
RDFa provides a set of
XHTML attributes that
  express RDF data
Example:
Alice in Semantic
   Wonderland
Alice is a blogger who
 publishes articles at
http://example.com/alice
She wants to declare the
  license of her work
She wants to specify title
and creator of an article
But there are no such
 attributes in XHTML
She can use
 Dublin Core vocabulary

Dublin: Dublin, Ohio, USA
Core: only the core elements of metadata
She wants to give Bob
proper credit when she
   posts his photos
She wants to display her
name, email and phone
She can use
Friend-of-a-Friend
    vocabulary
She wants to list her
      friends
SPARQL
(SPARQL Protocol And
RDF Query Language)
SPARQL is a query
language for RDF data
You can search for
  "friends of Alice who
created items whose title
      contains 'Bob'"
microformats
microformats are
 simple conventions for
embedding semantics in
         HTML
designed for
humans first, and
machines second
No namespaces,
 No new tags
Built upon existing
       standards
vCard, iCalendar, Atom,
          etc.
hCard
    (HTML vCard)
  represents people,
companies, places and
     organizations
hCalendar
 (HTML iCalendar)
Represents calendar
      events
hReview
 Represents reviews of
  products, services,
businesses, events, etc.
hResume
represents resumes
Applications
YahooTech uses hReview
  for product reviews
LinkedIn uses hResume
     for resumes
YahooUpcoming uses
  hCal for events
Challenges!
tools, privacy, trust,
applications, devices
Summary
“I have a dream for the Web in
   which computers become
 capable of analyzing all the
       data on the Web”

         T...
The Semantic Web is not
    a separate Web
but an extension of the
      current one
It is really happening
         today
Resources
Thank You!
Hatem Mahmoud
Lead Developer, eSpace
ExpressionLab.com
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Web 3.0 The Semantic Web

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The need for a new version of Web, Web 3.0 The Semantic Web

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Web 3.0 The Semantic Web

  1. Web 3.0 The Semantic Web Hatem Mahmoud Lead Developer, eSpace ExpressionLab.com
  2. Agenda Introduction The Problem Solutions Applications Summary
  3. Introduction
  4. Every language has its own Syntax and Semantics
  5. Syntax is the study of grammar
  6. Semantics is the study of meaning
  7. Syntax is how to say something
  8. Semantic is the meaning behind what you say
  9. Different syntaxes may have the same semantic: x += y x=x+y
  10. Syntax and semantics are all about communication
  11. Computers use network protocols to communicate in networks
  12. The Internet is a huge network of computers that use TCP/IP to communicate
  13. The Web is a system of interlinked documents accessed via the Internet
  14. Web browsers use HTTP to communicate with Web servers
  15. You can view Web pages and use hyperlinks to navigate between them
  16. People can easily access any of these documents
  17. This is the largest source of information ever
  18. This is Web 1.0
  19. Authors started to use Ajax
  20. People started to share photos and videos
  21. People started to interact in social networks
  22. People started to publish content in blogs
  23. People started to contribute in wikis
  24. People started to use tags and RSS
  25. This is the Read-Write Web
  26. This is Web 2.0
  27. The Problem
  28. Web pages are written in HTML
  29. HTML describes the structure of information
  30. HTML describes the syntax not the semantics
  31. If computers can understand the meaning behind information...
  32. they can learn what we are interested in
  33. they can help us better find what we want
  34. This is really what the Semantic Web is all about
  35. This is Web 3.0
  36. Today's Web is about documents
  37. The Semantic Web is about things
  38. It can recognize people, places, events, companies, products, movies, etc.
  39. It can understand the relationships between things
  40. Example?
  41. Solutions
  42. Solution: Top Down
  43. Information analysis, web scraping, natural language processing
  44. Expensive! human intervention, hard to maintain, legal issues
  45. Solution: Bottom Up
  46. Embedding semantical annotations into the data
  47. How?
  48. Available options: RDFa and microformats
  49. RDFa
  50. RDF is Resource Description Framework
  51. RDF is a W3C standard for describing resources in the Web
  52. RDF identifies things using URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers)
  53. RDF uses simple statements (Triples) to describe things
  54. Thing-Property-Value Subject-Predicate-Object
  55. RDF graph representation
  56. RDF/XML
  57. N3 (Notation3)
  58. RDFa = RDF in attributes
  59. RDFa provides a set of XHTML attributes that express RDF data
  60. Example: Alice in Semantic Wonderland
  61. Alice is a blogger who publishes articles at http://example.com/alice
  62. She wants to declare the license of her work
  63. She wants to specify title and creator of an article
  64. But there are no such attributes in XHTML
  65. She can use Dublin Core vocabulary Dublin: Dublin, Ohio, USA Core: only the core elements of metadata
  66. She wants to give Bob proper credit when she posts his photos
  67. She wants to display her name, email and phone
  68. She can use Friend-of-a-Friend vocabulary
  69. She wants to list her friends
  70. SPARQL (SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language)
  71. SPARQL is a query language for RDF data
  72. You can search for "friends of Alice who created items whose title contains 'Bob'"
  73. microformats
  74. microformats are simple conventions for embedding semantics in HTML
  75. designed for humans first, and machines second
  76. No namespaces, No new tags
  77. Built upon existing standards vCard, iCalendar, Atom, etc.
  78. hCard (HTML vCard) represents people, companies, places and organizations
  79. hCalendar (HTML iCalendar) Represents calendar events
  80. hReview Represents reviews of products, services, businesses, events, etc.
  81. hResume represents resumes
  82. Applications
  83. YahooTech uses hReview for product reviews
  84. LinkedIn uses hResume for resumes
  85. YahooUpcoming uses hCal for events
  86. Challenges! tools, privacy, trust, applications, devices
  87. Summary
  88. “I have a dream for the Web in which computers become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web” Tim Berners-Lee, 1999 Inventor of the Web
  89. The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one
  90. It is really happening today
  91. Resources
  92. Thank You! Hatem Mahmoud Lead Developer, eSpace ExpressionLab.com

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