The effects of global warming on the marine

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  • http://seagrant.gso.uri.edu/factsheets/fserosion.html

Transcript

  • 1. The Effects of Global Warming on the Marine Environment
  • 2. How Global Warming Works
    • The mechanism for global warming
    • is the Greenhouse Effect
    • Greenhouse gases include carbon
    • dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ),
    • CFCs, nitrous oxide (N 2 O), ozone
    • Greenhouse gases prevent infrared
    • radiation from escaping to outer
    • space and it is converted to heat,
    • thereby increasing atmospheric
    • temperatures
  • 3. How Global Warming Works
  • 4. How Global Warming Works
    • CO 2 is the most important
    • greenhouse gas
    • CO 2 is released from the
      • burning of fossil fuels –
      • coal, oil, natural gas
    • CO2 is easily absorbed by
    • the oceans – up to a point
        • - dissolves in water
        • - used in photosynthesis
  • 5. How Global Warming Works
    • CO 2 levels have increased 30% since
    • before the Industrial Revolution
  • 6. Major Impacts
    • Changes to ocean temperature
    • Changes to ocean currents
    • Localized salinity changes
    • Sea level rise
    • Ocean acidification
    • Increase in severe weather events
    • Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply
  • 7. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Temperature
    • If atmosphere warms, ocean warms
    • Most marine organisms spawn (reproduce) in response
    • to temperature cues –
    • will reproduce at wrong
    • time
  • 8. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Temperature
    • Phytoplankton bloom in response to light and temperature cues
    • Changes will impact
    • food webs
  • 9. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Temperature
    • Migrations are in response to temperature
    • May impact fisheries
  • 10. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Temperature
    • coral bleaching
      • as reefs become warmer, corals expel symbiotic algae and become “bleached”
      • leads to loss of habitat and food for reef-dependant species
  • 11. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Temperature
    • hypoxia – low levels of dissolved oxygen
      • warmer water temperatures increase the chances that available oxygen will be used up more rapidly by existing organisms
  • 12. Major Impacts
    • Changes to ocean temperature
    • Changes to ocean currents
    • Localized salinity changes
    • Sea level rise
    • Ocean acidification
    • Increase in severe weather events
    • Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply
  • 13. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Currents
    • like a giant conveyor belt – carrying warm
    • and cold water from shallow to deep
    • and deep to shallow
    • global warming may stop/change this flow
  • 14. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Currents
    • carry different temperature water
    • currents moderate coastal climate
    • ex: England
    Gulf Stream Current
  • 15. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Currents
    • ocean currents:
    • transport planktonic (drifting) organisms
    • distribute eggs and larvae
    • bring food and oxygen to
    • sessile organisms
    • remove wastes and pollutants
  • 16. Major Impacts
    • Changes to ocean temperature
    • Changes to ocean currents
    • Localized salinity changes
    • Sea level rise
    • Ocean acidification
    • Increase in severe weather events
    • Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply
  • 17. Impacts: Localized Salinity Changes
    • salinity – measure of dissolved solids
    • in water
    • organisms have specific salinity ranges in
    • which they can survive
  • 18. Impacts: Localized Salinity Changes
    • glaciers are fresh water
    • melting will locally decrease salinity
    • and impact organisms
    • freshwater can also change deep sea
    • circulation
  • 19. Major Impacts
    • Changes to ocean temperature
    • Changes to ocean currents
    • Localized salinity changes
    • Sea level rise
    • Ocean acidification
    • Increase in severe weather events
    • Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply
  • 20. Impacts: Sea Level Rise
    • water in glaciers is on land
    • as glaciers melt, water is added to ocean
    • as water heats, it expands
    • both raise sea level world wide
  • 21. Impacts: Sea Level Rise
    • destroys coastal habitats
    • ex: salt marshes, mangroves
    • destroys human
    • property
    • increased pollution
    • decreased freshwater
    • supplies
  • 22. Major Impacts
    • Changes to ocean temperature
    • Changes to ocean currents
    • Localized salinity changes
    • Sea level rise
    • Ocean acidification
    • Increase in severe weather events
    • Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply
  • 23. Impacts: Ocean Acidification
    • CO 2 absorbed by the ocean makes it more acidic
    • can kill phytoplankton resulting in major food web effects
  • 24. Impacts: Ocean Acidification
    • calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) shells dissolve or are harder to make – organisms cannot survive
    • acidosis – build up of carbonic acid in organisms
  • 25. Major Impacts
    • Changes to ocean temperature
    • Changes to ocean currents
    • Localized salinity changes
    • Sea level rise
    • Ocean acidification
    • Increase in severe weather events
    • Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply
  • 26. Impacts: Increase in Severe Weather Events
    • hurricanes need warm water to form
    • warming of ocean waters may increase the number of hurricanes or their intensity
  • 27. Impacts: Increase in Severe Weather Events
    • increased strength and number of hurricanes can lead to:
    • - habitat destruction
    • - property destruction
  • 28. Major Impacts
    • Changes to ocean temperature
    • Changes to ocean currents
    • Localized salinity changes
    • Sea level rise
    • Ocean acidification
    • Increase in severe weather events
    • Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply
  • 29. Impacts: Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply
    • invasive species – non-native species that adversely affect a habitat
      • warmer waters make it easier for invading species to gain a foothold
      • can consume or outcompete native species
    invasive algae covering coral reef 
  • 30. Impacts: Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply
      • all impacts can result in the loss of coastal and marine habitat, disruption of the food web and loss of biodiversity