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The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
The effects of global warming on the marine
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The effects of global warming on the marine

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  • http://seagrant.gso.uri.edu/factsheets/fserosion.html
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Effects of Global Warming on the Marine Environment
    • 2. How Global Warming Works <ul><li>The mechanism for global warming </li></ul><ul><li>is the Greenhouse Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gases include carbon </li></ul><ul><li>dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), </li></ul><ul><li>CFCs, nitrous oxide (N 2 O), ozone </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gases prevent infrared </li></ul><ul><li>radiation from escaping to outer </li></ul><ul><li>space and it is converted to heat, </li></ul><ul><li>thereby increasing atmospheric </li></ul><ul><li>temperatures </li></ul>
    • 3. How Global Warming Works
    • 4. How Global Warming Works <ul><li>CO 2 is the most important </li></ul><ul><li>greenhouse gas </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 is released from the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>burning of fossil fuels – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coal, oil, natural gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CO2 is easily absorbed by </li></ul><ul><li>the oceans – up to a point </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- dissolves in water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- used in photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 5. How Global Warming Works <ul><li>CO 2 levels have increased 30% since </li></ul><ul><li>before the Industrial Revolution </li></ul>
    • 6. Major Impacts <ul><li>Changes to ocean temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to ocean currents </li></ul><ul><li>Localized salinity changes </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean acidification </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in severe weather events </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply </li></ul>
    • 7. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Temperature <ul><li>If atmosphere warms, ocean warms </li></ul><ul><li>Most marine organisms spawn (reproduce) in response </li></ul><ul><li>to temperature cues – </li></ul><ul><li>will reproduce at wrong </li></ul><ul><li>time </li></ul>
    • 8. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Temperature <ul><li>Phytoplankton bloom in response to light and temperature cues </li></ul><ul><li>Changes will impact </li></ul><ul><li>food webs </li></ul>
    • 9. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Temperature <ul><li>Migrations are in response to temperature </li></ul><ul><li>May impact fisheries </li></ul>
    • 10. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Temperature <ul><li>coral bleaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as reefs become warmer, corals expel symbiotic algae and become “bleached” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leads to loss of habitat and food for reef-dependant species </li></ul></ul>
    • 11. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Temperature <ul><li>hypoxia – low levels of dissolved oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>warmer water temperatures increase the chances that available oxygen will be used up more rapidly by existing organisms </li></ul></ul>
    • 12. Major Impacts <ul><li>Changes to ocean temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to ocean currents </li></ul><ul><li>Localized salinity changes </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean acidification </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in severe weather events </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply </li></ul>
    • 13. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Currents <ul><li>like a giant conveyor belt – carrying warm </li></ul><ul><li>and cold water from shallow to deep </li></ul><ul><li>and deep to shallow </li></ul><ul><li>global warming may stop/change this flow </li></ul>
    • 14. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Currents <ul><li>carry different temperature water </li></ul><ul><li>currents moderate coastal climate </li></ul><ul><li>ex: England </li></ul>Gulf Stream Current
    • 15. Impacts: Changes to Ocean Currents <ul><li>ocean currents: </li></ul><ul><li>transport planktonic (drifting) organisms </li></ul><ul><li>distribute eggs and larvae </li></ul><ul><li>bring food and oxygen to </li></ul><ul><li>sessile organisms </li></ul><ul><li>remove wastes and pollutants </li></ul>
    • 16. Major Impacts <ul><li>Changes to ocean temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to ocean currents </li></ul><ul><li>Localized salinity changes </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean acidification </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in severe weather events </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply </li></ul>
    • 17. Impacts: Localized Salinity Changes <ul><li>salinity – measure of dissolved solids </li></ul><ul><li>in water </li></ul><ul><li>organisms have specific salinity ranges in </li></ul><ul><li>which they can survive </li></ul>
    • 18. Impacts: Localized Salinity Changes <ul><li>glaciers are fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>melting will locally decrease salinity </li></ul><ul><li>and impact organisms </li></ul><ul><li>freshwater can also change deep sea </li></ul><ul><li>circulation </li></ul>
    • 19. Major Impacts <ul><li>Changes to ocean temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to ocean currents </li></ul><ul><li>Localized salinity changes </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean acidification </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in severe weather events </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply </li></ul>
    • 20. Impacts: Sea Level Rise <ul><li>water in glaciers is on land </li></ul><ul><li>as glaciers melt, water is added to ocean </li></ul><ul><li>as water heats, it expands </li></ul><ul><li>both raise sea level world wide </li></ul>
    • 21. Impacts: Sea Level Rise <ul><li>destroys coastal habitats </li></ul><ul><li>ex: salt marshes, mangroves </li></ul><ul><li>destroys human </li></ul><ul><li>property </li></ul><ul><li>increased pollution </li></ul><ul><li>decreased freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>supplies </li></ul>
    • 22. Major Impacts <ul><li>Changes to ocean temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to ocean currents </li></ul><ul><li>Localized salinity changes </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean acidification </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in severe weather events </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply </li></ul>
    • 23. Impacts: Ocean Acidification <ul><li>CO 2 absorbed by the ocean makes it more acidic </li></ul><ul><li>can kill phytoplankton resulting in major food web effects </li></ul>
    • 24. Impacts: Ocean Acidification <ul><li>calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) shells dissolve or are harder to make – organisms cannot survive </li></ul><ul><li>acidosis – build up of carbonic acid in organisms </li></ul>
    • 25. Major Impacts <ul><li>Changes to ocean temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to ocean currents </li></ul><ul><li>Localized salinity changes </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean acidification </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in severe weather events </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply </li></ul>
    • 26. Impacts: Increase in Severe Weather Events <ul><li>hurricanes need warm water to form </li></ul><ul><li>warming of ocean waters may increase the number of hurricanes or their intensity </li></ul>
    • 27. Impacts: Increase in Severe Weather Events <ul><li>increased strength and number of hurricanes can lead to: </li></ul><ul><li>- habitat destruction </li></ul><ul><li>- property destruction </li></ul>
    • 28. Major Impacts <ul><li>Changes to ocean temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to ocean currents </li></ul><ul><li>Localized salinity changes </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean acidification </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in severe weather events </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply </li></ul>
    • 29. Impacts: Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply <ul><li>invasive species – non-native species that adversely affect a habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>warmer waters make it easier for invading species to gain a foothold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can consume or outcompete native species </li></ul></ul>invasive algae covering coral reef 
    • 30. Impacts: Invasive Species, Changes to Habitats and Food Supply <ul><ul><li>all impacts can result in the loss of coastal and marine habitat, disruption of the food web and loss of biodiversity </li></ul></ul>

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