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Sea Turtles
Characteristics of Reptiles
•   Dry skin covered with scales
•   Two pairs of legs – except snakes
•   Three chambered heart
•   Well-developed lungs protected by rib cage
•   Internal fertilization
•   External development
    (eggs)
• Sea turtles
              Marine Reptiles
• Sea snakes – Pacific and Indian Oceans
  – 50 species
  – Poisonous
  – Laterally flattened body
• Marine lizards – only Galapagos marine iguana
Sea Turtles
• Found in tropical and subtropical waters
  – Cold blooded – need warmer waters
  – Some found as far north as Long Island
• Evolved about 200 million years ago
Sea Turtles – 8 species

                         Green


Kemp’s Ridley
                                         Loggerhead


                                         Leatherback
                                           (largest)
                  These species can be
                  found in the waters
 Hawksbill        around Long Island
Sea Turtles – 8 species



                  Flatback
Pacific Black                  Olive Ridley
Status
• All species of sea turtles are endangered or
  threatened
• Ex: Kemp’s Ridley – most endangered
  – 42,000 in 1947, 400 - 500 today
  – nest only on few beaches in Mexico
Sea Turtles Near Long Island
               Peconic Bay
• Loggerhead, Kemp's ridley, green, leatherback,
  (rarely hawksbill)
• Mostly juveniles
• May be important juvenile feeding ground
• If stay too long get cold stunned, stranded &
  die
• Turtle walks to find stranded turtles
Feeding
• No teeth – have a beak
• Feed on: crabs, other shellfish, jellyfish,
  seagrasses, seaweeds
Anatomy
• Internal and external skeleton
   - for protection and support
Plastron – lower part of shell
Carapace – upper part of shell
Anatomy
• Carapace
  – broadened, fused ribs, spine fused to it
  – cannot withdrawal into shells
  – leatherback - exception with leathery skin over
    many small bones (allows to dive to 3,000 feet)
• Scutes - firm, pliant plates covering carapace
  – help distinguish species
Anatomy
Oxygen
• Use lungs to breathe air
• Can dive for 2.5 hours at rest
Movement
• Streamlined carapace
• Forelimbs for swimming
• Hind limbs act as rudders
• Salt glands near eyes – removes excess salt
  gained from drinking sea water – looks like
  tears
• No ears
• Good sense of smell
• Male          • Female
                  – Short tail
  – Long tail
Life Cycle
Life Cycle
• spend most of life at sea
• return to beach they were born to lay eggs
  every 2 – 4 years
• mating is just offshore
• internal fertilization
Life Cycle
•   female climbs to upper beach at night
•   excavates pit
•   lays 100 - 160 eggs in pit and covers
•   eggs – leathery, look like ping pong balls
•   drags herself back to water
•   can nest several times per season
Life Cycle
•   eggs incubate for about 60 days
•   cool temperatures produce males
•   warm temperatures produce females
•   hatch and dig to surface (few days to dig)
•   emerge at night and instinctively find way to
    water
Life Cycle
• lost years - swim in sea for several years
• then often return to adult feeding grounds
• find way by sensing wave motion and earth’s
  magnetic field
• reach maturity at 15 - 30 years old
• lay eggs on beach they were born
Threats
• predation by humans, raccoons, dogs, birds,
  fish, etc. - hatchlings, adults and eggs
Threats
• destruction of nesting habitat
  – development
  – beach erosion
  – compacting beach sediments – by cars
Threats

• drowning in fishing nets, long lines
• TEDs (turtle exclusion devices) on shrimp trawls
• choking on floatable debris (i.e., plastic bags)
Threats
• artificial lighting - disorients hatchlings
• hit by boats
• shells for jewelry, etc

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Sea turtles powerpoint

  • 2. Characteristics of Reptiles • Dry skin covered with scales • Two pairs of legs – except snakes • Three chambered heart • Well-developed lungs protected by rib cage • Internal fertilization • External development (eggs)
  • 3. • Sea turtles Marine Reptiles • Sea snakes – Pacific and Indian Oceans – 50 species – Poisonous – Laterally flattened body • Marine lizards – only Galapagos marine iguana
  • 4. Sea Turtles • Found in tropical and subtropical waters – Cold blooded – need warmer waters – Some found as far north as Long Island • Evolved about 200 million years ago
  • 5. Sea Turtles – 8 species Green Kemp’s Ridley Loggerhead Leatherback (largest) These species can be found in the waters Hawksbill around Long Island
  • 6. Sea Turtles – 8 species Flatback Pacific Black Olive Ridley
  • 7. Status • All species of sea turtles are endangered or threatened • Ex: Kemp’s Ridley – most endangered – 42,000 in 1947, 400 - 500 today – nest only on few beaches in Mexico
  • 8. Sea Turtles Near Long Island Peconic Bay • Loggerhead, Kemp's ridley, green, leatherback, (rarely hawksbill) • Mostly juveniles • May be important juvenile feeding ground • If stay too long get cold stunned, stranded & die • Turtle walks to find stranded turtles
  • 9. Feeding • No teeth – have a beak • Feed on: crabs, other shellfish, jellyfish, seagrasses, seaweeds
  • 10. Anatomy • Internal and external skeleton - for protection and support Plastron – lower part of shell Carapace – upper part of shell
  • 11. Anatomy • Carapace – broadened, fused ribs, spine fused to it – cannot withdrawal into shells – leatherback - exception with leathery skin over many small bones (allows to dive to 3,000 feet) • Scutes - firm, pliant plates covering carapace – help distinguish species
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. Oxygen • Use lungs to breathe air • Can dive for 2.5 hours at rest
  • 16. Movement • Streamlined carapace • Forelimbs for swimming • Hind limbs act as rudders
  • 17. • Salt glands near eyes – removes excess salt gained from drinking sea water – looks like tears • No ears • Good sense of smell
  • 18. • Male • Female – Short tail – Long tail
  • 20. Life Cycle • spend most of life at sea • return to beach they were born to lay eggs every 2 – 4 years • mating is just offshore • internal fertilization
  • 21. Life Cycle • female climbs to upper beach at night • excavates pit • lays 100 - 160 eggs in pit and covers • eggs – leathery, look like ping pong balls • drags herself back to water • can nest several times per season
  • 22. Life Cycle • eggs incubate for about 60 days • cool temperatures produce males • warm temperatures produce females • hatch and dig to surface (few days to dig) • emerge at night and instinctively find way to water
  • 23. Life Cycle • lost years - swim in sea for several years • then often return to adult feeding grounds • find way by sensing wave motion and earth’s magnetic field • reach maturity at 15 - 30 years old • lay eggs on beach they were born
  • 24. Threats • predation by humans, raccoons, dogs, birds, fish, etc. - hatchlings, adults and eggs
  • 25. Threats • destruction of nesting habitat – development – beach erosion – compacting beach sediments – by cars
  • 26. Threats • drowning in fishing nets, long lines • TEDs (turtle exclusion devices) on shrimp trawls • choking on floatable debris (i.e., plastic bags)
  • 27. Threats • artificial lighting - disorients hatchlings • hit by boats • shells for jewelry, etc