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Bony fish powerpoint

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Bony fish powerpoint

  1. 1. The Bony FishesClass Osteichthyes
  2. 2. Class Osteichthyes – The Bony Fish• More than 27,000 species• Most numerous and successful of all vertebrates• Found in every marine habitat – tide pools to deep sea• Economically important – 77 million tons harvested per year
  3. 3. General Characteristics• Endoskeleton made of true bone• Hinged jaws• Paired fins – independently movable
  4. 4. Types of Bony Fishes• Lobe-finned Fish: – Ancestors of amphibians – Ex: coelacanth – thought extinct 65 million years ago – found live in 1938 – 2 species – Ex: lungfish – lung that can breathe air during droughts• *Ray-finned: – Most present day fish
  5. 5. Movement• Nektonic – swimmers - control movement against current –Move to food –Escape predator
  6. 6. Movement• Streamlining to reduce drag = teardrop shape = fusiform• Most fish swim by moving tail side to side• Mucus reduces drag• Homocercal tail – top and bottom same size yellowfin tuna
  7. 7. Buoyancy• Gas-filled swim bladder – to maintain position in water• Control quantity of gas• Not present in fast moving fish or sharks
  8. 8. Gas Exchange• Gills covered by operculum• Water pumped through mouth, over gills, out gill slits and operculum• Thin membranes and high surface area in gills• Oxygen diffuses from water into blood• Carbon dioxide diffuses from blood to water striped bass
  9. 9. Osmoregulation• Maintenance of water balance• Saltwater fish tend to lose water• Drink seawater• Excrete salt from gland in gills• Produce little urine
  10. 10. Osmoregulation
  11. 11. Senses• To find prey and avoid being eaten• Good sense of sight, smell and taste• Good sense of hearing – inner ear• Lateral line system: – Line of pores and canals running down body – Detect vibrations, changes in current direction and water pressure
  12. 12. Outer Covering• Mucus – reduces friction and prevents infection• Scales – protective outer cover – Overlap like roof shingles – Can tell age of fish
  13. 13. Outer Covering
  14. 14. Reproduction• Separate sexes• External fertilization = spawning – Female releases eggs – Male releases sperm on top
  15. 15. Protection• Camouflageex: flounder, sea dragon, sargassum fish
  16. 16. • Armor plating Protectionex: seahorses• Sizeex: puffer fish• Spinesex: blow fish
  17. 17. Protection• Countershading - dark on top, light colored on bottom• Disappear, ex: flying fish – leaps out of water• Deceptive markings, ex: butterfly fish
  18. 18. • Schooling Protection – ¼ of all species at some point in life – Looks like one large individual – Confuses predator – Hard to catch one fish – Easier feeding – Easier mating
  19. 19. Other Fish Adaptations• Angler fish – lure to attract prey• Deep sea fish – bioluminescence
  20. 20. Fish Oddities• Some start life as male, change to female or opposite – ex: some grouper, sea bass, sheepheads, wrasses• Ocean sunfish – Mola mola - planktonic

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