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Unit 3

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impacts of climate change

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Unit 3

  1. 1. UNIT-3 IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
  2. 2. CAUSES: CHANGE OF TEMPERATURE IN THE ENVIRONMENT. MELTING OF ICE POLE,SEA LEVEL RISE
  3. 3. TEMPERATURE CHANGE:  ACCORDING TO NASA ,The average temprature of the has increased by 0.8(CELCIUS)since 1880.  Two thirds of warming has occurred during the 1975,at rate of roughly o.15- 0.20(celsius)  AT the year of 2000 land temperature changes 50% greater in united states  Warming of oceans in the surface india and the pacific oceans is the second largest .
  4. 4.  Fossil fuel use also increased in the post war era (5% Per year).  Green house effect is one of the important effect due to temperature change,instead of heat escaping into the atmosphere,it trapped inside the earth surface.
  5. 5.  Air temperature changes as altitude increases.  The temperature changes causes a change the environment.and affects the biodiversity
  6. 6. MELTING OF ICE POLE;SEA LEVEL RISE  Ice melting is faster every  Where.in asia 90% of hima -layan glaciers are melting, Threatening water and food Security on the continent.. The melting of ice caps let To rise in the sea level. According to the national snow and ice data center,the glaciers melt today the sea would rise about 230 feet….
  7. 7.  The main reason for the melting of ice caps is global warming..  There are about 5773000 cubic miles of water in ice caps and sea glaciers and permanent snow..  Melting of icecaps let to affect the animals and the human beings.  It led to destroy of the habitat of the polar bear.because they largely depend upon the ice caps for the continuity of life.
  8. 8. CLIMATE CHANGE AND IMPACTS IN AGRICULTURE:  Greater loss expected in RABI.every 1 degree celsius increase in temperature reduces the wheat production by 4-5 million tons  Increased droughts and floods are likely to increase production variability.  Cerreal productivity to decrease by 10-40%By 2100..  Increasing temperature would increase fertilizer requirement ,for same production targets
  9. 9. IN FORESTRY AND ECOSYSTEM  Warming temperatures generally increase the length of the growing season.  It also shifts the geographic ranges of some tree species.  Habitats of some types of trees are likely to move north or to higher altitudes.  Other species will be at risk locally or regionally if conditions in their current geographic ranges are no longer suitable.[2]  For example, species that currently exist only on mountaintops in some regions may die out as the climate warms since they cannot shift to a higher altitude.
  10. 10.  Climate change will likely increase the risk of drought in some areas and the risk of extreme precipitation and flooding in others.  Increased temperatures alter the timing of snowmelt, affecting the seasonal availability of water.  Although many trees are resilient to some degree of drought, increases in temperature could make future droughts more damaging than those experienced in the past.  In addition, drought increases wildfire risk, since dry trees and shrubs provide fuel to fires .  Drought also reduces trees' ability to produce sap, which protects them from destructive insects such as pine beetles.[5]
  11. 11. ECOSYSTEM  Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity: With a warming of 3 °C, relative to 1990 levels, it is likely that global terrestrial vegetation would become a net source of carbon . With high confidence, it is concluded that a global mean temperature increase of around 4 °C (above the 1990-2000 level) by 2100 would lead to major extinctions around the globe.  Marine ecosystems and biodiversity: With very high confidence, it is concluded that a warming of 2 °C above 1990 levels would result in mass mortality of coral reefs globally.  Freshwater ecosystems: Above about a 4 °C increase in global mean temperature by 2100 (relative to 1990- 2000), it is concluded, with high confidence, that many freshwater species would become extinct.
  12. 12. IMPACTS IN WATER RESOURCES:  The water cycle is a delicate balance of precipitation, evaporation, and all of the steps in between.  Warmer temperatures increase the rate of evaporation of water into the atmosphere, in effect increasing the atmosphere's capacity to "hold" water.[1]  Increased evaporation may dry out some areas and fall as excess precipitation on other areas.
  13. 13.  Water quality could suffer in areas experiencing increases in rainfall. For example,  In the Northeast and Midwest increases in heavy precipitation events could cause problems for the water infrastructure, as sewer systems and water treatment plants are overwhelmed by the increased volumes of water.[1
  14. 14. Freshwater resources along the coasts face risks from sea level rise. As the sea rises, saltwater moves into freshwater areas. This may force water managers to seek other sources of fresh water, or increase the need for desalination (or removal of salt from the water) for some coastal freshwater aquifers used as drinking water supply.
  15. 15. Drought can cause coastal water resources to become more saline as freshwater supplies from rivers are reduced. Water infrastructure in coastal cities, including sewer systems and wastewater treatment facilities, faces risks from rising sea levels and the damaging impacts of storm surges.
  16. 16. IMPACT IN HUMAN HEALTH:  Climate change ,together with other natural and human made health stressors, influences human health and disease in numerous ways..  It leads to various impacts such as;  Water related illness  Air quality impacts  Mental health  Vectorborne diseases
  17. 17. IMPACTS ON INDUSTRY, SETTLEMENT AND SOCIETY  Climate change vulnerabilities of industry ,settlement and society are mainly related to extreme weather events rather to a climate change.  Key vulnerabilities of industry are most often related to  Climate change phenomena that exceeds thresholds for adaptation  Rate and Magnitude of climate change, particularly extreme weather change and abrupt climate change
  18. 18.  Limited access to resources (financial, human and institutional) to cope.

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