Disaster is a certain cataclysmic event that
seriously disrupts the functioning of society
and causes human, material, environmental
and economic loss that exceeds the community
or society’s ability to cope using its own
- A natural disaster is an event that is caused by
a natural hazard and leads to human, material,
economic and environmental losses, which exceed the
ability of those affected to cope; examples include
floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis and
other geological processes.
- A serious disruption of normal life triggered
by a human-induced hazard causing environmental,
economic or life loss.
A nuclear and radiation
accident is defined by the
International Atomic Energy
Agency as "an event that has
led to significant
consequences to people, the
environment or the facility."
Nuclear weapons are thus, far more destructive
and harmful to the society than any other
Many countries in the world have developed
** The developed countries reiterate that nuclear
energy will be used only for PEACEFUL
Radiation is released into the environment and
people get hurt.
Nuclear radiation keeps on showing its effect
for a considerable period of time even after its
explosion, and those who survive become
mental and physical wrecks due to the impact
of nuclear radiation.
Two of the most famous nuclear accidents
occurred at the Three Mile Island reactor 2 in
the United States and the Chernobyl reactor 4
in the former Soviet Union
We should keep ourselves informed about the
government plants and should act in
accordance with official communication.
Nuclear activity may affect our health and
cause nausea, giddiness etc., and for that
medical help should be available .
Biological disasters define the
devastating effects that may be
caused by an enormous spread
of a certain kind of living
organism - that may be the
spread of a disease, a virus, an
epidemics, but also just a
sudden growth of the
population of a certain kind of
plants or animals, e.g. Ebola
and swine flu.
Biological disaster spreads through the
organism that is developed in the form of
BACTERIA or MICROBES. Biological agent
spread fast in the environment and then makes
an attack on the human beings. The people
inhale these microbes. When these microbes
find themselves a host body, they start
affecting the immune systems of the body.
Microbes’ also enter human body through open
wounds or cuts.
The attack of the microbes is generally slow but
once they are spread in the body, it becomes
difficult to control them.
Sometimes it takes the life of the affected
Many a time, it becomes difficult to diagnose
the illness caused by these microbes and it
proves to be fatal.
Whenever we learn or hear about danger of
communicable diseases through official
announcements on radio or TV, then we can
take adequate preventive and protective
We should quite often try to help in taking this
type of noble cause and solve the problem of
affected people, or try to create fund for this
By their nature, chemical disaster may be
defined as the manufacture, storage, and
transport of chemicals which may lead to the
accidents waiting to happen. Chemicals can be
corrosive, toxic, and they may react, often
Chemical weapons are the main cause of such
Sometimes handling of hazardous chemicals in
an irresponsible way can cause chemical
Chemical disasters may also be caused by
The impacts of chemical accidents can be
deadly, for both human beings & environment.
Chemical weapons are also weapons of mass
Sometimes handling of hazardous chemicals in
an irresponsible way can cause much
The poisonous gases spread in the atmosphere
and the people who inhale the same air face
Those industries, which use hazardous chemicals
or produce such chemicals, should have
contingency action plan to help people if such a
disaster takes place.
Such industries should have timely warning
systems so that people can immediately take safety
measures such as locking their houses and taking
the family and animals away to a safe place.
Stringent safety measures and checkups in the
factory and critical analysis of the working
condition of the factory will help to take timely
measures to check any disaster.
Gas Leak on December 3, 1984 – MIC (Methyl
8000 people died, 50,000 injured
Gas leaked from a Union Carbide Plant at night
People fled from the poison
gas in the middle of the night
Main effect: Pulmonary Edema, skin
and eye damage (total blindness)
Secondary effect: Bronchitis, Bronchial
A Bhopal Victim
A technological disaster is an event caused by a
malfunction of a technological structure and/or
some human error in controlling or handling the
The effects of a disaster on families and
individuals may be long lasting and can endure
for years. However, symptoms may appear
gradually, and impacts may not be seen
All types of disasters are challenging, but
technological disasters tend to be even more
In addition to the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill,
radiation leaks are another example of a
technological disaster, such as in the recent case of
the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in
Japan and previous accidents at Chernobyl and
Three Mile Island.
Fires or explosions—such as the Station Nightclub
fire in Warwick, Rhode Island, that was caused by
a pyrotechnics malfunction—are also examples of
Chemical spills from trucks or trains would also be
considered technological disasters. These examples
all have differing characteristics and effects on the
environment and residents of the immediate
Technological disasters are stressful, especially
because they are unpredictable. Individuals,
families, and communities are affected. Some of
the results include income loss, loss of job security,
uncertainty about the future, family conflict, and
In particular, post-traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms were
common responses to a disaster similar to the
Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill, the Exxon Valdez
oil spill. Impacts may persist over time for some
individuals, while others show resilience earlier.
Maintain routine as much as possible.
Reduce exposure to media covering the event.
Stay healthy and find healthy ways to reduce
stress, such as doing things outside, getting
exercise, and doing stress reduction exercises.
Seek accurate sources of information to better
understand the situation.
Talk to someone you trust.
Keep a positive perspective—you can get through
Seek professional help if you are feeling depressed,
anxious, or have trouble controlling your