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New York State Lab
Relationships and
Biodiversity
Pre-lab Review
Evolution
• Gradual change over time
• If two organisms share
similarities, they are likely
related – share a common
ancestor
• The more similarities, the
more closely related
Evidence of Evolutionary Relationships
• Structural evidence:
– Comparative anatomy
• Homologous structures
• Vestigial structures
– Comparative embryology
Evidence of Evolutionary Relationships
• Molecular evidence:
– Comparative Biochemistry
• Similar pigments (in plants)
• Similar enzyme-controlled chemical reactions
• Similarities in DNA structure
• Similar proteins
Structural Evidence in Plants
• External structure
• Seeds
• Internal structure:
– Conducting tissue – carries materials
– Xylem – carries water and nutrients
– Phloem – carries food
Molecular Evidence in Plants
• Pigments – absorb light
• Chromatography – lab technique to separate
pigments in plants
Molecular Evidence in Plants
• Enzymes – speed up chemical reactions
• Enzymes are specific
Molecular Evidence in Plants –
Enzymes
Molecular Evidence in Plants
• Gel electrophoresis – lab
technique to separate
fragments of DNA from
organisms
Molecular Evidence in Plants –
Gel Electrophoresis
Molecular Evidence in Plants
• Similarities in DNA code for amino acid
sequence in particular proteins
Molecular Evidence in Plants
Protein Synthesis
Molecular Evidence in Plants

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Relationships and biodiversity pre lab review

  • 1. New York State Lab Relationships and Biodiversity Pre-lab Review
  • 2. Evolution • Gradual change over time • If two organisms share similarities, they are likely related – share a common ancestor • The more similarities, the more closely related
  • 3. Evidence of Evolutionary Relationships • Structural evidence: – Comparative anatomy • Homologous structures • Vestigial structures – Comparative embryology
  • 4. Evidence of Evolutionary Relationships • Molecular evidence: – Comparative Biochemistry • Similar pigments (in plants) • Similar enzyme-controlled chemical reactions • Similarities in DNA structure • Similar proteins
  • 5. Structural Evidence in Plants • External structure • Seeds • Internal structure: – Conducting tissue – carries materials – Xylem – carries water and nutrients – Phloem – carries food
  • 6. Molecular Evidence in Plants • Pigments – absorb light • Chromatography – lab technique to separate pigments in plants
  • 7. Molecular Evidence in Plants • Enzymes – speed up chemical reactions • Enzymes are specific
  • 8. Molecular Evidence in Plants – Enzymes
  • 9. Molecular Evidence in Plants • Gel electrophoresis – lab technique to separate fragments of DNA from organisms
  • 10. Molecular Evidence in Plants – Gel Electrophoresis
  • 11. Molecular Evidence in Plants • Similarities in DNA code for amino acid sequence in particular proteins
  • 12. Molecular Evidence in Plants Protein Synthesis