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The effect of climate change on natural food levels

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The effect of climate change on natural food levels

  1. 1. The effect of climate change on natural food levels Dr Abd El Rahman Khattaby ‫د‬ . ‫خطابى‬ ‫أحمد‬ ‫عبدالرحمن‬ Technical Support Manager at Aller Aqua Egypt Senior Researcher at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, ARC, Egypt +201009016959 | | WhatsApp: +201009016959 ‫الطبيع‬ ‫الغذاء‬ ‫مستويات‬ ‫على‬ ‫المناخية‬ ‫التغيرات‬ ‫تأثير‬ ‫ى‬
  2. 2. ‫والبحار‬ ‫المحيطات‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الطبيعى‬ ‫الغذاء‬ ‫يقصد‬ ‫بالغذاء‬ ‫الطبيعى‬ ‫هو‬ ‫كل‬ ‫ما‬ ‫تتغ‬ ‫ذى‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫الكائنات‬ ‫الحية‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الطبيعة‬ ‫سوا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫نباتى‬ ‫أو‬ ‫حيوانى‬ ‫أو‬ ‫حتى‬ ‫كائنات‬ ‫دقيقة‬ ‫أو‬ ‫متح‬ ‫للة‬ ‫وموجود‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الطبيعة‬ ‫بشكل‬ ‫يتم‬ ‫التغذ‬ ‫ية‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫مباشرة‬ . ‫تبدأ‬ ‫سلسلة‬ ‫الغذاء‬ ‫من‬ ‫المواد‬ ‫األولية‬ ‫الب‬ ‫سيطة‬ ‫أو‬ ‫المتحللة‬ ‫والتى‬ ‫تتغذى‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫البكت‬ ‫ريا‬ ‫والكائنات‬ ‫وحيدة‬ ‫الخلية‬ ‫التى‬ ‫تستطي‬ ‫ع‬ ‫بناء‬ ‫األحماض‬ ‫األمينية‬ ‫والمواد‬ ‫التغذوية‬ ‫المخت‬ ‫لفة‬ ‫ثم‬ ‫الكائنات‬ ‫األكبر‬ ‫فاألكبر‬ ‫حتى‬ ‫تن‬ ‫تهى‬ ‫بالكائنات‬ ‫متعددة‬ ‫مصادر‬ ‫الغذاء‬ .
  3. 3. What is algae? Most of algae are photoautotrophic organisms that contain chlorophyll and make photosynthesize process. Algae follow to Protista Kingdom not Planta. They grow in water or attached to soil, rocks or other plants and reef substrata. Algae
  4. 4. Range in size from microscopic to large seaweed (macroalgae, macrophytes) Autotrophic Some have flagella at some point in life Often contain pyrenoids, organelles that synthesis and store starch. Characteristicsof algae:
  5. 5. Type of pigment composition (chlorophylls, accessory pigment e.g. carotenoides, phycopilliprotein. Food-storage substance Cell wall composition Classificationof algaeaccordingto:
  6. 6. Theuse of Algae: Medicine Food Biofuel Pollutioncontrol Beautyproducts Fertilizer
  7. 7. 1. Microalgae
  8. 8. Phytoplankton are free-floating microscopic algae that are mostly unicellular and represent about 90-96% of total ocean primary productivity. They have limited vertical movement.
  9. 9. Through photosynthesis, phytoplankton are responsible for much of the oxygen present in the Earth's atmosphere. Without phytoplankton, there would be no life in the seas and oceans.
  10. 10. Photic zone Phytoplankton are largely limited to the photic zone; an area from the water surface down to the point of about 2% of penetrated light.
  11. 11. • Microalgae classed into 8 classes: 1Cyanobacteria, 2Chlorophyta, 3Prochlorophyta, 4Euglenophyta, 5Pyrophyta (dinoflagellates), 6Cryptophyta (cryptomonads), 7Chrysophyta, 8Bacillariophyta (diatoms). The two most important classes of microalgae in terms of abundance are: Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) Dinoflagellates. o However, the composition differ from habit to habit.
  12. 12. Why Are Plankton So Important? Small fish Mackerel Tuna
  13. 13. •Microalgae are used in aquaculture as live feeds for all growth stages of mollusks , the larval stages of crustaceans and some fish species, and for Zooplankton used in Mari-culture food chains.
  14. 14. To increase dissolved oxygen and to decrease toxic gases like ammonia, nitrite, hydrogen sulfide, methane, carbon dioxide. To reduce global warming. To lower the content of toxic compounds and stabilize pond water quality. Algae purify the water through:
  15. 15. Some Fish Larvae
  16. 16. Phytoplankton type Size in microns (µm) Picoplankton 0.2 - 2.0 Nanoplankton 2.0 - 20 Microplankton 20 – 200 (Netplankton) ❖ ‫بعض‬ ‫أسماك‬ ‫المياه‬ ‫المالحه‬ ‫لها‬ ‫فتحة‬ ‫فم‬ ‫صغيرة‬ ‫جدا‬ ‫تقل‬ ‫عن‬ 100 ‫ميكرون‬ ‫و‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫عند‬ ‫بداية‬ ‫التغذيه‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫الفقس‬ ‫مباشرة‬ ‫مث‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أسماك‬ Greasy grouper ‫وأسماك‬ Golden snapper ‫وبالتالي‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫األسماك‬ ‫ال‬ ‫يمكنها‬ ‫التغذية‬ ‫علي‬ ‫الغذاء‬ ‫الحي‬ ‫الع‬ ‫ادي‬ ‫المتعارف‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫في‬ ‫المفرخات‬ ‫السمكية‬ ‫نظرا‬ ‫لكبر‬ ‫أحجام‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫األصناف‬ ‫مثل‬ ‫الروتيفر‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫يصل‬ ‫في‬ ‫الحجم‬ ‫أكبر‬ ‫من‬ 100 ‫ميكرون‬ .
  17. 17. Seaweeds: ➢ The term seaweed refers to the large marine algae that grow almost exclusively in the shallow waters. ➢ Seaweeds are all eukaryotic and most are multicellular but even some that are unicellular or simple filaments. Morphology of seaweeds: Thallus (haploid) Four types of algae Unicellular Colonial Filamentous multicellular
  18. 18. Chlorophyceae Green algae Phaeophyceae Brown algae Rhodophyceae Red algae Padina pavonia Griffithsia equisetifolia Ulva lactuca Seaweeds classed into 3 classes
  19. 19. Fish as a source of dietary protein for human consumption essentially helps in malnutrition in Egyptian increasing population. The natural fisheries resources contribute about 55% of the total national fish production, while aquaculture activities contribute about 49% of the total production.
  20. 20. El Nino
  21. 21. ‫السردين‬ ‫هجرة‬
  22. 22. ClimateChanges Climate changes are a result of the various burning processes of oil, gas, wood and coal. It is accompanied by huge amounts of toxic chemical compounds to the atmosphere, the most important of which are carbon oxides, sulfur and nitrogen,.
  23. 23. ClimateChanges and these gases are considered as a heavy gases that remain in the lower range of the Earth and prevent the spread of heat as they absorb infrared radiation, which leads to an increase in temperature in a phenomenon called "global warming", Climate change are dangerous due to pollution of air, water and soil, and the destroy ecosystems
  24. 24. Why is the climate changing? Adapted from CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 The release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases traps the sun's heat in Earth's atmosphere ©FAO/Abhichon Rattanabhayon ©Hazel Oxenford ©FAO/Graeme Maclean
  25. 25. Impactof Climatechangeonwater systems ❑ *Climate change affects rainfall patterns and melting snow and ice, and affects water resources in terms of quantity and quality ❑ *Rainfall pattern mean several changes ranging from drought and shortages to floods and poor water quality. ❑ *The salinization of groundwater and its movement in the direction of the upper rivers due to the rise in sea level will threaten the aquatic life in the inland fresh water. ❑ * Higher temperatures will reduce dissolved oxygen levels and increase fish metabolic rates, leading to increased fish mortality, while increasing the spread of diseases.
  26. 26. Implications of climatic changes on water systems (watertemperature) * The warming of the atmosphere and oceans is due to the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. * The warming of the oceans, especially in the tropics, subtropics. * An increase in the water temperature of surface fresh water. What are the main pressures of climate change? tornados powerful Ocean acidification changes in ocean currents Severe weather
  27. 27. What are the main pressures of climate change? sea​​levelrise *increase of tornados powerful *Sea ​​conditions Less *Predictable changes in ocean currents *Severe weather *Ocean acidification
  28. 28. Implications of climatic changes on water systems (oxygen content) ❑Dissolved oxygen is an important component of aquatic systems and change in its concentration has significant effects on carbon and nitrogen. ❑CO2 concentrations increased by 40% of fuel emissions. ❑Dissolved oxygen levels decrease with increasing temperature in both coastal and marine areas. ❑Decreased oxygen in the water column reduces vertical migration depths for some species (ex. tuna and fish) and diminishes the distribution of fisheries species.
  29. 29. Whatdoesloweroxygen levelinwatermean? • death of fish • Expansion of the "dead zones" • slower growth d r o f e n x O el az H ©FAO/Carla Daniel • Less living space for pelagic fish species such as tuna ©adapted by CERMES
  30. 30. Implications of climatic changes on water systems (Ice Cover) ❑ The rise in temperature led to the melting of part of the ice in the Arctic by about one million square kilometers, which led to a rise in sea and ocean levels, which in turn caused the flooding of most of the islands, river deltas and coastal areas, which include agricultural lands and areas full of people. ❑ Melting snow and snow cover and reducing mountain glaciers contribute to rising water levels and flows into aquatic systems. ❑ Sea level rise is a direct result of melting ice, while reducing mountain glaciers will have an impact on river flow and lake levels.
  31. 31. Implications of climatic changes on water systems (Water surface level) ❑ The sea level is rising at an average rate of 3.1 mm/year as a result of climatic and non-climatic factors. ❑ Sea level has already risen by a global average of 0.19 meters over the period from 1901 to 2010. ❑ It is estimated that between 2000 and 2100, the projected average sea level rise will be between 0.5-1.2 meters. ❑ The sea level is expected to rise 95% of the ocean area level.
  32. 32. Whathappenswhen sea​​levelrises? • Coastal erosion and More flooding with huge storms • Damage to critical fish habitats (mangroves) • Destruction of coastal areas and aquaculture ponds ©Shelly-Ann Cox ©Hazel Oxenford ©Hazel Oxenford
  33. 33. Toxicalgalblooms Increased frequency of warmer waters and higher food loads mean: Toxic algal blooms Oysters and fish deaths Danger to human health ©NRDC
  34. 34. Ocen acidification 2 <1 1 >3 3 1850-1860 Corals need this Decade of: 1850 - 1860 2090-2100 What to expect ….lower carbonate saturation state Decadeof: 2090 - 2100
  35. 35. Implications of climatic changes on water systems (Oceans) ❑ The ocean absorbed 93% of the heat and sequestered 30% of the carbon dioxide during the period from 1901 to 2010, which will affect the regularity of the Earth's climate. ❑ Ocean circulation redistributes heat and fresh water around the world which affecting local climates. ❑ It is also expected that global ocean surface temperature increase will increase thermal stratification, which may limit the depth at which water escapes, and thus the amount of nutrients brought to the near surface. ❑ The ocean's absorption of increasing amounts of carbon dioxide from human activities is acidifying the water, which can have adverse effects on aquatic life. ❑ Water acidity has increased by 26% since the industrial revolution and this will continue It is expected that primary production in the oceans will decline by 3% to 9% by the year 2100.
  36. 36. What does increased ocean acidity mean? 1 cm ©Hazel Oxenford ©Hazel Oxenford ©Hazel Oxenford ©Hazel Oxenford * Fewer carbonate ions, more hydrogen ions: * Increased difficulty of building shells *The frame of the reef may be eroded * Nerve damage to fish larvae * Low density fish replacement
  37. 37. High coral death rate Loss of integrity of coral reefs • Less living space for reef fish and lobsters . loss of coastal protection coral death ©Hazel Oxenford Coral bleaching.... ©Hazel Oxenford Includes Coral bleaching
  38. 38. Impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture * Changing the temperature will affect the various vital processes in it, such as mating behavior, reproduction, egg laying and growth, increased susceptibility to diseases, increased exposure to toxins and heavy elements, increased food consumption, increased organic waste * The lack of dissolved oxygen will lead to the migration of fish, the transmission of some diseases and pathogens, the occurrence of genetic changes and the occurrence of competition for food and the space available between the different species that are naturally present in the place and the species arriving on them.
  39. 39. Impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture ❑ It is expected that the production of fish will decrease, which will affect the available quantity of fish meal and oils, which are mainly included as one of the main components of fish feed. ❑ Increasing the susceptibility of fish to diseases and the speed of their spread, especially bacterial and viral ones. ❑ The rise in temperature increases the metabolic rate, and thus increases the intake of toxins and heavy metals surrounding the aquatic organism.