CONTENTSCertificate Declaration Preface Acknowledgement Difference between Global Warming & Climate Change What is Global Warming How do GLOBAL Warming works Cause of Global Warming Green House effect & its example Global Warming Causes Animal’s thought toward Global Warming Major Consequences Who is responsible Proof When did Global Warming start How can we stop Global Warming Have Faith on Global Warming : Shifting Gears Us emission But our Goal Response to Global Warming Interesting evidence of Global Warming Conclusion
CERTIFICATE I Do here by certified that this project titled “GLOBALWARMING.” Is done by “ PREETISH PRIYADARSHI SAMAL”, of“RAVENSHAW JUNIOR COLLEGE” , is an original work and havebeen submitted under by supervision and guidance. Acknowledgement and believe, this project work iscompleted from every aspect, which can help the study invarious ways. “ I wish all success in future life”.
DECLARATION I , PREETISH PRIYADARSHI SAMALdeclared that , I tried my best to do thisproject work, “ GLOBAL WARMING” and theproject is completed by myself from everyaspect under the guidance of my collegeteacher. PREETISH PRIYADARSHI SAMAL
PREFACE Human activities have led to large increases in heat-trapping gases over the past century. Theglobal warming of the past 50 years is due primarily to this human-induced increase. Globalaverage temperature and sea level have increased, and precipitation patterns have changed.Human “fingerprints” also have been identified in many other aspects of the climate system,including changes in ocean heat content, precipitation, atmospheric moisture, plant and animalhealth and location, and Arctic sea ice. In the U.S., the amount of rain falling in the heaviest downpours has increased approximately20 percent on average in the past century. Many types of extreme weather events, such as heat waves and regional droughts, havebecome more frequent and intense during the past 40 to 50 years. The destructive energy ofAtlantic hurricanes has increased... In the eastern Pacific, the strongest hurricanes have becomestronger since the 1980s, even while the total number of storms has decreased. Sea level has risenalong most of the U.S. coast over the last 50 years, and will rise more in the future. Arctic sea ice isdeclining rapidly and this is very likely to continue. Global temperatures are projected to continueto rise over this century. Whether by 2-3 degrees F or more than 11 degrees depends on a numberof factors, including the amount of heat-trapping gas emissions humans continue to allow and howsensitive the climate is to those emissions. Lower emissions of heat-trapping gases will delay theappearance of climate change impacts and lessen their magnitude. Unless the rate of emissions issubstantially reduced, impacts are expected to become increasingly severe for more people andplaces.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I, PREETISH PRIYADARSHI SAMAL, owe a great many thanks toa great many people who helped and supported me during the writingof this project. My deepest thanks to our Zoology Lecturer MS.PUSHPALATA PAL, the guide of the project for guiding and correctingvarious documents of mine with attention and care. She has taken pain to go through the project and make necessarycorrection as and when needed. I express my thanks to the Principalfor extending her support. My deep sense of gratitude to my friends fortheir support and guidance. I would also thank my Institution and myfaculty members without whom this project would have been a distantreality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well wishersfor their encouragement and cooperation.
It should NOT be confused with climate change ! ! DifferenceGLOBAL WARMING CLIMATE CHANGEis the increase of the is a broader term that Earth’s average surface refers to long-term temperature due to a changes in build-up of greenhouse climate, including gases in the average temperature atmosphere. and precipitation.
What is global warming ? Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of Earths atmosphere and oceans,which started to increase in the late 19th century and is projected to keep going up. Since the early20th century, Earths average surface temperature has increased by about 0.8 C (1.4 F), withabout two thirds of the increase occurring since 1980. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal,and scientists are more than 90% certain that most of it is caused by increasing concentrations ofgreenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels. Thesefindings are recognized by the national science academies of all the major industrialized nations. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount andpattern of precipitation, and a probable expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to bestrongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost andsea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrence of extreme-weatherevents including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall, species extinctions due to shiftingtemperature regimes, and changes in crop yields.
How Global Warming Works Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Greenhouse gases Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)
CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING POLLUTION FROM COAL, NATURAL GAS, AND OIL CO2 FROM AIRPLANES & VEHICLES POPULATION INCREASE DEFORESTATION
Example of the Greenhouse Effect The Sun’s energy passes through the car’s windshield.This energy (heat) istrapped inside thecar and cannot passback through thewindshield, causingthe inside of the carto warm up.
Global warming causes- Warmer waters and Melting of glaciers Polar Bear Extinction more hurricanes Melting Increased TemperatureIncreased probability andintensity of droughts and Polar ice caps heat waves
Animals like thesethink like…… WHERE IS my habitat…!!!
Global warming causes- Temperatures• Between the years 1860-1900 average temperatures have increased by 0.75 degrees Celsius.• Over the past 100 years global temperatures have risen by 1.3 degrees. Weather in recent winters• Recent winter was the warmest winter ever recorded( in the history of the planet Earth).• 10 out of the past 14 years are the warmest on record. Glacier and Ice Cap Melting• Evidence of global warming is very apparent in the recent melting of ice sheets.• Two places where melting has become extremely visible are Antarctica and Greenland.• One problem with this is that much less heat is absorbed by snow than by water, thus worsening the effect as the ice retreats.• One area of particular concern is the Himalayans. 1/3 of the worlds fresh drinking water comes from the run off from this glacier system.• A direct consequence from our polluting actions will be the disappearance of these vital glaciers. Sea level rising• Possibly the biggest threat brought by global warming is rapid sea level changes.• Two years ago the entire Larsen B ice shelf broke away into pieces in less than a month. Scientists thought it would be at least a decade before this shelf melted, even with global warming.• Both Greenland and Western Antarctica are depleting at shocking rates.• Not all of global Warmings effects are unprecedented.
Major CONSEQUENCE At some places, it DROUGHT SOMEWHERE it’s WHEREAS At others tooo….. At others…… tooo…….ooo Hot !! COLD UNSEASONAL FLOODIts all because ofGLOBAL WARMING
CAUSED BY WHOM…???? WHO Is THE CULPRIT??? WE the HUMAMS are the ones causing It BUT We need PROOF ! !
SO Here’s the PROOF Alaska ArizonaPortage Glacier Colorado River June 2002 1914 Dec 2003 2004
ANTARCTICA – losing ice faster..!!!!!! BEFORE NOW"There will be no polar ice by 2060...Somewhere along that path, the polar bear drops out."
When did global warming start ?Global Atmospheric Concentration of CO2
Spread Awareness Turn off your computer or the TV when you’re not using it. Incandescent Compact Fluorescent 500 lbs. of coal •1,430 lbs. CO2 pollution avoided -$30 saved Be Bulb Smart—Use CFLs RecycleDress lightly when it’s hot instead of Drive LESS, drive SMART Use a bicycle or bus turning up the air conditioning.
AND HAVE FAITH ON ……………Fuel efficient cars Wind Power Solar Power Hey…..!!! Its working
Billions of Metric Tons Carbon Our Goal Produce electricity efficiently Use electricity efficiently Vehicle efficiency Solar and Wind Power Reductions Biofuels 2007 in CO2 Carbon capture and storage Per Year
RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING• MITIGATION In order to limit warming to within the lower range described in the IPCCs "Summary Report for Policymakers" it will be necessary to adopt policies that will limit greenhouse gas emissions to one of several significantly different scenarios described in the full report. This will become more and more difficult with each year of increasing volumes of emissions and even more drastic measures will be required in later years to stabilize a desired atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. Energy-related carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions in 2010 were the highest in history, breaking the prior record set in 2008. Since even in the most optimistic scenario, fossil fuels are going to be used for years to come, mitigation may also involve carbon capture and storage, a process that traps CO2 produced by factories and gas or coal power stations and then stores it, usually underground.• ADAPTATION Other policy responses include adaptation to climate change. Adaptation to climate change may be planned, e.g., by local or national government, or spontaneous, i.e., done privately without government intervention. The ability to adapt is closely linked to social and economic development. Even societies with high capacities to adapt are still vulnerable to climate change. Planned adaptation is already occurring on a limited basis. The barriers, limits, and costs of future adaptation are not fully understood.• REENGENEERING A body of the scientific literature has developed which considers alternative reengineering techniques for climate change mitigation. In the IPCCs Fourth Assessment Report (published in 2007) Working Group III (WG3) assessed some "apparently promising" geoengineering techniques, including ocean fertilization, capturing and sequestering CO2, and techniques for reducing the amount of sunlight absorbed by the Earths atmospheric system.  The IPCCs overall conclusion was that geoengineering options remained "largely speculative and unproven, (...) with the risk of unknown side-effects." In the IPCCs[ judgement, reliable cost estimates for geoengineering options had not yet been published. As most geoengineering techniques would affect the entire globe, deployment would likely require global public acceptance and an adequate global legal and regulatory framework, as well as significant further scientific research.
Interesting evidence of global warming• In far northern Canada the Native Inuit have • This has been noticed the sun rise caused by the significantly earlier in the warming of the year (2 months) layer of air above the snow. This distorts the sun’s • This phenomena is an light, literally example of how little causing it to rise we know about the earlier. possible implications of global warming 30
CONCLUSION The term global warming was probably first used in its modern senseon 8 August 1975 in a science paper by Wally Broacher in the journalScience called "Are we on the brink of a pronounced global warming?".Broacher’s choice of words was new and represented a significantrecognition that the climate was warming; previously the phrasing used byscientists was "inadvertent climate modification," because while it wasrecognized humans could change the climate, no one was sure whichdirection it was going. The National Academy of Sciences first used globalwarming in a 1979 paper called the Carney Report, it said: "if carbon dioxidecontinues to increase no reason to doubt that climate changes will resultand no reason to believe that these changes will be negligible." The reportmade a distinction between referring to surface temperature changes asglobal warming, while referring to other changes caused by increased CO2as climate change. Global warming became more widely popular after 1988 when NASAclimate scientist James Hansen used the term in a testimony to Congress.He said: "global warming has reached a level such that we can ascribe witha high degree of confidence a cause and effect.
The Earth is melting! Preetish Priyadarshi Samal 32