Manchuria IGCSE History

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IGCSE History: Failures of the League of Nations

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Manchuria IGCSE History

  1. 1. Manchuria
  2. 2. Manchuria •   The Nationalist government of China led by Chiang Kai-shek was weak, corrupt and busy fighting the Communists. •   Because of the Great Depression, Japan wanted to build an empire to secure supplies of raw materials. •   The Japanese government was controlled by the army •   China ruled Manchuria, but the Japanese army ran the railway there, and ruled in Korea.
  3. 3. Manchuria
  4. 4. Manchuria •   Sept 1931: There was some vandalism on the Manchurian railway; Japan claimed the Chinese had sabotaged the railway.   •   They invaded Manchuria and set up the 'independent' (i.e. Japanese-controlled) state of Manchukuo under the former Emperor of China, Henry P'ui.   •   China appealed to the League.
  5. 5. Manchuria •   Dec 1931: the League appointed a commission led by Lord Lytton to investigate.   •   He did not go to Manchuria until April 1932 and did not report until October. •   Oct 1932: Lytton's report stated that Japan was the aggressor and should leave. •   24 Feb 1933: The Assembly voted that Japan should leave Manchuria •  Japan walked out of the meeting.
  6. 6. Manchuria •   Japan stayed in Manchuria.   •   The League could not agree economic sanctions or an arms sales ban. •   In 1933 Japan resigned from the League, and invaded/ conquered Jehol (next to Manchuria).
  7. 7. Manchuria A SPECTACULAR failure: 1. The Japanese continued to expand: •     they kept Manchuria • they invaded Jehol in 1933 and China in 1937.
  8. 8. Manchuria A SPECTACULAR failure: 2.  The League was discredited/ Manchuria showed: •     It was slow (the Lytton Report took almost a year) •     A country could get its own way if it ignored it •     ‘Collective security' was useless against big countries - especially during the Great Depression. •     Even the great powers within the League (Japan was on the Council) were happy to ignore it.

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