Fascist japan

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Fascist japan

  1. 1. Fascist - Japan
  2. 2. What is fascist?? <ul><li>It means ‘repressive’ </li></ul><ul><li>A group of people that is nationalistic, anti-Communist and authoritarian </li></ul>
  3. 3. Beginning of Fascism <ul><li>Fascist Movement in 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Benito Mussolini </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mussolini’s argument <ul><li>Democracy was bad for Italy because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ineffective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E.g. Italy's democratically elected leaders were too weak to stop widespread unemployment and inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Threats from Communists </li></ul>
  5. 5. His argument for Fascism <ul><li>Nation first under Fascism </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy was inefficient because it limited the power of the nation and placed power in the people’s hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Nation should grow strong and expand </li></ul>
  6. 6. Impact of Mussolini’s argument <ul><li>Young men and WWI veterans were drawn to Fascist ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glamourised action and violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power and violence was the only way to get what they want </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sense of belonging </li></ul><ul><li>Spread to many parts of the world. E.g. Japan </li></ul>
  7. 7. The failure of the democratic government in Japan <ul><li>The Diet’s limited power </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to solve economic problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers’ difficult living conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers’ difficult working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade imbalance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Depression 1929 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Diet’s structure (Parliament) Emperor Prime Minister A cabinet of ministers Chosen by emperor The Army and Navy minister (veto power over emperor)
  9. 9. Members of Diet (Members of Parliament) <ul><li>2 chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House of Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imperial family, nobles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nominated by Emperor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House of Representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elected by Japanese citizens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor reserved the right to dissolve the House </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Problems with Diet <ul><li>Did not have the power to make decisions or policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only question the decisions of the Cabinet Ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack democratic control the nation’s budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Japanese Army’s budget </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Corruption damaged democracy’s reputation <ul><li>Democractic leaders looked to zaibatsus to sponsor their election campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Zaibatsus became very powerful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Sumitomo and Yasuda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Close ties led to rumours </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Zaibatsu system Zaibatsu Provided for campaigns Expected to be placed at the top priority The way of the samurai. Relationship of the master and servant
  13. 13. Democratic leaders failed to solve economic problems <ul><li>Farmers’ difficult living conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Workers’ difficult working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Trade imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>Great Depression 1929 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Trade imbalance <ul><li>Import > Export </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Great Depression or Wall Street Crash in 1929
  16. 16. Japan during the Great Depression or the Wall Street Crash <ul><li>The crash in Wall Street lead to economic problems in Japan because people no longer wanted Japanese goods </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Silk prices fell by 20% in 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson : Do not depend on the west </li></ul>
  17. 17. What led to the rise of Fascism in Japan? (External Factors) <ul><li>American expansion in the Asia Pacific region </li></ul><ul><li>Paris Peace Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Washington Naval Conference </li></ul><ul><li>London Disarmament Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration laws in the USA </li></ul><ul><li>Resurgence of Chinese nationalism </li></ul>
  18. 18. American expansion in the Asia-Pacific region <ul><li>Japan plans to control the region </li></ul><ul><li>Commodore Matthew Perry opened Japan to American trade </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Hawaii and the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese militarists believed that American was trying to take control Asia-Pacific’s economy and military power </li></ul>
  19. 19. The 3 treaties <ul><li>What were the 3 treaties about? </li></ul>
  20. 20. 3 treaties <ul><li>Paris Peace Conference 1919 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan requested that LON recognise that all races were equal – REJECTED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Washington Naval Conference 1921 – 1922 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Felt that it was unfair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to restrict Japanese power </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>London Disarmament Conference 1930 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime Minister Hamaguchi Osachi and his foreign minister Shidehara Kijuro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to reduce naval arms with Britain and USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to improve ties with China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Army accused Hamaguchi and his foreign minister of betraying Japan and being too ‘soft’ in handling the West and China </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Immigration laws in USA in the mid 1920s <ul><li>USA tried to prevent Asian immigration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation and protectionist policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All Asian immigrants (except Filipinos) </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants cannot be a USA citizens even if </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in USA for a long time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marry Caucasians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>California Alien Law in 1913 </li></ul>
  23. 23. Impact of USA’s immigration law <ul><li>Angered Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Sign as the Americans considered the Japanese as inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Many Japanese turned away from USA, democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Want to support an expansion of Japan’s empire </li></ul>
  24. 25. Resurgence of Chinese nationalism <ul><li>1894 – Japan took advantage of China’s weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qing Dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When Qing Dynasty fell, Chinese warlords took over in 1911 </li></ul><ul><li>Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party (CCP) </li></ul>
  25. 27. China’s civil war <ul><li>Kuomintang – Chiang Kai Shek </li></ul><ul><li>CCP - Mao Zedong </li></ul><ul><li>Chiang tried to unite China after the fall of the Qing </li></ul><ul><li>These struggles kept China weak </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>In 1927, KMT and CCP joined forces to fight the warlords and Chiang led the united army </li></ul><ul><li>He gained full control of China </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese demanded an </li></ul><ul><li>end to all ‘special concession’ </li></ul><ul><li>to Westerners </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes against Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>good </li></ul>
  27. 29. Impact of China’s civil war on Japan <ul><li>Japanese Army (Kwantung Army) realised that a strong and united Chinese government would prevent Japan from expanding </li></ul><ul><li>Kwantung Army stationed in Manchuria proposed to occupy Manchuria before anti Japanese feelings became too strong </li></ul><ul><li>They urged Japanese to support military action </li></ul>
  28. 31. “ USA’s treatment of Asia was the main reason for the rise of Fascism in Japan.” How far do you agree with the statement?

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