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The Northern Expeditions

The Northern Expeditions

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The Northern Expeditions

  1. 1. Northern Expeditions Learning Objectives: • Analyse the success and failures of the Northern Expeditions? • Examine how the Communists were persecuted by the GMD? • Explain to what extent did the GMD control China? Key Words, People & Places: Comintern Zhou Enlai New Order White Terror Jiangxi Soviet Red Army
  2. 2. What was the Boxer Rebellion? Starter Why was Marxism attractive to Chinese Revolutionists? What were the Unequal Treaties? Define the GMDs three founding principles? What caused the May 4th Movement? What was meant by the ‘New Tide? Describe the events in Shanghai in 1927? What was ‘Double Ten’? What links did the GMD have with the Soviet Union? Describe Yuan Shi Kai’s rule of China? Evaluate whether the Northern Expedition was a success What links did the CCP have with the Soviet Union? A B C D E F G I J K L M
  3. 3. The March North LO: Analyse the success and failures of the Northern Expeditions • 1925 – Sun Yat Sen died of cancer • Chiang Kai Shek was Commander in Chief of the Army – Assumes leadership • Much infighting in the GMD over who should be leader • July 1926 – March to the North promising a ‘New order’ and ‘National Revolution’ • Political agents and propaganda very affective • Little fighting and large support from Chinese sick of warlord rule helped – armies mutinied, bribery to gain support
  4. 4. The Northern Expedition • Peasants provided intelligence and transport • First real resistance came from Wu Peifu’s army in Jiangxi • Guomindang armies, some led by communist officers took Nanjing in 1927 LO: Analyse the success and failures of the Northern Expeditions
  5. 5. The Northern Expedition • What is the impression given of the Guomindang armies? • Aims of the artist drawing the cartoon • How accurate is this picture? LO: Analyse the success and failures of the Northern Expeditions
  6. 6. The Shanghai Massacre LO:Examine how the Communists were persecuted by the GMD • 1927 - As the GMD neared Shanghai the people rebelled against the local warlord. • Led by Zhou Enlai – set up a Communist Council to run the city • Chiang entered the city two days later and rounded up the communists with the support of local businessmen, merchants and mafia and killed them in the streets – The White Terror
  7. 7. Persecution of the CCP • Chiang repeated these massacres in Nanjing and Guangzhou later that year • Nanjing – Foreign consulates attacked – Chiang blamed the communists – executed soldiers • Over the next year several 100,000 communists were executed • Communists retreated to the countryside in Jiangxi and Hunan provinces. LO:Examine why the Communists were persecuted by the GMD
  8. 8. Why were the CCP Persecuted? • Both wanted revolution against the warlords and influenced by Marxist ideology • GMD based ideas on urban workers. CCP based on rural peasants. • Concern that CCP wanted China under Soviet control. • Began in 1926 – Chiang was convinced he was going to be kidnapped by CCP in Guangzhou • Needed to reduce the power of the CCP LO:Examine why the Communists were persecuted by the GMD
  9. 9. Unification of China LO:Explain to what extent did the GMD control China? • April 1928 – with an alliance with two northern warlords (Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan), Chiang attacks Zhang Zuolin, Manchuria warlord who occupied parts of Northern China including Beijing. • Zhang was killed by a train bomb, his son surrendered and recognised Chiang as leader • National Govt. setup in Nanjing, powerbase of the nationalists – run by Council of State to which Chiang was head. How did the GMD control or run its Government?
  10. 10. Was China truly unified? • Only conquered the north with help from Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan – never accepted his authority. • 1929 - Feng and Yan rebelled – fought bloody civil war for two years. • Yan defeated – still able to retreat to Shanxi province • Bandits in the south terrorised districts, looted, kidnapped and stole. • 10% of land and 25% of population actually controlled LO:Explain to what extent did the GMD control China?
  11. 11. Why was Chiang unable to gain complete control of China?? 1. Chiang was unable to defeat all of the Warlords. a. The Land Law gained the CCP a great deal of support. 2. Chiang had little influence in the countryside where most peasants supported the CCP. b. There was in-fighting between rival factions and the Japanese invaded Manchuria. 3. The GMD tended to support landlords and tried to force peasants to pay taxes. c. Mao used guerrilla tactics and ordered his forces to retreat when necessary. 4. The GMD was not strong enough to control all of China. d. Many peasants began to look to the CCP for protection. 5. The tactics of the GMD were ineffective because there were no pitched battles. e. Because they were press-ganged into the army and had to hand over food 6. The GMD did not receive much support from the peasants. f. This increased the support of the CCP. 7. The years from 1927 to 1930 were difficult for peasants. g. He was forced to allow some of them to remain in power. 8. Mao encouraged peasants to attack landlords and seize their land. h. Mao set up his soviet in Jiangxi to attract support from peasants. LO:Explain to what extent did the GMD control China?
  12. 12. The Communist Enclave Where had the communists retreated to? • Set up the ‘Chinese Soviet Republic’ or Jiangxi Soviet. • Mao Zadong was the political leader while Zhu De led the armed forces of the Soviet. • Gained peasant support through land reforms – land divided up. • Also taxes reduced, schools set up, old customs abolished and Peasant Council set up • Set up the Red Army – helped to win support LO:Explain to what extent did the GMD control China?
  13. 13. Extermination Campaigns 1930-1934 • Jiangxi Soviet seen as greater threat than warlords or bandits. • A series of extermination campaigns to wipe out the communists. • 1930-34 – 5 campaigns – each bigger than the last. • Despite larger armies first 4 failed due to tactics of the communists “He takes up arms responding to the angry protest of the people against their oppressors, and that he fights in order to change the social system that keeps all his unarmed brothers in ignominy and misery”. Che Guevara LO:Explain to what extent did the GMD control China?
  14. 14. Guerrilla War Mao’s tactics: • When the enemy advances, we retreat! • When the enemy halts and encamps, we trouble them! • When the enemy seeks to avoid a battle, we attack! • When the enemy retreats, we pursue! LO:Explain to what extent did the GMD control China?
  15. 15. GMD vs. CCP - Report Chiang Kai Shek’s government and Mao’s Jiangxi Soviet. 1. Give an overview of each leader – background and beliefs 2. Analyse the strengths and weaknesses of both regimes? a. Political b. Social c. Economic d. Military LO: Explain to what extent did the GMD control China?

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  • manish99955

    Jan. 18, 2018
  • jpwxiix

    Sep. 9, 2018

The Northern Expeditions


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