China’s recent history

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China’s recent history

  1. 1. China’s Recent History June 3, 2014 Orientation for BCFL/VDLC Delegation
  2. 2. Imperialism in the 19th Century
  3. 3. 1840 British Empire: First Opium War • Britain wanted Chinese tea, porcelain and silk but China only wanted silver • So Britain exported Indian opium to China • Emperor made it illegal but many were addicted
  4. 4. 1840 British Empire: First Opium War • Result: Hong Kong ceded, opium import legalized
  5. 5. 1860 British Empire: Second Opium War • Old Summer Palace destroyed (modelled on Palace of Versailles)
  6. 6. 1894-5 Japan Invaded China China forced to cede Taiwan to Japan
  7. 7. Boxer Rebellion against foreign oppression, 1898-1900
  8. 8. Eight Nation Alliance Invaded China • Eight powers invaded: British, Japanese, Russian, Italian, German, French, US, and Austrian troops, the alliance defeated the Boxers and demanded further concessions from the Qing government such as treaty ports
  9. 9. End of Qing Empire • First Chinese Republic in 1911 with Sun Yat-Sen as President • Followed by warlordism for a few years
  10. 10. 1917 Russia Bolshevik Revolution
  11. 11. May 4th Movement • Initiated by students inspired by Russian Revolution of 1917, patriots, nationalists, socialists, democrats and republicans • Opposed imperialism and feudalism • Became nationwide protest against imperialism • China never signed the treaty
  12. 12. May 4th Movement On the morning of May 4, 1919, student representatives from thirteen different local universities met in Beijing and drafted five resolutions: • to oppose the granting of Shandong to the Japanese under former German concessions. • to draw awareness of China's precarious position to the masses in China. • to recommend a large-scale gathering in Beijing. • to promote the creation of a Beijing student union. • to hold a demonstration that afternoon in protest to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
  13. 13. Who is this fellow? • Student active in May 4th Movement in Tianjin
  14. 14. Premier Zhou Enlai
  15. 15. Deng Yingchao was a team leader in May 4th Movement
  16. 16. From May 4th Movement on, Marxism Spread
  17. 17. •In 1921 •Two years later, what happened?
  18. 18. Founding of Chinese Communist Party
  19. 19. Anyuan Miners’ Strike, 1922
  20. 20. 1925 Sun Yat-sen died, succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek as head of Nationalist Party (Guomindang)
  21. 21. Shanghai General Strike, 1927
  22. 22. Shanghai Massacre, 1927 • Nationalists massacred Communists, unionists and workers and students
  23. 23. 1931, Japan Invaded Manchuria (China’s Northeast)
  24. 24. Hitler assisted Chiang Kai- shek as fellow anti- Communist • Nazis assisted Guomindang in training Chinese troops and Germany got Chinese natural resources • Germany later supported Japan because Hitler felt it was a stronger ally than China
  25. 25. Red Army, Long March, 1934-5
  26. 26. 9,000 km., 370 days
  27. 27. Established red base in Yan’an • Mao Zedong • 1935
  28. 28. War of Liberation against Japanese • 1937 United Front against Japanese • 1937 Nanjing Massacre by Japanese
  29. 29. Yan’an (1944) Centre of Chinese revolution, 1936 to 1948
  30. 30. Who Wrote “Red Star Over China”? (1937)
  31. 31. Edgar Snow
  32. 32. Anti-Japanese War of Resistance • Guomindang spent much more energy fighting Communist army than fighting the Japanese
  33. 33. Japanese occupation lasted till end of WWII
  34. 34. Japanese finally routed, 1945
  35. 35. Red army defeated nationalist army
  36. 36. 1949 what is this event?
  37. 37. Socialist Period •1949 to 1978
  38. 38. Agriculture and land redistribution • Feudalism ended • Land redistributed, communes set up by 1958 • Rural people still hold claim to land today through their rural household registration
  39. 39. Rule of law ends gangsters • Prior to 1949 there was a vast criminal underworld of gangsters and secret societies intermingling with high society like this photo of Shanghai nightlife in 1930s • And there were almost 90 million opium addicts
  40. 40. Literacy skyrocketed in one generation • 15% in 1949 to 80-90% by mid-1970s
  41. 41. Life expectancy • More than doubled between 1949 and 1975, from 32 to 65 years • Infant mortality in 1970 in Shanghai was less than in New York City • Barefoot doctors in countryside brought health care throughout country • Poverty significantly reduced
  42. 42. Industry and central planning • Economy grew by 10 percent per year • Egalitarian wage structure • Guaranteed employment
  43. 43. Urban danwei (work unit) system • Lifetime employment guarantee • Housing provided and subsidized • Food and fuel subsidized • Medical care system provided • Public school education free • No firings or negative discipline • Positive examples such as model workers
  44. 44. 1966 Cultural Revolution Began • Concern by Chairman Mao and others that socialist principles were being eroded by corruption and capitalist roaders
  45. 45. Type of greeting we received in 1974 (without Little Red Books)
  46. 46. We visited Dazhai in 1974
  47. 47. 1976: Terrible Year • January: Premier Zhou died • April: flowers in Tiananmen Square • July: earthquake in Tangshan: 250,000 died • September: Chairman Mao died • October: Gang of Four arrested
  48. 48. 1978 Deng Xiaoping came to power • New China started down the capitalist road
  49. 49. One of Deng’s first invited guests: Milton Friedman, Chicago School of Economics
  50. 50. 1980, rural communes were abolished • Rural communes abolished • End of collective work in countryside
  51. 51. 1980, Special Economic Zones established for industry to try out capitalist methods of production. This is Shenzhen in 1980.
  52. 52. Shenzhen today
  53. 53. Privatization of industry and lay-offs of millions of workers in State-Owned Enterprises
  54. 54. Inflation of the late 1980s lead to protest about corruption and accountability • 1989 • Tiananmen Square • Far more workers were killed than students • They defended the streets leading to the Square by barricading them
  55. 55. 1992: Deng’s Southern Tour
  56. 56. Privatization of industry and lay-offs of workers in State-Owned Enterprises intensified and workers fought back with demonstrations, blockades
  57. 57. China joined WTO in 2001 What event preceded it two months before?
  58. 58. 1993 to 2003, Jiang Zemin, President Zhu Rongji, Premier
  59. 59. 2003 to 2013, Hu Jintao, President Wen Jiabao, Premier
  60. 60. 2013 to 2023 ? Xi Jinping, President
  61. 61. 2013 to 2023? Li Keqiang, Premier
  62. 62. Workers and citizens rising up. Fate of government and Communist Party?

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