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06. LEAGUE OF NATIONS - Manchurian Crisis.pptx

George Dumitrache
George Dumitrache
George DumitracheTeacher at St. Peter's College Auckland

Manchurian Crisis. On September 18, 1931, an explosion destroyed a section of railway track near the city of Mukden. The Japanese, who owned the railway, blamed Chinese nationalists for the incident and used the opportunity to retaliate and invade Manchuria.

06. LEAGUE OF NATIONS - Manchurian Crisis.pptx

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CONTENT
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
MANCHURIAN CRISIS
1931
6
MANCHURIA
• Manchuria was a province of
north-east China with part of
its southern frontier bordering
Korea.
• It was a sparsely populated
province, rich in mineral
wealth, agricultural land,
and forestry.
BACKGROUND
• Since 1905 the Japanese had been in control of Korea with
additional trading rights extending northwards into the
Manchurian interior.
• In connection with these rights Japanese guards were permitted
along the route of the South Manchurian Railway.
• The purpose of these guards was to maintain order in a lawless,
chaotic area, also to protect Japanese business interests.
USA AND JAPAN
• The USA saw Japan as a threat. Japan was a militaristic
country. Japan was at war with Russia in 1904. Japanese
industries had grown while Europe was busy fighting WW1.
• USA was worried about Japanese competition, and they limit
their power and influence (Pacific).
• They were also worried about the sizer of their navy.
• When the Depression wrecked Japanese industry, the leaders
called for military expansion for gaining control and resources.
WHY MANCHURIA?
• As an island trading nation
Japan was very badly affected
by the Depression.
• Japan was not self-sufficient
in food and depended upon
imports to feed its rapidly
rising population. These
imports had to be paid for with
exports but Japan’s main
export commodity was silk, a
luxury item.
WHY MANCHURIA? cont.
• Manchuria seemed to offer the answer to Japan’s problems.
• It could provide a source of food and raw materials, a market
for Japanese export, as well as land for the surplus Japanese
population.
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06. LEAGUE OF NATIONS - Manchurian Crisis.pptx

  • 2. MANCHURIA • Manchuria was a province of north-east China with part of its southern frontier bordering Korea. • It was a sparsely populated province, rich in mineral wealth, agricultural land, and forestry.
  • 3. BACKGROUND • Since 1905 the Japanese had been in control of Korea with additional trading rights extending northwards into the Manchurian interior. • In connection with these rights Japanese guards were permitted along the route of the South Manchurian Railway. • The purpose of these guards was to maintain order in a lawless, chaotic area, also to protect Japanese business interests.
  • 4. USA AND JAPAN • The USA saw Japan as a threat. Japan was a militaristic country. Japan was at war with Russia in 1904. Japanese industries had grown while Europe was busy fighting WW1. • USA was worried about Japanese competition, and they limit their power and influence (Pacific). • They were also worried about the sizer of their navy. • When the Depression wrecked Japanese industry, the leaders called for military expansion for gaining control and resources.
  • 5. WHY MANCHURIA? • As an island trading nation Japan was very badly affected by the Depression. • Japan was not self-sufficient in food and depended upon imports to feed its rapidly rising population. These imports had to be paid for with exports but Japan’s main export commodity was silk, a luxury item.
  • 6. WHY MANCHURIA? cont. • Manchuria seemed to offer the answer to Japan’s problems. • It could provide a source of food and raw materials, a market for Japanese export, as well as land for the surplus Japanese population.
  • 7. THE FIRST INVASION • In 1931 an incident in Manchuria gave them an ideal opportunity. The Japanese army controlled the South Manchurian Railway. • When Chinese troops attacked the railway, the Japanese armed forces used this as an excuse to invade and set up a government in Manchukuo (Manchuria), which they controlled.
  • 9. RESULTS • Japan’s civilian government protested but the military were now in charge. • The Japanese pretended to give Manchuria independence. • They put a weak leader (puppet leader) called Puyi. He was the last emperor of China.
  • 10. CHINA APPEALS • China appealed to the League. The Japanese argued that China was in such a state of anarchy that they had to invade in self- defense to keep peace in the area. • For the League of Nations this was a serious test. Japan was a leading member of the League. • It needed careful handling. • What should the League do?
  • 11. LON INVESTIGATES • There was now a long and frustrating delay. • The League’s officials sailed round the world to assess the situation in Manchuria for themselves. • This was well before the days of instant communication by satellite. There was not even reliable air travel. • It was September 1932 – a full year after the invasion – before they presented their report. • It was detailed and balanced, but the judgement was very clear. • Japan had acted unlawfully. • Manchuria should be returned to the Chinese.
  • 12. THE LYTTON COMMISSION • The League did not feel it could do absolutely nothing and appointed Lord Lytton to lead a commission of enquiry to Manchuria, together with a four-man team, including a representative from the United States. • Lytton spent six weeks in the province and came to the conclusion that although the Japanese were provoked in various ways by the Chinese, the invasion was not justified. • The Lytton Report was considered by the Assembly AFTER ONE YEAR!!!, in February 1933.
  • 13. THE SECOND INVASION • In February 1933, instead of withdrawing from Manchuria the Japanese announced that they intended to invade more of China. • They still argued that this was necessary in self-defense. On 24 February 1933, the report from the League’s officials was approved by 42 votes to 1 in the Assembly. • Only Japan voted against. • Smarting at the insult, Japan resigned from the League on 27 March 1933. • The next week it invaded Jehol.
  • 14. THE RESPONSE OF THE LON At this stage, the League could have called for sanctions but it failed to do so. There were few reasons for this. 1. None of the European powers wanted to reduce their trade with the Far East, especially since American firms could have taken over the lost business. 2. The alternative of military sanctions was even less appealing. This would have involved European states sending a naval task force to the other side of the world with very uncertain prospects of success. 3. Both Britain and France possessed colonies in the Far East. They feared sanctions might provoke a Japanese attack.
  • 15. IN A NUTSHELL The League was powerless. It discussed economic sanctions, but without the USA, Japan’s main trading partner, they would be meaningless. Britain seemed more interested in keeping up a good relationship with Japan than in agreeing to sanctions. The League also discussed banning arms sales to Japan, but the member countries could not even agree about that. They were worried that Japan would retaliate, and the war would escalate. There was no prospect at all of Britain and France risking their navies or armies in a war with Japan. Only the USA and the USSR would have had the resources to remove the Japanese from Manchuria by force and they were not even members of the League.
  • 16. THE LEAGUE WAS WEAKENED • Japan refused to accept Lord Lytton’s report and withdrew from the League in 1933. It was the date when Hitler was appointed Chancellor and Japan started to become friendly with Germany. • In 1933 the Japanese invaded China’s Jehol province, which bordered Manchurian. • Hitler and Mussolini saw the obvious weakness of the League. • Japan signed a treaty with Germany in 1936, and in 1937 started to invade China. The League did nothing to stop it.
  • 17. JAPAN WALKS OUT OF LON VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hStmrz3N46U
  • 18. CONSEQUENCES All sorts of excuses were offered for the failure of the League: - Japan was so far away; - Japan was a special case; - Japan did have a point when it said that China was itself in the grip of anarchy. The significance of the MANCHURIAN CRISIS was obvious. As many of its critics had predicted, the League was powerless if a strong nation decided to pursue an aggressive policy and invade its neighbours. Japan had committed blatant aggression and got away with it. Back in Europe, both Hitler and Mussolini looked on with interest. Within three years they would both follow Japan’s example.
  • 19. Analyse both following sources Source 4: I was sad to find everyone [at the League] so dejected. The Assembly was a dead thing. The Council was without confidence in itself. Beneš [the Czechoslovak leader], who is not given to hysterics, said [about the people at the League] ‘They are too frightened. I tell them we are not going to have war now; we have five years before us, perhaps six. We must make the most of them.’ The British elder statesman Sir Austen Chamberlain visited the League of Nations late in 1932 in the middle of the Manchurian crisis. This is an adapted extract from his letters.
  • 20. Analyse both following sources Source 5: The Doormat cartoon, by David Low, published in a British newspaper in 1933.
  • 21. Source Analysis Source 5 is a comment on this Manchurian crisis. On your own copy of this cartoon add annotations to explain: a) the key features b) the message c) what the cartoonist thinks of the League. Read Source 4. Does Beneš share the same view of the League as the cartoonist in Source 5?
  • 22. Writing Paragraphs (2+ per question) 1. Why did it take so long for the League to decide over Manchuria? 2. Did the League fail in this incident because of the way it worked or because of the attitude of its members?