The impact factor, often abbreviated IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citationsto recent articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as an indicator for the relative importance of a journal within its field, with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports.
Courting researchers by hiring experts to attend research presentations (what is hot) and commission papers at these meetings and conferences. Quicker turn-around times (fast track high impact papers), niches in the market, topics which interest general public as well as readership, publishing fewer articles are other things that can be done to increase IF. Most felt Open Access did not affect IF.
measure of scientific influence of scholarly journals that accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals where such citations come from. The SJR indicator is a variant of the eigenvector centrality measure used in network theory. Such measures establish the importance of a node in a network based on the principle that connections to high-scoring nodes contribute more to the score of the node. The SJR indicator, which is inspired by the PageRank algorithm, has been developed to be used in extremely large and heterogeneous journal citation networks. It is a size-independent indicator and its values order journals by their "average prestige per article" and can be used for journal comparisons in science evaluation processes.
Publishing your Work in a Rapidly Changing Scholarly Communications Environment
Publishing your Work in a Rapidly Changing ScholarlyCommunications Environment Courtney Mlinar March 2012
Current Publishing Model DebatesResearch Works Act- defeated February 2012• required making published, federally funded research freely available illegal (Elsevier was major playerFederal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) 2012• any research supported by federal $ to be deposited in a publicly accessible online repository within 6 months of publication• expands public access to federally funded research (like NIH funded) to 11 new agencies (opposed by Association of American Publishers- calls it “intellectual eminent domain”*) http://www.taxpayeraccess.org/issues/frpaa/index.shtml *Grant B. (2012) Publishers fight open access bill. Available http://www.taxpayeraccess.org/issues/frpaa/index.shtml . Accessed March 4, 2012.
Agencies affected by FRPAA• Department of Agriculture• Department of Commerce• Department of Defense• Department of Education• Department of Energy• Department of Health and Human Services• Department of Homeland Security• Department of Transportation• Environmental Protection Agency• National Aeronautics and Space Administration• National Science Foundation
Similar to NIH Public Access Policy:Public Access Policy:• public has access to federally funded NIH research• Researchers submit final peer-reviewed manuscripts to PubMed Central upon acceptance for publication within 12 month period (submission site is online) http://publicaccess.nih.gov/
PubMed Central http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.novacat.nova.edu/pmc/ PubMed Health http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.novacat.nova.edu/pubmedhealth/• Reviews of Clinical Effectiveness Research• Links out to Wiley Cochrane Library (HPD Library has EBSCO Cochrane Library- go to PubMed to linkout)• Systematic Reviews of Clinical Trial Research (2003)• PubMed searches PubMed Health
Tools:PubMed:• My NCBI for PIs> My Saved Data > Manage > Public > Add a Delegate to share bibliography• My BibliographyElectronic Research Administration (eRA)• New awards register account• Link account to My NCBIhttp://era.nih.gov/
Author issues:• Copyright• Publishing model• Promotion and Tenure requirements• Grant publishing requirements
CopyrightAsher A . Bucknell Scholarly Communications Practices Survey: Summary Results. Accessed from http://goo.gl/EQUe4 March. 18, 2012.
Journal Citation Reports• Journal Impact on Scholarship in your specialty• Devised by Eugene Garfield, ISI (1955)• ISI Web of Knowledge (Thomson Reuters)• Average number of citations per article• For last 2 years
JCR MeasuresAbout 10,000 Influential Journals (not articles orresearchers)• Science Index• Social Science IndexSearch by subject or specific journal
Citation MappingTracks citations• Forward (those who cite you)• Backward (your list of References)
New in 2010 edition• Impact Factor controlled for Self-citations• 1,075 titles receiving Impact Factor for the first time: – 1,300 regional titles• Total of over 10,000 journals representing: – 2,500 publishers – 84 countries
Impact Factor• A = number of times articles published in 2008 and 2009 were cited by JCR indexed journals during 2010.• B = total number of "citable items" published by that journal in 2008 and 2009.• 2010 impact factor = A/B"Citable items" =articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; noteditorials or Letters-to-the-Editor
Impact factor= 5.395Divide the number of citations in 2008 to articlespublished past 2 years (2006-2007) = 1133 by totalnumber of articles published previous 2 years(2006-2007) = 210
Number of citations in 2008 to articles published in previous five years (2003-2007) divided by the total number of articles published in the previous two years (2003-2007)
More…• New journals assigned impact factor after 2 years• Journals indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume- no impact factor for 3 years• Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count
Eigenfactor (2008)Eigenfactor Score calculation: www.eigenfactor.org• Highly cited journals = greater influence in the community ---> weighted citations• Journal self-citation removed The Eigenfactor™ Algorithm-2008, was developed by the Metrics Eigenfactor™ Project: a bibliometric research project conducted by Professor Carl Bergstrom and his laboratory at University of Washington.
Article ScoreMeasures an article’s influence in scientificcommunity• Greater than 1= Above average• Less than 1= Below average
Hirsch- or h-indexMeasures impact of an individual scientist• Can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country• Depends on “academic age” of researcher• Only used for comparing scientists in the same field Suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist at UCSD, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number.Hirsch JE. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 (46): 16569-16572 November 15 2005.
JCR faults?• Western bias?• Missing high-impact conferences or meetings?• Popularity vs. Prestige?
Editors and Impact Factor• Recruiting high-profile researchers• Improved author services• Boosting media profiles• Fewer articles per issue• Increases in article self-citations
Example:Web of Knowledge and Web of Sciencehttp://www.nova.edu/hpdlibrary/Pharmacology Journals
New Players:• BMJ Updates: newsworthy articles• Biomed Central Faculty of 1000 (2002)• Faculty of Medicine (2006)• PLoS App -Public Library of Science: Biology, Genetics…
Scopus• Originates from Elsevier(Elsevier)- 2004• No citation analysis before 1990s• Tiny bit more coverage of high-impact conferences• Coverage begins 1966• Western bias still present
SCImago Journal Rank• Similar to Page Rank• Variant of Eigenfactor• Measures of prestige: the SJR indicator
SCImago• Developed from Scopus (Elsevier)• SCImago research group from Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), University of Granada, Extremadura, Carlos III (Madrid) and Alcalá de Henares http://www.scimagojr.com/index.php
Open Access• Gold OA- electronic, selected full text on publisher web site• Green OA- print converted to electronic for archival purposes• Public model OA- public institutions and gov, J-Stage (Japan gov funded research), SciELO (Brazil), Nursing.com, FindArticles…
How to Evaluate?Similar to web site evaluation:CRAAP (University of California Chico State)Meriam Library, U. o. C., Chico. (2010). Evaluating Information - Applying the CRAAP Test, from http://www.csuchico.edu/lins/handouts/eval_websites.pdf
Web Site: CRAAP test• C = Currency• R = Relevance• A = Authority• A = Accuracy• P = PurposeMeriam Library, U. o. C., Chico. (2010). Evaluating Information - Applying the CRAAP Test. Accessed February 21, 2012 from http://www.csuchico.edu/lins/handouts/eval_websites.pdf
Example 1:CRAAP Test:American Journal of TherapeuticsLippincott, Williams & Wilkins
Red Flags in OA• Less than 21 day turn-around Peer-Review process• Web site doesn’t pass CRAAP test• No information about Editorial Board• Unreasonable author or processing fees• Not indexed in many databases (check Ulrichs)