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Citation analysis:
From publication
to impact

               Anne-Wil Harzing
            University of Melbourne
              www.harzing.com
Citation analysis:
        why care?
   Why publish if nobody cites your work?
       Okay, your work might still be read by students, managers, or academics
        who do not publish
            But: academic research should also contribute to academic discourse
       Government research assessments/academic promotions increasingly
        focus on impact
   Why would you want to know if your work is cited?
       To prepare for confirmation/promotion/yearly performance appraisal
       To know who is building on your work
            They might be future collaborators
            It is exciting to see how others are using your research, you might get new
             ideas through it
       To get an ego boost, someone has (presumably) read your work 
Where to find citation data?
        Google Scholar as a
        complement to ISI

   Thomson Reuter’s ISI Web of Science
    has long been the “gold standard”
    of impact measurement
   Recently, alternatives have become available
       Scopus (general), Citeseer (computer
        science), RePEc (Economics)
       Google Scholar is the only alternative that is:
            Not focused on a single discipline only
            Freely available to anyone with an Internet connection
            Suitable for citation analysis (but only with Publish or
             Perish as an interface)
GS to complement ISI
         Why? (1)
   Google Scholar gives a more comprehensive citation count
   WoS General Search is limited to ISI-listed journals
        Citations to books, book chapters, dissertations, theses, working papers,
         reports, conference papers, and journal articles published in non-ISI
         journals are not included
        Of the journals included in my JQL (generally only high-quality journals), ISI
         coverage runs from 30%-43% for Finance & Accounting, Management &
         Marketing to 73%-80% for Economics, MIS, Mgt Science/OR/Ops
        Of the research output submitted for government evaluation in Australia
         generally only 24% (Economics) or 11% (Management) was published in
         ISI listed journals

   WoS Cited Reference Search
        Does include citations to non-ISI publications. However, it only includes
         citations from journals that are ISI-listed.
        Counts citations to non-ISI journals only towards the first author
             Co-authorship is increasingly common and hence ISI misses many citations
GS to complement ISI
         Why? (2)
   In contrast to GS, ISI seem to have difficulty in
    dealing with non-Anglo name variants
        80% of citations to “Baden-Fuller” have been entered as “Badenfuller”
        80-90% of citations to “van Raan” have been entered as “Vanraan”
        Both receive only about 100-150 citations to their correct name in spite of the
         fact that usually their names were in fact correctly referenced (they were
         apparently incorrectly entered by ISI staff)

   WoS has very limited coverage of non-English sources
        e.g. one French Accounting academic has 30 cites in ISI, but >1000 in GS as
         most of citations are in French journals
        Non-English coverage is particularly important for disciplines with a strong local
         content such as accounting and industrial relations

   WoS has poor aggregation of minor variations of the same title
        “Stray” citations are very common, even fewer initials lead to separate records
        Require formal data change request to ISI to be merged with master record
Citations in different data
sources: what’s the difference?


3500
3000
2500                                         3253
2000
1500
1000                        1275
 500         577
   0
       ISI General      ISI Cited     Google Scholar
         Search         Reference

                Citations Anne-Wil Harzing
GS for individuals
        What measures to use?
   H-index is increasingly seen as a convenient summary of
    quantity & impact and is used in many research
    assessments
       H-index of 10 means 10 papers with at least 10 citations each
       Can be adjusted for co-authorships (Hi index, cites/authors) and
        for age (Hc index, citations in recent years count more)
   Total # citations is probably the fairest way to assess
    impact for individuals, a focus on citations per paper
    might discourage people to publish additional papers
       It can be adjusted by years (Cites/year) age of papers (AWCR;
        age-weighted citation rate) and # of authors (AWCRpA)
GS for individuals
        How to track citations?

   Publish or Perish
       Designed to make GS a more useful alternative to ISI
       Designed to empower individual academics by providing citation
        analysis with a wide range of metrics at a click of the mouse
       As with ISI: don’t take its results as absolute and think before
        passing a “verdict”; we are dealing with human beings!
       Download the program here:
            http://www.harzing.com/pop.htm
       Can also be used to assess journals, do literature
        research, decide where to submit your paper, do bibliometric
        research etc.
       Screenshot on the next slide shows its most common use: author
        analysis
Publish or Perish Software
More information?
Chapter 1: Introduction to citation analysis
Chapter 2: Introduction to Publish or Perish
Chapter 3: Author searches
Chapter 4: Journal searches
Chapter 5: General citation search queries
Chapter 6: Multi-query centre
Chapter 7: Making your case for tenure or promotion
Chapter 8: How to evaluate other academics?
Chapter 9: Tips for deans and other academic administrators
Chapter 10: Where to submit your paper?
Chapter 11: Conducting a literature review
Chapter 12: Doing bibliometric research on authors & journals
Chapter 13: Evaluating Google Scholar
Chapter 14: Evaluating Thomson ISI Web of Science
Chapter 15: A Google Scholar h-index for journals
Chapter 16: Author citation analysis across disciplines

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Citation Analysis: From Publication to Impact - Anne-Wil Harzing

  • 1. Citation analysis: From publication to impact Anne-Wil Harzing University of Melbourne www.harzing.com
  • 2. Citation analysis: why care?  Why publish if nobody cites your work?  Okay, your work might still be read by students, managers, or academics who do not publish  But: academic research should also contribute to academic discourse  Government research assessments/academic promotions increasingly focus on impact  Why would you want to know if your work is cited?  To prepare for confirmation/promotion/yearly performance appraisal  To know who is building on your work  They might be future collaborators  It is exciting to see how others are using your research, you might get new ideas through it  To get an ego boost, someone has (presumably) read your work 
  • 3. Where to find citation data? Google Scholar as a complement to ISI  Thomson Reuter’s ISI Web of Science has long been the “gold standard” of impact measurement  Recently, alternatives have become available  Scopus (general), Citeseer (computer science), RePEc (Economics)  Google Scholar is the only alternative that is:  Not focused on a single discipline only  Freely available to anyone with an Internet connection  Suitable for citation analysis (but only with Publish or Perish as an interface)
  • 4. GS to complement ISI Why? (1)  Google Scholar gives a more comprehensive citation count  WoS General Search is limited to ISI-listed journals  Citations to books, book chapters, dissertations, theses, working papers, reports, conference papers, and journal articles published in non-ISI journals are not included  Of the journals included in my JQL (generally only high-quality journals), ISI coverage runs from 30%-43% for Finance & Accounting, Management & Marketing to 73%-80% for Economics, MIS, Mgt Science/OR/Ops  Of the research output submitted for government evaluation in Australia generally only 24% (Economics) or 11% (Management) was published in ISI listed journals  WoS Cited Reference Search  Does include citations to non-ISI publications. However, it only includes citations from journals that are ISI-listed.  Counts citations to non-ISI journals only towards the first author  Co-authorship is increasingly common and hence ISI misses many citations
  • 5. GS to complement ISI Why? (2)  In contrast to GS, ISI seem to have difficulty in dealing with non-Anglo name variants  80% of citations to “Baden-Fuller” have been entered as “Badenfuller”  80-90% of citations to “van Raan” have been entered as “Vanraan”  Both receive only about 100-150 citations to their correct name in spite of the fact that usually their names were in fact correctly referenced (they were apparently incorrectly entered by ISI staff)  WoS has very limited coverage of non-English sources  e.g. one French Accounting academic has 30 cites in ISI, but >1000 in GS as most of citations are in French journals  Non-English coverage is particularly important for disciplines with a strong local content such as accounting and industrial relations  WoS has poor aggregation of minor variations of the same title  “Stray” citations are very common, even fewer initials lead to separate records  Require formal data change request to ISI to be merged with master record
  • 6. Citations in different data sources: what’s the difference? 3500 3000 2500 3253 2000 1500 1000 1275 500 577 0 ISI General ISI Cited Google Scholar Search Reference Citations Anne-Wil Harzing
  • 7. GS for individuals What measures to use?  H-index is increasingly seen as a convenient summary of quantity & impact and is used in many research assessments  H-index of 10 means 10 papers with at least 10 citations each  Can be adjusted for co-authorships (Hi index, cites/authors) and for age (Hc index, citations in recent years count more)  Total # citations is probably the fairest way to assess impact for individuals, a focus on citations per paper might discourage people to publish additional papers  It can be adjusted by years (Cites/year) age of papers (AWCR; age-weighted citation rate) and # of authors (AWCRpA)
  • 8. GS for individuals How to track citations?  Publish or Perish  Designed to make GS a more useful alternative to ISI  Designed to empower individual academics by providing citation analysis with a wide range of metrics at a click of the mouse  As with ISI: don’t take its results as absolute and think before passing a “verdict”; we are dealing with human beings!  Download the program here:  http://www.harzing.com/pop.htm  Can also be used to assess journals, do literature research, decide where to submit your paper, do bibliometric research etc.  Screenshot on the next slide shows its most common use: author analysis
  • 9. Publish or Perish Software
  • 10. More information? Chapter 1: Introduction to citation analysis Chapter 2: Introduction to Publish or Perish Chapter 3: Author searches Chapter 4: Journal searches Chapter 5: General citation search queries Chapter 6: Multi-query centre Chapter 7: Making your case for tenure or promotion Chapter 8: How to evaluate other academics? Chapter 9: Tips for deans and other academic administrators Chapter 10: Where to submit your paper? Chapter 11: Conducting a literature review Chapter 12: Doing bibliometric research on authors & journals Chapter 13: Evaluating Google Scholar Chapter 14: Evaluating Thomson ISI Web of Science Chapter 15: A Google Scholar h-index for journals Chapter 16: Author citation analysis across disciplines