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Publishing your research 
Bibliometrics, Journal Impact 
Factors and maximising the cite-ability 
of journal articles 
Jam...
Session outline 
- Intro: what can you measure? 
- Citations 
- Monitoring and assessing 
- Author metrics 
- Networking o...
Quick Survey (1)… 
• How many have already published any 
research papers in journals or conference 
proceedings? 
• How m...
Intro 
What can 
you 
measure?
What can you measure with 
bibliometrics? 
• Article/Book Impact: One measure of the impact of individual journal articles...
Are bibliometrics 
effective & reliable 
measures of 
academic impact?
Quick Survey (2) 
• Web of Science 
• JCR 
• SciVerse Scopus 
• PoP software 
• Sherpa ROMEO 
• Sherpa JULIET 
• Sherpa FA...
Part 1 
Introduction: 
Citations & 
Citation 
Indices
Citations 
• Links between papers that have something in 
common 
• Building on or challenging research 
• Help make a jud...
Citation indices 
1955 Eugene Garfield 
- the idea of creating a citation index for 
science to…
Citation indices 
“eliminate the uncritical citation of 
fraudulent, incomplete or obsolete data 
by making it possible fo...
Citation indices 
1955 
Eugene Garfield - the idea of measuring the “impact” of journal 
articles using citations 
1960s 
...
Citation indices 
(2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, 
issue 9. p. 5 
Science subjects 
Social-science subjects
Citation indices 
“reference lists are held under 
copyright by academic publishers 
which makes tracking citations 
impos...
Web of Science 
• Provided by Thomson Reuters. 
• Includes the Sciences, Social Sciences, Arts & 
Humanities & Books Citat...
SciVerse Scopus 
• Launched in 2004 by Elsevier 
• Main commercial competition to Web of Science 
• Main emphasis on scien...
Google Scholar 
• Beta version launched late 2004 . 
• Pulls data from a much broader range of 
documents (eg books, repor...
Things you can do 
• Count citations to an article 
• Link to other related articles 
• Citation mapping 
• Set up citatio...
Demo 
Web of Science / 
Google Scholar
Hands-on 
Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackc...
Part 2 
Author 
metrics
Citation metrics 
• h-index (Hirsch, 2005) 
– An author’s number of articles (h ) that have received at 
least h citations...
H-index
Author: Smith, J 
Has written and published 9 articles (a-i), which 
have been cited as follows: 
a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13...
h-index – what’s in a 
number? 
• Nobel Prize Winner 2013, Peter W 
Higgs 
- H-index (Google Scholar) = 
- H-index (Web of...
G-index
Author: Smith, J 
Has written and published 9 articles (a-i), which 
have been cited as follows: 
a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13...
g-index – what’s in a 
number? 
• Nobel Prize Winner 2013, Peter W 
Higgs 
- g-index (Web of Science) = 
- g-index (Google...
Demo 
Web of Science
Hands-on 
Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackc...
Google Scholar 
• Track citations to your publications 
– Check who is citing your publications. Graph your 
citations ove...
Demo 
Google Scholar 
- My citations
Issues 
• Author identification 
• eg Professor Gordon Love 
A name is not unique... 
- Prof. Gordon Love, University of C...
Issues 
• Author identification 
• eg Professor Gordon Love 
...so you need an alternative identifier (or 3) 
- ORCID prof...
Demo 
Researcher ID 
ORCID
Hands-on 
Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackc...
Publish or Perish Software 
• Anne-Wil Harzing (2006), current version 
4.6.4 (6th June 2014) 
• Aimed at individual resea...
Part 3 
Journal 
metrics
Journal Citation Reports 
• JCRs – annual publication of journals and 
their impact factors. 
• Over 10,800 titles, across...
Journal Impact Factor 
Citations in 2013 (in journals 
indexed in Web of Science) to all 
articles published by Journal X ...
Journal Ranking 
(2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 2
Journal Ranking 
(2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 3
Demo 
JCRs 
Journal Impact Factors
Other journal impact metrics 
• Eigenfactor - http://www.eigenfactor.org/ 
– Web of Science data 
• SCImagoJR - http://www...
Hands-on 
Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackc...
Issues 
• Author identification 
• Register on ResearcherID - eg Dr Dan Smith 
or ORCID 
• Citation cultures vary across d...
Part 4 
Maximising 
Cite-ability
Optimising your cite-ability 
• Title & Abstract 
(1) Discoverability; (2) Readability; (3) Length 
• Reference list 
• Jo...
Title & Abstract 
(1) Discoverability…
Title & Abstract 
• Construct a clear, descriptive title 
- describe what the research is about 
- think about what potent...
Australia’s Forgotten 
Victims 
“Ever since the British colonists in Australia became aware of the 
disappearance of the i...
Genocide and Holocaust 
Consciousness in Australia 
“Ever since the British colonists in Australia became aware of the dis...
Title & Abstract 
(2) Readability
Abstract Readability 
• Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) 
- Looked at 16,058 Biology/Biochemistry articles, 16,378 Chem...
Title & Abstract 
(3) Length
Abstract Length 
• Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) 
“abstract length significantly associates with 
increased citation...
Reference list 
“The impact [factor] and the number of cited 
references are … significant determinants of 
increased cita...
Journal and means of 
publication 
(1) JIF
Journal of publication 
“… the JIF is the main determinant of article citation 
impact …” 
Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2...
Impact?
Journal and means of 
publication 
(2) Open Access
Open Access 
• Boost’s potential access and visibility of 
research 
• Removes the research from behind paywall 
barriers…...
Open Access 
• 4633 articles across ecology, applied 
mathematics, sociology and economics. 
• 2280 were open access, and ...
Open Access 
By October 2012, the OA 
version had seen nearly 3 
times more downloads than 
the version sitting behind a 
...
Demo 
Sherpa Romeo 
Sherpa FACT
Optimising your cite-ability 
• Think carefully about your abstract and 
title. 
- keyword usage 
- clear, descriptive and...
Other suggested tips… 
• Dr Michael Taylor, Dept. Earth Sciences (Bristol) 
- Discusses strengths and weaknesses of his 
a...
Part 5 
Altmetrics 
(in brief)
Altmetrics (in brief) 
“Unlike the JIF, altmetrics reflect the 
impact of the article itself, not its venue. 
Unlike citat...
Altmetrics (in brief)
Altmetrics (in brief)
Altmetrics (in brief) 
• But you must still approach altmetrics as you 
do any metric... 
... with a critical head. 
• Any...
Altmetrics (in brief)
Altmetrics (in brief)
Further Reading 
Pendlebury, D.A. (2009) The use and misuse of journal metrics and other citation indicators. Archivumimmu...
Image Credits 
[Slide 10] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by Kirsty Andrews. Original 
available at http://www.flickr.com/pho...
Bibliometrics, Journal Impact Factors and Maximising the Cite-ability of Journal Articles (web version)
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Bibliometrics, Journal Impact Factors and Maximising the Cite-ability of Journal Articles (web version)

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Most recent version of slides from Durham "Bibliometrics, Journal Impact Factors and Maximising the Cite-ability of Journal Articles" session.. Delivered as part of the Durham University Researcher Development Programme.

[Last Devlivered November 2014]

Further Training available at https://www.dur.ac.uk/library/research/training/

Published in: Education, Technology
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Bibliometrics, Journal Impact Factors and Maximising the Cite-ability of Journal Articles (web version)

  1. 1. Publishing your research Bibliometrics, Journal Impact Factors and maximising the cite-ability of journal articles James Bisset james.bisset@durham.ac.uk Academic Liaison Librarian (Research Support)
  2. 2. Session outline - Intro: what can you measure? - Citations - Monitoring and assessing - Author metrics - Networking opportunities & performance measurement ? - Journal metrics - Impact factors and where to publish - Maximising cite-ability - How can you maximise the cite-ability of your research? - Altmetrics overview - Beyond academic impact
  3. 3. Quick Survey (1)… • How many have already published any research papers in journals or conference proceedings? • How many of you are expected to during course of your studies? • How many of you have already been advised where to publish, or where not to publish, based on what is the “ best ” journal?
  4. 4. Intro What can you measure?
  5. 5. What can you measure with bibliometrics? • Article/Book Impact: One measure of the impact of individual journal articles, conference proceedings or books, can be measured by the number of times they are cited by other works. • Journal impact: The perceived impact of a specific academic journal can be assessed by the number of times their articles are cited and where they are cited. • Researcher impact: The number of outputs and citations a researcher generates can be an indicator for the impact of an individual researcher. • Institutional impact: The prestige of a department or area of research within an institution compared to those at other institutions can be measured by the sum of individual researchers ‘impact’.
  6. 6. Are bibliometrics effective & reliable measures of academic impact?
  7. 7. Quick Survey (2) • Web of Science • JCR • SciVerse Scopus • PoP software • Sherpa ROMEO • Sherpa JULIET • Sherpa FACT • JIF • Eigenfactor • SCImagoJR • SNIP • h – index / g-index • altmetrics
  8. 8. Part 1 Introduction: Citations & Citation Indices
  9. 9. Citations • Links between papers that have something in common • Building on or challenging research • Help make a judgement about impact an article has made • Sum of citations can be an indication of the impact of an author’s work / a journal as a collection of articles
  10. 10. Citation indices 1955 Eugene Garfield - the idea of creating a citation index for science to…
  11. 11. Citation indices “eliminate the uncritical citation of fraudulent, incomplete or obsolete data by making it possible for the conscientious scholar to be aware of criticisms of earlier papers.” Garfield, E (1955) ‘Citation Indexes for Science’ Science, New Series, Vol. 122, No. 3159, pp. 108-111
  12. 12. Citation indices 1955 Eugene Garfield - the idea of measuring the “impact” of journal articles using citations 1960s Science Citation Index developed to highlight “formal, explicit linkages between papers that have particular points in common” 1975 Journal Citation Reports – uses Web of Science data to rank journals within disciplines
  13. 13. Citation indices (2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 5 Science subjects Social-science subjects
  14. 14. Citation indices “reference lists are held under copyright by academic publishers which makes tracking citations impossible” The death of the reference and the re-use factor (2013) http://figshare.com/blog/The_Death_Of_The_Reference_and_the _reuse_factor/103
  15. 15. Web of Science • Provided by Thomson Reuters. • Includes the Sciences, Social Sciences, Arts & Humanities & Books Citation Indexes. • Indexes about 11,800 journals, plus conference proceedings. • Approximately 5,000 journals covering arts, humanities and social sciences.
  16. 16. SciVerse Scopus • Launched in 2004 by Elsevier • Main commercial competition to Web of Science • Main emphasis on science initially, but now broader in scope. • Currently indexes c.19,000 ‘active’ journals plus conference proceedings • Many titles covered in both WoS and Scopus
  17. 17. Google Scholar • Beta version launched late 2004 . • Pulls data from a much broader range of documents (eg books, reports, academic blogs, wider range of journal publishers). • Useful for subjects not covered by Web of Science. • Some concern over quality and accuracy of citation data, and how regularly it is updated.
  18. 18. Things you can do • Count citations to an article • Link to other related articles • Citation mapping • Set up citation alerts • Search for cited references • See citation reports for authors and journals
  19. 19. Demo Web of Science / Google Scholar
  20. 20. Hands-on Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackcanvas/2945878325/
  21. 21. Part 2 Author metrics
  22. 22. Citation metrics • h-index (Hirsch, 2005) – An author’s number of articles (h ) that have received at least h citations – a researcher with an h-index of 10 has published 10 articles that have each been cited at least 10 times • g-index (Egghe, 2006) – The highest number (g) of papers that together received g2 or more citations – a researcher with a g-index of 10 has published 10 papers that together have been cited at least 100 times
  23. 23. H-index
  24. 24. Author: Smith, J Has written and published 9 articles (a-i), which have been cited as follows: a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3 “no. of articles (n) that have received at least n citations”
  25. 25. h-index – what’s in a number? • Nobel Prize Winner 2013, Peter W Higgs - H-index (Google Scholar) = - H-index (Web of Science) =
  26. 26. G-index
  27. 27. Author: Smith, J Has written and published 9 articles (a-i), which have been cited as follows: a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3 “The highest number (g) of papers that together received g2 or more citations”
  28. 28. g-index – what’s in a number? • Nobel Prize Winner 2013, Peter W Higgs - g-index (Web of Science) = - g-index (Google Scholar) =
  29. 29. Demo Web of Science
  30. 30. Hands-on Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackcanvas/2945878325/
  31. 31. Google Scholar • Track citations to your publications – Check who is citing your publications. Graph your citations over time. Compute citation metrics. • View publications by colleagues – Keep up with their work. See their citation metrics. • Appear in Google Scholar search results – Create a public profile that can appear in Google Scholar when someone searches for your name.
  32. 32. Demo Google Scholar - My citations
  33. 33. Issues • Author identification • eg Professor Gordon Love A name is not unique... - Prof. Gordon Love, University of California Riverside (Earth Science) - Dr Gordon L Love, Sacramento (Medicine and Health) - Prof. Gordon Love, Durham University (Physics)
  34. 34. Issues • Author identification • eg Professor Gordon Love ...so you need an alternative identifier (or 3) - ORCID profile (0000-0001-5137-9434) - Researcher ID profile (A-3071-2011) - Google Scholar profile (3xJXtlwAAAAJ)
  35. 35. Demo Researcher ID ORCID
  36. 36. Hands-on Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackcanvas/2945878325/
  37. 37. Publish or Perish Software • Anne-Wil Harzing (2006), current version 4.6.4 (6th June 2014) • Aimed at individual researchers • Analyse own performance using a range of metrics • FREE TO DOWNLOAD (Windows, Apple OS X, GNU/Linux) and FREE TRAINING MATERIAL • http://www.harzing.com/pop_win.htm
  38. 38. Part 3 Journal metrics
  39. 39. Journal Citation Reports • JCRs – annual publication of journals and their impact factors. • Over 10,800 titles, across 232 disciplines have JIFs in 2013 editions • A journal that is cited once, on average, for each article published has an JIF of 1. • 2014 edition… is JCR year 2013, covering Web of Science data from 2012...
  40. 40. Journal Impact Factor Citations in 2013 (in journals indexed in Web of Science) to all articles published by Journal X in 2011 & 2012 Number of articles (deemed to be citable by Web of Science) that were published in Journal X in 2011 & 2012 Journal X’s 2013 impact factor =
  41. 41. Journal Ranking (2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 2
  42. 42. Journal Ranking (2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 3
  43. 43. Demo JCRs Journal Impact Factors
  44. 44. Other journal impact metrics • Eigenfactor - http://www.eigenfactor.org/ – Web of Science data • SCImagoJR - http://www.scimagojr.com/ – Scopus data – Includes country ranking
  45. 45. Hands-on Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackcanvas/2945878325/
  46. 46. Issues • Author identification • Register on ResearcherID - eg Dr Dan Smith or ORCID • Citation cultures vary across disciplines • Publication cultures vary too • Research careers have different stages • Citation counts do not always = excellence • Scholarly communication evolving
  47. 47. Part 4 Maximising Cite-ability
  48. 48. Optimising your cite-ability • Title & Abstract (1) Discoverability; (2) Readability; (3) Length • Reference list • Journal/means of publication (1) Impact Factors; (2) Open Access
  49. 49. Title & Abstract (1) Discoverability…
  50. 50. Title & Abstract • Construct a clear, descriptive title - describe what the research is about - think about what potential users might be searching for. • Re-iterate key phrases in the abstract - improve ranking in search engines - aid human decision-making • Easier to find = more likely to be read = may translate to more likely to be cited (but still dependent upon quality / interest of research) Wiley-Blackwell guidelines http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/seo.asp
  51. 51. Australia’s Forgotten Victims “Ever since the British colonists in Australia became aware of the disappearance of the indigenous peoples in the 1830s, they have contrived to excuse themselves by pointing to the effects of disease and displacement. Many colonists called for the extermination of Aborigines when they impeded settlement by offering resistance, yet there was no widespread public acknowledgement of this as a policy until the later 1960s, when a critical school of historians began serious investigations of frontier violence. Their efforts received official endorsement in the 1990s, but profound cultural barriers prevent the development of a general awareness of this. Conservative and right-wing figures continue to play down the gravity of what transpired. These two aspects of Australian public memory are central to the political humanisation of the country.”
  52. 52. Genocide and Holocaust Consciousness in Australia “Ever since the British colonists in Australia became aware of the disappearance of the indigenous peoples in the 1830s, they have contrived to excuse themselves by pointing to the effects of disease and displacement. Yet although genocide was not a term used in the nineteenth century, extermination was, and many colonists called for the extermination of Aborigines when they impeded settlement by offering resistance. Consciousness of genocide was suppressed during the twentieth century until the later 1960s, when a critical school of historians began serious investigations of frontier violence. Their efforts received official endorsement in the 1990s, but profound cultural barriers prevent the development of a general genocide consciousness. One of these is Holocaust consciousness, which is used by conservative and right-wing figures to play down the gravity of what transpired in Australia. These two aspects of Australian public memory are central to the political humanisation of the country. ”
  53. 53. Title & Abstract (2) Readability
  54. 54. Abstract Readability • Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) - Looked at 16,058 Biology/Biochemistry articles, 16,378 Chemistry articles and 15,392 Social Sciences articles all covered by Web of Science. • Readability not a significant determinant of citations in either Chemistry or Social Sciences, and statistically but not practically associated with citation counts in Biology/Biochemistry. Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) “Which factors help authors produce the highest impact research? Collaboration, journal and document properties” Journal of Informetrics 7: 861-873. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2013.08.006
  55. 55. Title & Abstract (3) Length
  56. 56. Abstract Length • Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) “abstract length significantly associates with increased citation impact in all fields” “the number of keywords and the title length statistically associate with decreased citations” Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) “Which factors help authors produce the highest impact research? Collaboration, journal and document properties” Journal of Informetrics 7: 861-873. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2013.08.006
  57. 57. Reference list “The impact [factor] and the number of cited references are … significant determinants of increased citation impact” Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) “Which factors help authors produce the highest impact research? Collaboration, journal and document properties” Journal of Informetrics 7: 861-873. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2013.08.006 Consistent with studies in fields including psychology, medicine, chemistry, physics, engineering.
  58. 58. Journal and means of publication (1) JIF
  59. 59. Journal of publication “… the JIF is the main determinant of article citation impact …” Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) “Which factors help authors produce the highest impact research? Collaboration, journal and document properties” Journal of Informetrics 7: 861-873. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2013.08.006 • Still a perception of the quality of a journal based on the JIF, meaning wide readership and cross-citation.
  60. 60. Impact?
  61. 61. Journal and means of publication (2) Open Access
  62. 62. Open Access • Boost’s potential access and visibility of research • Removes the research from behind paywall barriers… • Meaning you can more easily share via social media, email etc.
  63. 63. Open Access • 4633 articles across ecology, applied mathematics, sociology and economics. • 2280 were open access, and had an average citation count of 9.04 • 2353 were subscriptions journals, and had an average citation count of 5.76. Norris, M. (2008) “The citation advantage of open access articles” Thesis. Available at https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/4089
  64. 64. Open Access By October 2012, the OA version had seen nearly 3 times more downloads than the version sitting behind a subscription paywall. Terras, M. (2011) “What happens when you tweet an Open Access Paper” Melissa Terras’ Blog. Available at http://melissaterras.blogspot.co.uk/2011/11/what-happens- when-you-tweet-open-access.html
  65. 65. Demo Sherpa Romeo Sherpa FACT
  66. 66. Optimising your cite-ability • Think carefully about your abstract and title. - keyword usage - clear, descriptive and complete • Reference lists - number of, and where are they from? • Where are you publishing, and how.
  67. 67. Other suggested tips… • Dr Michael Taylor, Dept. Earth Sciences (Bristol) - Discusses strengths and weaknesses of his already published article titles. - http://tinyurl.com/k6dhcac - http://tinyurl.com/k7o9msc - avoid vague words / weak puns - NEGATIVE “ it’s 12 characters too long to tweet” - POSITIVE “ the title strongly implies the conclusion” - POSITIVE “ Short, appealing and (hopefully) funny.”
  68. 68. Part 5 Altmetrics (in brief)
  69. 69. Altmetrics (in brief) “Unlike the JIF, altmetrics reflect the impact of the article itself, not its venue. Unlike citation metrics, altmetrics will track impact outside the academy, impact of influential but uncited work, and impact from sources that aren’t peer-reviewed.“ http://altmetrics.org/manifesto/
  70. 70. Altmetrics (in brief)
  71. 71. Altmetrics (in brief)
  72. 72. Altmetrics (in brief) • But you must still approach altmetrics as you do any metric... ... with a critical head. • Any result touching on religion AND medicine/health is likely to be picked up and shared far more than a high quality piece of research on optical binding forces and two dimensional structures...
  73. 73. Altmetrics (in brief)
  74. 74. Altmetrics (in brief)
  75. 75. Further Reading Pendlebury, D.A. (2009) The use and misuse of journal metrics and other citation indicators. Archivumimmunologiae et therapiae experimentalis. 57(1): 1-11 (includes “ten commandments of citation analysis”) Smeyers, P & Burbules, N.C. (2011) How to improve your impact factor: questioning the quantification of academic quality. Journal of Philosophy of Education. 45(1): 1-17 Van Noorden, R. (2010) A profusion of measures. Nature. 465: 864-866 (has a handy “field guide to metrics”) Van Noorden, R., Maher, B and Nuzzo, R (Oct 2014) Nature. “The top 100 papers” http://www.nature.com/news/the-top-100- papers-1.16224 www.journalmetrics.com(2010) The evolution of journal assessment. (compares SCIMagoJR, AI, SNIP and JIF metrics in table at the en (2007) Show me the data. Journal of Cell Biology. 179 (6): 1091 Available at http://jcb.rupress.org/content/179/6/1091.full Why you should ignore altmetrics and other bibliometric nightmares (Jan 16 2014); http://www.dcscience.net/?p=6369
  76. 76. Image Credits [Slide 10] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by Kirsty Andrews. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/47745961@N08/5169765739 [Slides 29, 48 and 62] Via Flickr Creative Commons, © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackcanvas/2945878325/ [Slide 30] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by geishaboy500. Original at http://www.flickr.com/photos/49503154413@N01/2326873674 [Slides 54] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by emdot. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/35237093637@N01/56156364 [Slide 69] Created using http://photofunia.com

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