ChemistryChapter 3 - Section 3                Acidic and              Basic Solutions                         
What are somecommon acids?vinegar                   oranges               lemonshydrochloric            sulfuric    acid  ...
Properties of Acids๏Tastes Sour๏Conducts Electricity  ๏The hydronium ions in an acidic solution can   carry the electric c...
Properties of Acids๏React with metals ๏ The solutions of some acids also react   strongly with certain metals. ๏ The acid-...
Uses of Acids
Uses of Acids       Acetic Acid
Uses of Acids       Citric Acid
Uses of Acids        Ascorbic          Acid
Uses of Acids Sulfuric Acid
Uses of AcidsAcids often are used in batteries because their         solutions conduct electricity
Uses of Acids  Hydrochloric acid, which is knowncommercially as muriatic acid, is usedin a process called pickling. Pickli...
Acidsin theEnvironment            Carbonic               acid           plays a key role in           the formation of    ...
Acidsin theEnvironment            Carbonic acid is             formed when           carbon dioxide in           soil is d...
Acidsin theEnvironment           When this acidic            solution comes            in contact with                  ca...
Acids ?
Substances that RELEASE positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water.
When an acid mixes withwater, the acid dissolves,releasing a hydrogen ion.
The hydrogen ion thencombines with a water  molecule to form a hydronium ion, H30+.
Hydronium Ion ?
positively charged ion with    the formula H3O+
Bas      es
Properties of Bases๏Basic solutions feel slippery.๏Bases also taste bitter.๏Like acids, bases are corrosive. Basic solutio...
Where do we find      Bases?soaps, ammonia, cleaning products
Where do we find       Bases?   The hydroxide ions produced by bases can interactstrongly with certain substances, such as...
Where do we find    Bases?       chalk
Where do we find    Bases?       blood
Bases?
substances that canACCEPT hydrogen ions.
Do you remember thedefinition of an acid?
Substances thatRELEASE positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water.
Substances that release positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water. Acids                     BasesSubstances that can...
When a base dissolves in water,some hydrogen atoms from thewater molecules are attracted to           the base.
A hydrogen atom in the watermolecule leaves behind the  other hydrogen atom and        oxygen atom.
What is left of the H2O is the OH-, which    an ion called a hydroxide ion.                        OH      -
Most bases contain ahydroxide ion, which isreleased when the base   dissolves in water.
For example, sodium hydroxide is a base with theformula NaOH. When NaOH dissolves in water,  a sodium ion and the hydroxid...
pH
pH??
a measure of how acidic or basic a    solution is
pH๏The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.๏Acidic solutions have pH values below 7.๏A solution with a pH of 0 is very acidic.๏A ...
pH
A change of 1 pH unit represents a tenfold     change in the acidity of the solution.
For example, if one solution has a pH of 1  and a second solution has a pH of 2, the first solution is not twice as acidic ...
To determine the difference in pH strength,       use the following calculation:                    10n,                  ...
Strength of Acids and Bases๏The difference between food acids and the acids that can burn you is that they have different ...
Strength of Acids and Bases
Hydrochloric acid separates into ionsmore readily than acetic acid does     when it dissolves in water.The more easily a H...
Therefore, hydrochloric acid exists in wateras separated ions. Acetic acid exists in water almost entirely as molecules.
More hydronium ions means a stronger-acid solution. It would have a lower pH      than the weak-acid solution.
The strength of a base is related to how easily the base accepts H+, or how easily a hydroxide ion is made,  when the base...
Indica         tors
Indicators??
are compounds that reactwith acidic and basic solutionsand produce certain colours, depending on the solution’s           ...
Because they are different colors at different pHs, indicators can help you  determine the pH of a         solution.
When litmus paper is placedin an acidic solution, it turnsred. When placed in a basic solution, litmus paper turns        ...
Neutra      lizatio                n
Neutralization??
the reaction of an acid with a base. It is called thisbecause the properties of both the acid and base          are dimini...
In most cases, theneutralization reactionproduces a water and a          salt.
How doesneutralization occur?? ๏Recall that every water molecule  contains two hydrogen atoms and one  oxygen atom. ๏When ...
How doesneutralization occur??
How doesneutralization occur?? ๏Equal numbers of hydronium ions from  the acidic solution and hydroxide ions  from the bas...
Funny Colours 1   2         3           4   5   6         phenolphthalein
Funny Colours                    1         2            3          4    5          6                   Phenolphthalein is ...
Funny Colours        1   2   3   4   5   6NaOH                        NaOH
Funny Colours                    1         2        3          4    5          6                            NaOH          ...
Funny Colours 1   2   3   4   5     6                 HCl
Funny Colours                    1         2        3          4    5          6                             HCl          ...
Funny Colours    What made the pink colour in #2 and 4?What made the colour disappear in test tube #5?What could we use to...
3.3 Acids and Bases
3.3 Acids and Bases
3.3 Acids and Bases
3.3 Acids and Bases
3.3 Acids and Bases
3.3 Acids and Bases
3.3 Acids and Bases
3.3 Acids and Bases
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3.3 Acids and Bases

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  • 3.3 Acids and Bases

    1. 1. ChemistryChapter 3 - Section 3 Acidic and Basic Solutions 
    2. 2. What are somecommon acids?vinegar oranges lemonshydrochloric sulfuric acid acid
    3. 3. Properties of Acids๏Tastes Sour๏Conducts Electricity ๏The hydronium ions in an acidic solution can carry the electric charges in a current๏Corrosive ๏They can break down certain substances. Many acids can corrode fabric, skin, and paper.
    4. 4. Properties of Acids๏React with metals ๏ The solutions of some acids also react strongly with certain metals. ๏ The acid-metal reaction forms metallic compounds and hydrogen gas, leaving holes in the metal in the process.
    5. 5. Uses of Acids
    6. 6. Uses of Acids Acetic Acid
    7. 7. Uses of Acids Citric Acid
    8. 8. Uses of Acids Ascorbic Acid
    9. 9. Uses of Acids Sulfuric Acid
    10. 10. Uses of AcidsAcids often are used in batteries because their solutions conduct electricity
    11. 11. Uses of Acids Hydrochloric acid, which is knowncommercially as muriatic acid, is usedin a process called pickling. Pickling is a process that removes impurities from the surfaces of metals.
    12. 12. Acidsin theEnvironment Carbonic acid plays a key role in the formation of caves and of stalactites and stalagmites.
    13. 13. Acidsin theEnvironment Carbonic acid is formed when carbon dioxide in soil is dissolved in water.
    14. 14. Acidsin theEnvironment When this acidic solution comes in contact with calcium carbonate—or limestone rock —it can dissolve it, eventually carving out a cave in the rock.
    15. 15. Acids ?
    16. 16. Substances that RELEASE positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water.
    17. 17. When an acid mixes withwater, the acid dissolves,releasing a hydrogen ion.
    18. 18. The hydrogen ion thencombines with a water molecule to form a hydronium ion, H30+.
    19. 19. Hydronium Ion ?
    20. 20. positively charged ion with the formula H3O+
    21. 21. Bas es
    22. 22. Properties of Bases๏Basic solutions feel slippery.๏Bases also taste bitter.๏Like acids, bases are corrosive. Basic solutions contain ions and can conduct electricity.๏Basic solutions are not as reactive with metals as acidic solutions are.
    23. 23. Where do we find Bases?soaps, ammonia, cleaning products
    24. 24. Where do we find Bases? The hydroxide ions produced by bases can interactstrongly with certain substances, such as dirt and grease.
    25. 25. Where do we find Bases? chalk
    26. 26. Where do we find Bases? blood
    27. 27. Bases?
    28. 28. substances that canACCEPT hydrogen ions.
    29. 29. Do you remember thedefinition of an acid?
    30. 30. Substances thatRELEASE positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water.
    31. 31. Substances that release positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water. Acids BasesSubstances that can accept hydrogen ions.
    32. 32. When a base dissolves in water,some hydrogen atoms from thewater molecules are attracted to the base.
    33. 33. A hydrogen atom in the watermolecule leaves behind the other hydrogen atom and oxygen atom.
    34. 34. What is left of the H2O is the OH-, which an ion called a hydroxide ion. OH -
    35. 35. Most bases contain ahydroxide ion, which isreleased when the base dissolves in water.
    36. 36. For example, sodium hydroxide is a base with theformula NaOH. When NaOH dissolves in water, a sodium ion and the hydroxide ion separate.
    37. 37. pH
    38. 38. pH??
    39. 39. a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
    40. 40. pH๏The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.๏Acidic solutions have pH values below 7.๏A solution with a pH of 0 is very acidic.๏A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral.๏Basic solutions have pH values above 7.
    41. 41. pH
    42. 42. A change of 1 pH unit represents a tenfold change in the acidity of the solution.
    43. 43. For example, if one solution has a pH of 1 and a second solution has a pH of 2, the first solution is not twice as acidic as the second—it is ten times more acidic.
    44. 44. To determine the difference in pH strength, use the following calculation: 10n, where n = the difference between pHs. For example: pH3 - pH1 = 2 102 = 100 times more acidic.
    45. 45. Strength of Acids and Bases๏The difference between food acids and the acids that can burn you is that they have different strengths.
    46. 46. Strength of Acids and Bases
    47. 47. Hydrochloric acid separates into ionsmore readily than acetic acid does when it dissolves in water.The more easily a H+ ion is released, the stronger the acid is.
    48. 48. Therefore, hydrochloric acid exists in wateras separated ions. Acetic acid exists in water almost entirely as molecules.
    49. 49. More hydronium ions means a stronger-acid solution. It would have a lower pH than the weak-acid solution.
    50. 50. The strength of a base is related to how easily the base accepts H+, or how easily a hydroxide ion is made, when the base dissolves in water.
    51. 51. Indica tors
    52. 52. Indicators??
    53. 53. are compounds that reactwith acidic and basic solutionsand produce certain colours, depending on the solution’s pH.
    54. 54. Because they are different colors at different pHs, indicators can help you determine the pH of a solution.
    55. 55. When litmus paper is placedin an acidic solution, it turnsred. When placed in a basic solution, litmus paper turns blue.
    56. 56. Neutra lizatio n
    57. 57. Neutralization??
    58. 58. the reaction of an acid with a base. It is called thisbecause the properties of both the acid and base are diminished, or neutralized.
    59. 59. In most cases, theneutralization reactionproduces a water and a salt.
    60. 60. How doesneutralization occur?? ๏Recall that every water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. ๏When one hydronium ion reacts with one hydroxide ion, the product is two water molecules. This reaction occurs during acid-base neutralization.
    61. 61. How doesneutralization occur??
    62. 62. How doesneutralization occur?? ๏Equal numbers of hydronium ions from the acidic solution and hydroxide ions from the basic solution react to produce water. ๏Pure water has a pH of 7, which means that it’s neutral.
    63. 63. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6 phenolphthalein
    64. 64. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6 Phenolphthalein is an indicatorpH 0−8.2 8.2−12.0 >12.0Conditions acidic or near-neutral basic strongly basicColor colorless pink to fuchsia colorless phenolphthalein
    65. 65. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6NaOH NaOH
    66. 66. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6 NaOH A basic solution which will be colourless in the presence of phenolphthalein.pH 0−8.2 8.2−12.0 >12.0Conditions acidic or near-neutral basic strongly basicColor colorless pink to fuchsia colorlessNaOH NaOH
    67. 67. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6 HCl
    68. 68. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6 HCl An acidic solution which will be colourless in the presence of phenolphthalein.pH 0−8.2 8.2−12.0 >12.0Conditions acidic or near-neutral basic strongly basicColor colorless pink to fuchsia colorless HCl
    69. 69. Funny Colours What made the pink colour in #2 and 4?What made the colour disappear in test tube #5?What could we use to take away the pink colour in test tube #6?
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