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3.3 Acids and Bases


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3.3 Acids and Bases

  1. 1. ChemistryChapter 3 - Section 3 Acidic and Basic Solutions 
  2. 2. What are somecommon acids?vinegar oranges lemonshydrochloric sulfuric acid acid
  3. 3. Properties of Acids๏Tastes Sour๏Conducts Electricity ๏The hydronium ions in an acidic solution can carry the electric charges in a current๏Corrosive ๏They can break down certain substances. Many acids can corrode fabric, skin, and paper.
  4. 4. Properties of Acids๏React with metals ๏ The solutions of some acids also react strongly with certain metals. ๏ The acid-metal reaction forms metallic compounds and hydrogen gas, leaving holes in the metal in the process.
  5. 5. Uses of Acids
  6. 6. Uses of Acids Acetic Acid
  7. 7. Uses of Acids Citric Acid
  8. 8. Uses of Acids Ascorbic Acid
  9. 9. Uses of Acids Sulfuric Acid
  10. 10. Uses of AcidsAcids often are used in batteries because their solutions conduct electricity
  11. 11. Uses of Acids Hydrochloric acid, which is knowncommercially as muriatic acid, is usedin a process called pickling. Pickling is a process that removes impurities from the surfaces of metals.
  12. 12. Acidsin theEnvironment Carbonic acid plays a key role in the formation of caves and of stalactites and stalagmites.
  13. 13. Acidsin theEnvironment Carbonic acid is formed when carbon dioxide in soil is dissolved in water.
  14. 14. Acidsin theEnvironment When this acidic solution comes in contact with calcium carbonate—or limestone rock —it can dissolve it, eventually carving out a cave in the rock.
  15. 15. Acids ?
  16. 16. Substances that RELEASE positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water.
  17. 17. When an acid mixes withwater, the acid dissolves,releasing a hydrogen ion.
  18. 18. The hydrogen ion thencombines with a water molecule to form a hydronium ion, H30+.
  19. 19. Hydronium Ion ?
  20. 20. positively charged ion with the formula H3O+
  21. 21. Bas es
  22. 22. Properties of Bases๏Basic solutions feel slippery.๏Bases also taste bitter.๏Like acids, bases are corrosive. Basic solutions contain ions and can conduct electricity.๏Basic solutions are not as reactive with metals as acidic solutions are.
  23. 23. Where do we find Bases?soaps, ammonia, cleaning products
  24. 24. Where do we find Bases? The hydroxide ions produced by bases can interactstrongly with certain substances, such as dirt and grease.
  25. 25. Where do we find Bases? chalk
  26. 26. Where do we find Bases? blood
  27. 27. Bases?
  28. 28. substances that canACCEPT hydrogen ions.
  29. 29. Do you remember thedefinition of an acid?
  30. 30. Substances thatRELEASE positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water.
  31. 31. Substances that release positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water. Acids BasesSubstances that can accept hydrogen ions.
  32. 32. When a base dissolves in water,some hydrogen atoms from thewater molecules are attracted to the base.
  33. 33. A hydrogen atom in the watermolecule leaves behind the other hydrogen atom and oxygen atom.
  34. 34. What is left of the H2O is the OH-, which an ion called a hydroxide ion. OH -
  35. 35. Most bases contain ahydroxide ion, which isreleased when the base dissolves in water.
  36. 36. For example, sodium hydroxide is a base with theformula NaOH. When NaOH dissolves in water, a sodium ion and the hydroxide ion separate.
  37. 37. pH
  38. 38. pH??
  39. 39. a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
  40. 40. pH๏The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.๏Acidic solutions have pH values below 7.๏A solution with a pH of 0 is very acidic.๏A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral.๏Basic solutions have pH values above 7.
  41. 41. pH
  42. 42. A change of 1 pH unit represents a tenfold change in the acidity of the solution.
  43. 43. For example, if one solution has a pH of 1 and a second solution has a pH of 2, the first solution is not twice as acidic as the second—it is ten times more acidic.
  44. 44. To determine the difference in pH strength, use the following calculation: 10n, where n = the difference between pHs. For example: pH3 - pH1 = 2 102 = 100 times more acidic.
  45. 45. Strength of Acids and Bases๏The difference between food acids and the acids that can burn you is that they have different strengths.
  46. 46. Strength of Acids and Bases
  47. 47. Hydrochloric acid separates into ionsmore readily than acetic acid does when it dissolves in water.The more easily a H+ ion is released, the stronger the acid is.
  48. 48. Therefore, hydrochloric acid exists in wateras separated ions. Acetic acid exists in water almost entirely as molecules.
  49. 49. More hydronium ions means a stronger-acid solution. It would have a lower pH than the weak-acid solution.
  50. 50. The strength of a base is related to how easily the base accepts H+, or how easily a hydroxide ion is made, when the base dissolves in water.
  51. 51. Indica tors
  52. 52. Indicators??
  53. 53. are compounds that reactwith acidic and basic solutionsand produce certain colours, depending on the solution’s pH.
  54. 54. Because they are different colors at different pHs, indicators can help you determine the pH of a solution.
  55. 55. When litmus paper is placedin an acidic solution, it turnsred. When placed in a basic solution, litmus paper turns blue.
  56. 56. Neutra lizatio n
  57. 57. Neutralization??
  58. 58. the reaction of an acid with a base. It is called thisbecause the properties of both the acid and base are diminished, or neutralized.
  59. 59. In most cases, theneutralization reactionproduces a water and a salt.
  60. 60. How doesneutralization occur?? ๏Recall that every water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. ๏When one hydronium ion reacts with one hydroxide ion, the product is two water molecules. This reaction occurs during acid-base neutralization.
  61. 61. How doesneutralization occur??
  62. 62. How doesneutralization occur?? ๏Equal numbers of hydronium ions from the acidic solution and hydroxide ions from the basic solution react to produce water. ๏Pure water has a pH of 7, which means that it’s neutral.
  63. 63. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6 phenolphthalein
  64. 64. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6 Phenolphthalein is an indicatorpH 0−8.2 8.2−12.0 >12.0Conditions acidic or near-neutral basic strongly basicColor colorless pink to fuchsia colorless phenolphthalein
  65. 65. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6NaOH NaOH
  66. 66. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6 NaOH A basic solution which will be colourless in the presence of phenolphthalein.pH 0−8.2 8.2−12.0 >12.0Conditions acidic or near-neutral basic strongly basicColor colorless pink to fuchsia colorlessNaOH NaOH
  67. 67. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6 HCl
  68. 68. Funny Colours 1 2 3 4 5 6 HCl An acidic solution which will be colourless in the presence of phenolphthalein.pH 0−8.2 8.2−12.0 >12.0Conditions acidic or near-neutral basic strongly basicColor colorless pink to fuchsia colorless HCl
  69. 69. Funny Colours What made the pink colour in #2 and 4?What made the colour disappear in test tube #5?What could we use to take away the pink colour in test tube #6?