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“ THE HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION ”
DIVINE MERCY COLLEGE
FOUNDATION INC.
Caloocan City
Professional Education
Pres...
WHAT IS HISTORICAL???
WHAT IS FOUNDATION???
THE BEGINNING OF EDUCATION
IN DIFFERENT NATIONS
5000 BC - 7000 BC (Before Writing)
• Pre-literate Societies
• Educational Goals:
- To teach survival skills, Teach
group h...
CHINA
3000 BC – 1900 AD
• EDUCATIONAL GOALS:
- Prepare the Elites to govern the empire according to
Confucian principles
•...
INDIA
3000 BC UP TO PRESENT
• EDUCATIONAL GOALS:
- To learn Behavior and Rituals based on “Vedas”
• STUDENTS: Males of upp...
EGYPT
3000 BC - 300 BC
• EDUCATIONAL GOALS:
- To prepare priests according to scribe for the empire
• STUDENTS: Males of u...
GREEK
1600 BC - 300 BC
• EDUCATIONAL GOALS: To cultivate civic responsibility
• STUDENTS: Male children ages 7 - 20
• INST...
ROMAN
750 BC - 450 AD
• EDUCATIONAL GOALS:
- Cultivate religious commitment to Islamic beliefs; expertise in
mathematics, ...
ARABIC
700 AD - 1350 AD
• EDUCATIONAL GOALS:
- To prepare priests according to scribe for the empire
• STUDENTS: Males of ...
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
500 AD – 1400 AD
• EDUCATIONAL GOALS:
- Develop religious commitment, knowledge and ritual, establish
soci...
RENAISSANCE
1350AD – 1500 AD
• EDUCATIONAL GOALS:
- Cultivate humanist expert in Greek and Latin
classics; prepare people ...
REFORMATION
1500AD – 1600 AD
• EDUCATIONAL GOALS:
- Cultivate commitment to a particular religious denomination and genera...
IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL THEORIST
CONFUCIUS
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Developed ethical system
based on hierarchy ; human
relations and roles,
emphasized order and st...
SOCRATES
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Philosophical
idealism, political
conservatism
• VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE:
- That Humans define
thems...
PLATO
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Philosophical idealist,
social conservative,
added intuition
• VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE:
- That Humans c...
ARISTOTLE
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Realist, views society
based on realism and
observation
• VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE:
- That Humans ha...
MARCUS FABIUS QUINTILIANUS
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Rhetorician, oratory for
personal gain and public
service. Plays role in child
...
THOMAS AQUINAS
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Christian Theology
and Aristotelian
Philosophy.
• VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE:
- That Humans have
...
ERASMUS
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Christian orientation,
educator as a social and
intellectual critic
• VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE:
- That...
MARTIN LUTHER
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Reformed theology by
stressing faith and individual
conscience
• VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE:
- Tha...
EASTERN PHILOSOPHERS
AL-FARABI
(870-950 )
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Based for human nature
is knowledge. Human mind can
distinguish right from wrong
thro...
IBN SIÑA HAYATI
(980 – 1037)
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Moral virtues are as important as
knowledge itself
• EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
-...
AL-BIRUNI
(973- 1051)
• PHILOSOPHY:
- In order to love each other,
humans should learn and respect each
others language, r...
MENCIUS
(385-302 BC)
• PHILOSOPHY:
- education must awaken the innate
abilities of the human mind.
- He criticize memoriza...
XUNZI
(312-230 BC)
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Man’s inborn tendencies
need to be curbed
(restricted/limit) through
education and ritu...
MOZI (MO-TZU)
(470-391 BC)
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Mozi's moral teachings
emphasized self-reflection and
authenticity rather than ...
HAN FEI
(470-391 BC)
• PHILOSOPHY:
- Believes in “The doctrine
of Legalism” (Sanction and
Reward) policy.
• VIEW OF HUMAN ...
YANG ZHU
(370 - 319 BC)
• PHILOSOPHY:
- A Naturalist Philosopher. naturalism as the
best means of preserving life in a cor...
THEORIST OF THIS ERA
PESTALOZZI
• JOHANN HEINRICH PESTALOZZI
• (January 12, 1746 – February
17, 1827)
• A Swiss philosopher and
educational ref...
HERBART
• JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART
• (May 4, 1776 – August 14,
1841)
• A German philosopher, psycho
logist, and founder
of...
FROBEL
• FRIEDRICH WILLIAM AUGUST FROBEL
• April 21, 1782 – June 21, 1852)
• German pedagogue, a student
of Pestalozzi who...
TOLSTOY
• LEO TOLSTOY
• August 20, 1828 – November, 1910
• Russian writer who primarily
wrote novels and short stories.
• ...
DEWEY
• JOHN DEWEY
• October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952
• American philosopher, psychologist,
and educational reformer.
• Dew...
MONTESSORI
• MARIA MONTESSORI
• (August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952)
• Italian physician and educator, a
noted humanitarian and...
LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION
• Teacher Education – update one’s learning
• Education in post graduate education
• Mult...
REFERENCES:
• Dr. Selin Nielsen
• www.google.images
• Wikipedia.com
HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION - THEORIST AND PHILOSOPHERS
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  • Historical – Root word History means the past it is the chronological narration of the origin of certain person, place, thing or Foundation – basis – will serve as a source
  • AGENT – MEANS OR WAYS
  • VEDAS –The Vedas (Sanskrit वेदाः véda, "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.[1][2] The Vedas are apauruṣeya ("not of human agency").[3][4][5] They are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called śruti ("what is heard"),[6][7] distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti ("what is remembered").BRAHMIN – Brahmins were engaged in attaining the highest spiritual knowledgeTRANSMISSION – SPREADASSIMILATION – ADAPTATIONDETACHMENT - INVOLVEMENT
  • SCRIBE – Writings Of Egypt
  • SCRIBE – Writings Of Egypt
  • LUDUS
  • SCRIBE – Writings Of Egypt
  • SCRIBE – Writings Of Egypt
  • Renaissance – era of rebirth and regeneration
  • Reformation – era of improvement and reorganization VERNACULAR – LANGUAGE HUMANIST – MORE ON ACADEMICS AND MORAL BELIEFS
  • THEORY – MORE ON ASSUMPTION, SPECULATION AND HYPOTHESIS
  • Confucius (551–479 BC)[1] was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.Confucius's principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor worship, respect of elders by their children (and in traditional interpretations) of husbands by their wives. He also recommended family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself", an early version of the Golden Rule.Chinese classic texts, or Chinese canonical texts, (Chinese: 中國古典典籍; pinyin: Zhongguogudiandiǎnjí) today often refer to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin Dynasty i
  • was a classical Greek Athenianphilosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.[Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions are asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand.
  • INTUITION – INSTINCT, PERCEPTION, SUSPICIONwas a philosopher in Classical Greece. He was also amathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy andscience.[4] In the words of A. N. Whitehead:
  •  was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics,politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing ethics,aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics.Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrongconduct.[1] The term comes from the Greek word ethos, which means "character". Ethics is a complement to Aesthetics in the philosophy field of Axiology. In philosophy, ethics studies the moral behavior in humans and how one should act.Aesthetics (also spelled æsthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.[1][2] It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste.[3] More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature."[4][5]Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world,[1] although the term is not easily defined.[2] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:[3]What is there?What is it like?
  • ORATORY – PUBLIC SPEAKING , SPEECH MAKINGMarcus FabiusQuintilianus (c. 35 – c. 100) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and inRenaissance writing. AKA. QUNTILIANRhetoric is the art of discourse, an art that aims to improve the capability of writers or speakers that attempt to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.[1] As a subject of formal study and a productive civic practice, rhetoric has played a central role in the Western tradition.
  • FOLLOWER OF ARISTOTLEwas an Italian[2][3] Dominican priest, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the "Doctor Angelicus", "Doctor Communis", and "Doctor Universalis".[4] "Aquinas" is the demonym of Aquino, his home town.He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology, and the father of Thomism. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived in development or refutation of his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory.
  • PROFOUND – DEEP MATINDI
  • Theology – religion was a German monk, Catholic priest, professor of theologyand seminal figure of a reform movement in 16th century Christianity, subsequently known as the Protestant Reformation.[1] He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money.
  • philosophy - the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics
  • Al-Farabi (Arabic: ابونصر محمد بن محمد فارابی‎ / AbūNaṣrMuḥammadibnMuḥammadFārābī;[1] for other recorded variants of his name see below) known in the West as Alpharabius[5] (c. 872[2] in Fārāb[3] – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951 in Damascus),[3] was a renowned scientist andphilosopher of the Islamic Golden Age. He was also a cosmologist, logician, and musician.Through his commentaries and treatises, Al-Farabi became well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals as "The Second Teacher", that is, the successor to Aristotle, "The First Teacher".TEACHING - Reveal scientific knowledge and artEDUCATION – Create theoretical virtues in society , education must be easy to hard, simple to complex, near to farWISDOM – KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING, INNATE – INBORN / INHERENT
  • commonly known as IbnSīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian[3][4][5][6] polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 of his surviving treatises concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine.[7][8]His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine,[9] which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities.
  • LOGIC – REASON, JUDGMENT, COMMON SENSEAbū al-Rayhān Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Bīrūnī[n 1] (born 5 September 973 in Kath, Khwarezm, part of Persia at that time, died 13 December 1048 in Ghazni) known as Alberonius in Latin and Al-Biruni in English,[3] was a Persian[4]-Chorasmian[5][6] Muslim scholar and polymath of the 11th century.Al-Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist.He also made contributions to Earth sciences, and is regarded as the "father of geodesy" for his important contributions to that field, along with his significant contributions to geography.
  • While Confucius himself did not explicitly focus on the subject of human nature, Mencius asserted the innate goodness of the individual, believing that it was society's influence – its lack of a positive cultivating influence – that caused bad moral character. "He who exerts his mind to the utmost knows his nature"[10]and "the way of learning is none other than finding the lost mind.
  • Xunzi (Chinese: 荀子; pinyin: Xúnzǐ; Wade–Giles: Hsün Tzu, ca. 312–230 BC) was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who lived during the Warring States Period and contributed to one of the Hundred Schools of Thought. Xunzi was one of the most sophisticated thinkers of his time, and was the teacher of Li Si and Han FeiZi.RECTIFY – TO CORRECT
  • he founded the school of Mohism, and argued strongly against Confucianism and Daoism
  • Han Fei's interpretation of Legalism stressed that the autocrat will be able to achieve the ultimate ends of Legalist philosophy of firmly control the state with the mastering of three concepts: his position of power (勢, Shì); certain techniques (術, Shù), and laws (法, Fǎ) as described in his classic work, the Han Feizi (book).- The law must severely punish any unwanted action, while at the same time reward those who follow it.
  • He is believed to be an egoist
  • ROMANTICISM – MEANS IDEALIST , OPTIMIST
  • Pedagogy (/ˈpɛdəɡɒdʒi/ or /ˈpɛdəɡoʊdʒi/)[1] is the science and art of education. Its aims range from the full development of the human being to skills acquisition.
  • PARADOXICAL – IMPOSSIBLE AND CONTRADICTORY
  • PRAGMATISM – PRACTICALITY , SIMPLICITY AND COMMON SENSE
  •  
  • Transcript of "HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION - THEORIST AND PHILOSOPHERS"

    1. 1. “ THE HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION ” DIVINE MERCY COLLEGE FOUNDATION INC. Caloocan City Professional Education Presented by: MARIANNE T. EVANGELISTA, MSHRM
    2. 2. WHAT IS HISTORICAL??? WHAT IS FOUNDATION???
    3. 3. THE BEGINNING OF EDUCATION IN DIFFERENT NATIONS
    4. 4. 5000 BC - 7000 BC (Before Writing) • Pre-literate Societies • Educational Goals: - To teach survival skills, Teach group harmony • Students: Their Children • Instructional Methods: - Informal, Children imitates adult • Curriculum: - Practice Hunting, Fishing , Songs, Poems and Dances • Agents: - Parents, Tribal elders, Religious leaders • Influence in Education: - Informal, Transmission of skills
    5. 5. CHINA 3000 BC – 1900 AD • EDUCATIONAL GOALS: - Prepare the Elites to govern the empire according to Confucian principles • STUDENTS: Males of upper class • INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS: Memorization and Recitation • CURRICULUM: Confucian Classics • AGENTS: Government Officials • INFLUENCE ON EDUCATION: Written Examination for Civil Service
    6. 6. INDIA 3000 BC UP TO PRESENT • EDUCATIONAL GOALS: - To learn Behavior and Rituals based on “Vedas” • STUDENTS: Males of upper class • INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS: Memorizing and Interpreting sacred texts • CURRICULUM: Vedas and Religious texts • AGENTS: Brahmin Priests Scholars • INFLUENCE ON EDUCATION: Cultural transmission and assimilation as well as spiritual detachment
    7. 7. EGYPT 3000 BC - 300 BC • EDUCATIONAL GOALS: - To prepare priests according to scribe for the empire • STUDENTS: Males of upper class • INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS: Memorizing and Copying texts • CURRICULUM: Religious or Technical texts • AGENTS: Priests and Scribes • INFLUENCE ON EDUCATION: Restriction on Educational controls to priest elites
    8. 8. GREEK 1600 BC - 300 BC • EDUCATIONAL GOALS: To cultivate civic responsibility • STUDENTS: Male children ages 7 - 20 • INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS: Memorization and recitation in primary schools, lecture, discussions, dialog in higher schools. • CURRICULUM: ATHENS: Reading writing arithmetic, drama, poetry, music SPARTA: Drill, Military Songs and Tactics • AGENTS: ATHENS: Private Teachers and Philosophers SPARTA: Military Teachers • INFLUENCE ON EDUCATION: ATHENS: Well rounded, liberally educated SPARTA: Concept of Military State
    9. 9. ROMAN 750 BC - 450 AD • EDUCATIONAL GOALS: - Cultivate religious commitment to Islamic beliefs; expertise in mathematics, medicine and science. • STUDENTS: Male children of upper class ages 7-20 • INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS: Memorizing and recitation in primary schools, imitation and discussion in higher schools • CURRICULUM: Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Literature, Scientific Studies • AGENTS: Mosques, Court schools • INFLUENCE ON EDUCATION: Arabic numerals and computation, medicine and science materials
    10. 10. ARABIC 700 AD - 1350 AD • EDUCATIONAL GOALS: - To prepare priests according to scribe for the empire • STUDENTS: Males of upper class • INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS: Memorizing and Copying texts • CURRICULUM: Religious or Technical texts • AGENTS: Priests and Scribes • INFLUENCE ON EDUCATION: Restriction on Educational controls to priest elites
    11. 11. MEDIEVAL PERIOD 500 AD – 1400 AD • EDUCATIONAL GOALS: - Develop religious commitment, knowledge and ritual, establish social order, prepare for appropriate roles • STUDENTS: Male children of upper class, girls and women entering religious community ages 7-20 • INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS: - Memorizing and Recitation in lower schools, text analysis and discussion in higher schools and universities. • CURRICULUM: - Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, philosophy, theology, military and chivalry. • AGENTS: Parish, cathedral schools, universities, knighthood. • INFLUENCE ON EDUCATION: - Structure and organization of the university, institutionalization of knowledge
    12. 12. RENAISSANCE 1350AD – 1500 AD • EDUCATIONAL GOALS: - Cultivate humanist expert in Greek and Latin classics; prepare people to serve dynastic leaders • STUDENTS: Male children of aristocracy and upper class, fr. 7-20 • INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS: - Memorization, Translation and Analysis of Greek and Roman classics, classical literature, poetry and art • CURRICULUM: - Latin and Greek classical literature, poetry and art. • AGENTS: Classical humanist educators and Latin schools • INFLUENCE ON EDUCATION: - Emphasis on literary knowledge, excellence and style in classical literature, two track system of schools
    13. 13. REFORMATION 1500AD – 1600 AD • EDUCATIONAL GOALS: - Cultivate commitment to a particular religious denomination and general literacy. • STUDENTS: - Boys and girls ages 7-12 in vernacular schools, young men of upper class in humanist school. • INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS: - Memorization, Drill, Indoctrination, translation and analysis of classical literature. • CURRICULUM: - Reading, writing, catechism, religious concepts and rituals, Latin and Greek Theology. • AGENTS: - School for general public and classical schools for upper class • INFLUENCE ON EDUCATION: - Commitment to universal education to provide literacy for everyone, origins of school systems, dual track school system based on socio-economic class and career goals.
    14. 14. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL THEORIST
    15. 15. CONFUCIUS • PHILOSOPHY: - Developed ethical system based on hierarchy ; human relations and roles, emphasized order and stability. • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - Human beings need the order of a stable society. People accept duties that come with their station in life.
    16. 16. SOCRATES • PHILOSOPHY: - Philosophical idealism, political conservatism • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - That Humans define themselves by self examination
    17. 17. PLATO • PHILOSOPHY: - Philosophical idealist, social conservative, added intuition • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - That Humans can be classified on intellectual capabilities
    18. 18. ARISTOTLE • PHILOSOPHY: - Realist, views society based on realism and observation • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - That Humans have the power of rationality to guide their conduct
    19. 19. MARCUS FABIUS QUINTILIANUS • PHILOSOPHY: - Rhetorician, oratory for personal gain and public service. Plays role in child Development • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - Only certain people have capacity for leadership based on their oratory skills.
    20. 20. THOMAS AQUINAS • PHILOSOPHY: - Christian Theology and Aristotelian Philosophy. • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - That Humans have soul and Body
    21. 21. ERASMUS • PHILOSOPHY: - Christian orientation, educator as a social and intellectual critic • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - That Humans are capable of great achievements and also profound stupidity
    22. 22. MARTIN LUTHER • PHILOSOPHY: - Reformed theology by stressing faith and individual conscience • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - That Human nature is corrupt, weak self centered and in state of rebellion from god.
    23. 23. EASTERN PHILOSOPHERS
    24. 24. AL-FARABI (870-950 ) • PHILOSOPHY: - Based for human nature is knowledge. Human mind can distinguish right from wrong through wisdom • EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY - Distinguish Teaching from Education • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - The ultimate knowledge is innate
    25. 25. IBN SIÑA HAYATI (980 – 1037) • PHILOSOPHY: - Moral virtues are as important as knowledge itself • EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY - Children should be taught without pressure - Children should be taught from ages 6 – 14 - A good teacher can recognize children’s abilities • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - Children are innocent and clean from the start, should be taught moral values from birth
    26. 26. AL-BIRUNI (973- 1051) • PHILOSOPHY: - In order to love each other, humans should learn and respect each others language, religion, traditions and thinking. • EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY - He was expert in astronomy, physics, botany, pharmacology and geography. - He believes that the scientific work should be cleaned of magic, superstition and anything that opposes logic. • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - Humanist perspective
    27. 27. MENCIUS (385-302 BC) • PHILOSOPHY: - education must awaken the innate abilities of the human mind. - He criticize memorization and advocated active interrogation of the text, saying, "One who believes all of a book would be better off without books" One should check for internal consistency by comparing sections and debate the probability of factual accounts by comparing them with experience. • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - asserted the innate goodness of the individual, believing that it was society's influence – its lack of a positive cultivating influence – that caused bad moral character.
    28. 28. XUNZI (312-230 BC) • PHILOSOPHY: - Man’s inborn tendencies need to be curbed (restricted/limit) through education and ritual. And that ethical norms had been invented to rectify mankind. • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - counter to Mencius's view that man is innately good
    29. 29. MOZI (MO-TZU) (470-391 BC) • PHILOSOPHY: - Mozi's moral teachings emphasized self-reflection and authenticity rather than obedience to ritual. • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - He observed that we often learn about the world through adversity. By reflecting on one's own successes and failures, one attains true self- knowledge rather than mere conformity to ritual.
    30. 30. HAN FEI (470-391 BC) • PHILOSOPHY: - Believes in “The doctrine of Legalism” (Sanction and Reward) policy. • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - Legalism assumed that people were naturally evil and always acted to avoid punishment while simultaneously trying to achieve gains
    31. 31. YANG ZHU (370 - 319 BC) • PHILOSOPHY: - A Naturalist Philosopher. naturalism as the best means of preserving life in a corrupt and unstable world • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE: - The search for happiness, one should not strive for life beyond one’s allotted span, nor should one unnecessarily shorten one’s life. Death is as natural as life, and therefore should be viewed with neither fear nor awe. Funeral ceremonies are of no worth to the deceased. “Dead people are not concerned whether their bodies are buried in coffins, cremated, dumped in water or in a ditch; nor whether the body is dressed in fine clothes. What matters most is that before death strikes one lives life to the fullest”
    32. 32. THEORIST OF THIS ERA
    33. 33. PESTALOZZI • JOHANN HEINRICH PESTALOZZI • (January 12, 1746 – February 17, 1827) • A Swiss philosopher and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach. • FOCUS: - Social Education: Learning through experimentation - Learning is for everyone
    34. 34. HERBART • JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART • (May 4, 1776 – August 14, 1841) • A German philosopher, psycho logist, and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline. • FOCUS: - Educate, manage and discipline - The purpose of education is to serve the individual
    35. 35. FROBEL • FRIEDRICH WILLIAM AUGUST FROBEL • April 21, 1782 – June 21, 1852) • German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities. • FOCUS: - Pre-school Education, emphasized that children should be educated from 3-4 years old - Founded “KINDERGARTEN” - Founded Educational Toys
    36. 36. TOLSTOY • LEO TOLSTOY • August 20, 1828 – November, 1910 • Russian writer who primarily wrote novels and short stories. • FOCUS: - Education for freedom - Suggested master apprentice relation for teacher-student - He was extremely against physical punishment and memorizing
    37. 37. DEWEY • JOHN DEWEY • October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952 • American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer. • Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology. • FOCUS: - Education for employment and life - Teacher must be a guide to the student not a dictator
    38. 38. MONTESSORI • MARIA MONTESSORI • (August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) • Italian physician and educator, a noted humanitarian and devout Roman Catholic • Her educational method is in use today in public and private schools throughout the world. • FOCUS: - Sensory Education - Learning through Self discovery and interest
    39. 39. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION • Teacher Education – update one’s learning • Education in post graduate education • Multiple Intelligences • Capital Punishment banned in schools • High school became 4 years • 12 years Mandatory education • Education starts at 66 months (5.5 yrs. of age)
    40. 40. REFERENCES: • Dr. Selin Nielsen • www.google.images • Wikipedia.com
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