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Historical foundations of education


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Historical foundations of education

  2. 2. 7000 BC – 5000 BCPre-literate societies (before writing)Educational Goals: To teach survival skills, teach group harmonyStudents: ChildrenInstructional Methods: Informal, children imitate adultsCurriculum: Practice hunting, fishing, songs, poems, dances.Agents: Parents, tribal elders, religious leadersInfluence on education: Informal, transmission of skills
  3. 3. CHINA 3000 BC – 1900 ADChinaEducational Goals: Prepare elites to govern the empire according toConfucian principlesStudents: Males of upper classInstructional Methods: Memorization and recitationCurriculum: Confucian classicsAgents: Government officialsInfluence on education: Written examinations for civil service
  4. 4. INDIA 3000 BC TO PRESENTIndiaEducational Goals: To learn behavior and rituals based on VedasStudents: Males of upper castesInstructional Methods: Memorizing and interpreting sacred textsCurriculum: Vedas and religious textsAgents: Brahmin priest scholarsInfluence on education: Cultural transmission and assimilation, spiritualdetachment
  5. 5. EGYPT 3000 BC – 300BCEgyptEducational Goals: To prepare priests according to scribe for the empireStudents: Males of upper classInstructional Methods: Memorization and copying textsCurriculum: Religious or technical textsAgents: Priests and scribesInfluence on education: Restriction on educational controls to priest elites
  6. 6. GREEK 1600 BC – 300 BCGreeceEducational Goals: To cultivate civic responsibilityStudents: Male children ages 7-20Instructional Methods: Memorization and recitation in primaryschools, lecture, discussion and dialog in higher schoolsCurriculum: Athens: reading, writing, arithmetic, drama, poetry, music. Sparta:Drill, military songs and tacticsAgents: Athens: private teachers, philosophers. Sparta: Military teachersInfluence on education: Athens: well rounded, liberally educated person.Sparta: Concept of military state.
  7. 7. ROMAN 750 BC – 450 ADRomanEducational Goals: Develop civic responsibility for the empire, administrativeand military skillsStudents: Male children ages 7-20Instructional Methods: Memorization and recitation in ludus; declamation inrhetorical schoolsCurriculum: reading, writing, arithmetic, law, philosophyAgents: Private schools and teachers, schools of rhetoricInfluence on education: practical administrative skills, relate education to civicresponsibility
  8. 8. ARABIC 700 AD – 1350 ADArabicEducational Goals: Cultivate religious commitment to Islamic beliefs;expertise in mathematics, medicine and scienceStudents: Male children of upper class ages 7-20Instructional Methods: Memorization and recitation in primaryschools, imitation and discussion in higher schoolsCurriculum: Athens: reading, writing, arithmetic, religious literature, scientificstudiesAgents: Mosques, court schoolsInfluence on education: Arabic numerals and computation, medicine andscience materials
  9. 9. MEDIEVAL 500 AD – 1400 ADMedievalEducational Goals: Develop religious commitment, knowledge, and ritual;establish social order, prepare for appropriate rolesStudents: Male children of upper class, girls and women entering religiouscommunity ages 7-20Instructional Methods: Memorization and recitation in lower schools, textanalysis discussion in higher schools and universitiesCurriculum: Athens:reading, writing, arithmetic, philosophy, theology, military and chivalryAgents: Parish, chantry, cathedral schools, universities, knighthoodInfluence on education: structure and organization of theuniversity, institutionalization of knowledge
  10. 10. RENAISSANCE 1350 AD - 1500RenaissanceEducational Goals: Cultivate humanist expert in Greek and Latin classics;prepare people to serve dynastic leadersStudents: Male children of aristocracy and upper class, ages 7-20Instructional Methods: Memorization and translation and analysis of Greekand Roman classics. classical literature, poetry and art.Curriculum: Latin and Greek classical literature, poetry and art.Agents: Classical humanist educators and schools like lycee, gymnasium andLatin schoolInfluence on education: Emphasis on literary knowledge, excellence and stylein classical literature, two track system of schools
  11. 11. REFORMATION 1500 AD – 1600 ADReformationEducational Goals: Cultivate a commitment to a particular religiousdenomination, and general literacyStudents: Boys and girls ages 7-12 in vernacular schools, young men of upperclass in humanist schoolsInstructional Methods: Memorization drill, indoctrination, catechetical instructionin vernacular schools, translation and analysis of classical literature in humanistschoolsCurriculum: Reading, writing, arithmetic, catechism, religious concepts andrituals. Latin and Greek theologyAgents: Vernacular elementary school for general public, classical schools forupper classInfluence on education: Commitment to universal education to provide literacyfor everyone; origins of school systems, dual track school system based on socioeconomic class and career goals
  12. 12. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL THEORISTSCONFUCIUSPhilosophy:Developed ethical system based on hierarchy.: human relations and roles,emphasized order and stabilityView of Human natureHuman beings need the order of a stable society. People accept duties thatcome with their station in lifeSOCRATESPhilosophyPhilosophical idealism, political conservatismView of human nature: Humans define themselves by self-examination
  13. 13. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL THEORISTSPLATOPhilosophyPhilosophical idealist, social conservative, added intuitionView of human nature:Humans can be classified on intellectual capabilitiesARISTOTLEPhilosophyRealist, views society based on realism and observationView of human nature:Humans have the power of rationality to guide their conduct
  14. 14. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL THEORISTSQUINTILIANPhilosophy:Rhetorician, oratory for personal gain and public service. Play’s role in childdevelopmentView of human nature:Only certain people have capacity for leadership based on their oratory skillsAQUINASPhilosophy:Christian theology and Aristotelian philosophyView of human natureHumans have a soul and body
  15. 15. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL THEORISTSERASMUSPhilosophy:Christian orientation, educator as a asocial and intellectual criticView of human natureHumans are capable of great achievements and also profound stupidityLUTHERPhilosophy:Reformed theology by stressing faith and individual conscienceView of human natureHumans are capable of great achievements and also profound stupidity
  16. 16. ANCIENT TURKS“Alp” concept was widespread.Alp Human being:Defined as warrior, wise, extroverted, nomad, gaining knowledge fromancestors and old wise people.Oldest Turkish written texts go back to a period before IslamIn ancient Turks (before Islam) there is no gender difference in educatingyoungstersWhen Western Education is being influenced by Christianity, the Easterneducation was being influenced by Islam.The “God” and theology concepts encapsulated educationIn this period, an “absolute truth” concept gained importance and taught topeople in a dogmatic way
  17. 17. ANCIENT TURKS• Turks accepted Islam in 10. Century• Medreses opened in Semerkant, Buhara, Taskent, Kasgar• Education was organized and structured in these schoolsSubjects:Religion and social studies were taughtAgents:Farabi, Ibn-I Sina, Biruni were some examples that were raised in theseinstitutionsThey synthesized philosophies from Turk-Islam traditions, Ancient Greek andRome philosophers as wellThis period lasted forGokturks, Uygurs, Karahanlis, Selcuks, and Ottomans
  18. 18. EASTERN PHILOSOPHERSFARABI (870 – 950)Philosophy:Base for human nature is knowledge. Human mind can distinguish right fromwrong through wisdom.View of human natureThe ultimate knowledge is innateEducational philosophyDistinguished teaching from educationTeaching: Reveal scientific knowledge and artEducation: Create theoretical virtues in societyEducation must be easy to hard, simple to complex near to far
  19. 19. EASTERN PHILOSOPHERSIBN-I SINA (980 – 1037)Philosophy:Moral virtues are as important as knowledge itselfView of human natureChildren are innocent and clean from the start, should be taught moral virtuesfrom birthEducational philosophyChildren should be taught without pressure.Children should be taught from ages 6-14Agents:Should be religious, honest, wise person that can recognize children’s abilities
  20. 20. EASTERN PHILOSOPHERSBIRUNI (973 – 1051)Philosophy:In order to love each other humans should learn and respect each otherslanguage, religion, traditions and thinkingView of human natureHumanist perspectiveEducational philosophyHe was expert in astronomy, physics, botanic, pharmacology, geographyBiruni believed scientific work should be cleaned of magic, superstition andanything that opposes logic.
  21. 21. SELCUKS PERIOD• Medreses should have a certain period of education• Memorization as well as discussions were methods used to teach• Both religious and vocational oriented education• Moral virtues were especially emphasized and taught as well as skills• Children were taught Islamic educational virtues: Cleanliness, generosity, good will, and humility.• Famous names in this period include Mevlana Celaladdin Rumi, Yunus Emre, Asik Pasa ve Haci Bektasi Veli• Poetry was an important part of education and God and human love issues were the main subjects
  22. 22. OTTOMAN PERIOD• Medreses were important educational institutions and were developed further in Ottoman period.• Rich people as well as government built medreses everywhere• The structure was primary, middle and high school• They were free and boarding schools• Only sunni muslim males were accepted in medreses, no girls were allowed• The teachers were called “muderris”• Religious, philosophical subjects as well as literature, science, math and languages were taught• Education was considered as a religious and moral duty
  23. 23. STRUCTURE OF OTTOMAN EDUCATION• 15. Century• Ottoman schools were divided into 2: Mektep and Medrese• Mektep: To train people to serve the palace, government and military people• These schools were everywhere and trained workers for the empire• These are schools funded by foundations, the administration was not central• Fatih opened “Enderun” Palace school which included talented children of non-muslim families• The language for education was Arabic, but Turkish and Persian were also taught
  24. 24. INDUSTRIALIZATIONIn England and al over Europe after the French revolution, there is anexpansion of technology such as machinery that works with petrol and steam• Education was influenced by these changes• Factory workers came about• In this period, systems such as Socialism, Communism, Liberalism and Capitalism started gaining popularity• The free thinking brought by the French revolution combined with industrial revolution caused education to take shape in this direction• Education was needed by large masses• New philosophies came about: Materialism, Socialism, Positivism etc.
  25. 25. THEORISTS OF THIS PERIODPestalozzi (1746-1827)Social Education: Learning through experimentation, education is foreveryoneHerbart (1776-1841)Educate, manage and discipline. The purpose of education is to serveindividual. Attention to the individual.Frobel (1782-1852)Pre-school education, emphasized that children should be educated from 3-4years. Founded “kindergarten”Tolstoy (1828-1910)Education for freedom. Suggested master apprentice relation for teacher-student. He was extremely against physical punishment and memorizing
  26. 26. THEORISTS OF THIS PERIODMarx and Engels (1818-1883, 1829-1895)Socialist educationEducation combined with material productionCognitive and politechnical educationComte and Mill (1796-1857, 1806-1873)Pozitivist educationReligious era has ended, scientific era has startedMath, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and sociology sciencesdeveloped hierarchically
  27. 27. THEORISTS OF THIS PERIODH. Spencer (1820-1903)Pragmatic and positivist educationPragmatic and utilitarian evolutionCognitive, moral and physical education as a wholeF. Hegel (1770-1831)State Education: Education must be relevant to cultureState can cultivate they type of personNietzche (1788-1860)Irrational Education: Industrial revolution made people mechanical. People mustdevelop their special abilitiesEvil and virtue is innate, what we learn is limitedInstead of institutionalizing, cultural education
  28. 28. THEORISTS OF THIS PERIODJ. Dewey (1859-1952)Education for employment and lifeEducation is life it is not preparation for lifeEducation teaches a child to think through actionTeacher must be a guide to students not a dictatorM. Montessori (1750-1952)Sensory educationUsed mostly in early educationLearning through self discovery and interestUninterrupted play/work time, loosely structured classrooms
  29. 29. OTTOMAN EDUCATION IN 18TH C.Between 1779-1839 a reform period in education• First in military education, military schools opened• In 1824 II. Mahmut made primary education mandatory• Later middle and high schools and higher education was formed (Rustiye mekteplerie , Idadi, Sultani and Darulfunun)1856 Islahat FermaniPrimary education is mandatoryRustiye must exist in places with 500 housesIdadiye must exist in places with 100 housesSultanis must exist in citiesDarulfunun (university) must exist in IstanbulMale teacher and female teacher schools will openMoney will be collected from public for educationEducation will be centralised
  30. 30. OTTOMAN EDUCATION IN 18TH C.Kanun-I EsasiMandated that education is for everyoneThere will be no interference on religious educationEducation is free for publicII. Abdulhamit periodAfter losing Crimean war, education gained importanceVocational and art schools increasedIncreased freedom in pressHigher education for girls and girls started working in government officesPre-school education and professional education
  31. 31. 20. CENTURY EDUCATION IN EUROPE AND AMERICA• Education in the fields of psychology and sociology increased• Education started using the data from these fields• Education started being considered as a fieldF. BobbittFirst time used education as an independent fieldIn 1920s in America individual education was emphasized, in the east socialisteducation was popular (Marx influence)In 1930s and 40s in America universities took over research activitiesIn 1950s Skinner with his experiments in education published educationfindings
  32. 32. 20. CENTURY EDUCATION IN EUROPEIn 1960 and 1970 the theories of educational research peaked and thediscussion “is education applied or theoretical science” formed1957 is the birth of modern educationSPUTNIK!!!Especially in math and science United States and Europe and Russia entered acompetition periodSeveral projects formed to develop these fieldsIn 1970 Bloom’s Taxonomy came out as a reference for learning for everyoneSince 1980s constructivist, multiple intelligence, brain based learning nd lifebased humanist learning gained importance.Education involves not only schools but throughout life LLL
  33. 33. 20TH CENTURY EDUCATION IN TURKEY• Latin Alphabet• 1928 Latin alphabet accepted• 1928-1942 Literacy increased rapidly• John Dewey came to Turkey and made recommendations based on Turkish people’s culture, needs and characteristics• Famous people formed Turkish Education• Mustafa Kemal Ataturk• Atuf Kansu• Hasan Ali Yucel• M. Emin Soysal• Rasit Oymen and others
  34. 34. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS• Teacher education• 1997 Educational faculties• Education in post graduate education• Constructivist approach• Multiple intelligences• Capital punishment banned at schools• 2005 high schools became 4 years• 12 years mandatory education• Education starts at 5 years