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Historical Perspective in Philippine Education

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History of Philippine Education from Pre-Spanish to Present.

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Historical Perspective in Philippine Education

  1. 1. Historical Perspective of the Philippine Educational System
  2. 2. PRE-SPANISH ERA Brief History Political System/ Unit of Government Barangay (came from the word “Balangay” which means “sailboat”) Ranks 1) Datu is the title for chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchs in the Visayas and Mindanao Regions of the Philippines. Together with Lakan (Luzon), Apo in Central and Northern Luzon, Sultan and Rajah, they are titles used for native royalty, and are still currently used especially in Mindanao and Sulu 2) Babaylan is a Visayan term identifying an indigenous Filipino religious leader, who functions as a healer, a shaman, a seer and a community "miracle-worker" (or a combination of any of those). The babaylan can be male, female, or male transvestites (known as asog, bayoc, or bayog), but most of the babaylan were female. 3) Umalohokan refers to the town criers of ancient Philippines Barangay. They were responsible for going around and making people aware of new laws and policies enacted by the Datu or chieftain.
  3. 3. Before the coming of the Spaniards, the Filipinos possessed a culture of their own. They had contacts with other foreign people from Arabia, India, China, Indo- China and Borneo. • The diaries of Fr. Chirino attest to the historical facts that “the inhabitants were civilized people, possessing their system of writing, laws and moral standards in a well organized system of government • They have the code of Kalantiao and Maragtas – their belief in the Bathala, the solidarity of family, the modesty of the women, the children’s obedience and respect for their elders and in the valour of the men. PRE-SPANISH ERA Brief History
  4. 4. As early as in pre-Magellanic times, education was informal, unstructured, and devoid of methods. Children were provided more vocational training and less academics (3 Rs) by their parents and in the houses of tribal tutors. PRE-SPANISH ERA Informal education is what they have; ideas and facts were acquired through suggestions, observation, example and imitation. There’s no direct teaching, no formal method of information They did not have an organized system of education. Educational System/ Curriculum
  5. 5. Alibata is an ancient writing system that was used in what is now the Philippines. Although it was all but extinguished by Western colonization,variants of it are still used in parts of Mindoro and Palawan, and it is also increasingly used by Filipino yuth as a way to express their identity. PRE-SPANISH ERA Educational System/ Curriculum
  6. 6. Educational Aims •Survival •Conformity •Enculturation PRE-SPANISH ERA Education Types •Informal education •Practical training •Theoretical training Educational Methods •Show and tell •Observation •Trial and error •Imitation Summary
  7. 7. SPANISH ERA Brief History Five Principal Social Classes: Peninsulares, or Spaniards born in Spain and mostly of Iberian descent. -These would be families who settled in the archipelago although it will include also most of the friars. -They were the wealthiest and most politically influential by virtue of their being the foremost encomienderos, thus, owning vast tracts of lands and most of the inhabitants therein. They were referred to as Kastilas. Insulares were Philipine born Spaniards. Though still of pure Spanish blood, they were derisively called Filipinos by the Peninsulares. -Most children of Spanish administrators, they mostly controlled the middle echelons of government by virtue of their owning also tracts of lands. The middle class had three subclasses: • Spanish mestizos or mestizos de Espanol, • principalia, and the • Chinese mestizos or mestizos de Sangley. Mestizos are borne from mixed marriages of Spanish and any of the other classes, mostly local natives; or half-breeds of a mixed Chinese-native marriage. They constitute the local officials, owned some tracts of land and mostly controlled the retail trade. Indios, however, the Chinese, occupied the lowest base and majority of the social totem pole.
  8. 8. SPANISH ERA Education System/ CurriculumFormal and Organized Religion-oriented education Spanish missionaries as tutors Christian doctrine, prayers, and sacred songs 3R’s were only given to brighter pupils Teach catechism to the natives Spanish language –compulsory Inadequate education (suppressed/limited/controlled) Education is a privilege not a right Education for the elite Controlled by friars
  9. 9. SPANISH ERA Educational Decree of 1863 • Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 • Provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; • Establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. • The Spanish schools started accepting Filipino students. • It was during this time when the intellectual Filipinos emerged.
  10. 10. Religion + Education SPANISH ERA Education System/ Curriculum Reading + Writing + Catechism Spanish language is free and compulsory
  11. 11. Spanish-Devised Curriculum • The Spanish curriculum consisted of 3R’s – reading, writing and religion. • The schools were parochial or convent schools. • The main reading materials were the cartilla, the caton and the catecismo. • The schools were ungraded and the curriculum organization was separately subject organization • The method of organization was predominantly individual memorization • Entrada, Acenso, Termino – 3 grade levels SPANISH ERA Educational Decree of 1863
  12. 12. Spanish-Devised Curriculum • The curriculum required the study of: • Christian doctrine • Values • History • Reading and writing in Spanish (steno) • Mathematixs • Agriculture • Etiquette • Singing • World geography • Spanish history SPANISH ERA Educational Decree of 1863
  13. 13. • Remained inadequate for the rest of the Spanish period. • There were not enough schools built. • Teachers tend to use corporal punishment. • The friars exercised control over the schools and their teachers and obstructed attempts to properly educate the masses, as they considered widespread secular education to be a threat to their hold over the population. • Schools were often poorly equipped, lacking desks, chairs, and writing materials. SPANISH ERA Educational Decree of 1863 (Issues)
  14. 14. • Though classes were supposed to be held from 7-10 am and 2:30-5 pm throughout the year, schools were often empty. • Children skipped school to help with planting and harvesting or even because their clothes were ragged. SPANISH ERA Educational Decree of 1863 (Issues)
  15. 15. • The schools for boys and girls were separated. • The first established schools were for the boys. • The Augustinians built the first school in the Philippines situated in Cebu in 1565. • College was equivalent to a university during the Spanish regime. • The student graduated with the degree in Bachelor of Arts (Bachiller en Artes). SPANISH ERA Schools Built
  16. 16. • The first college school for the boys was the “Colegio de San Ignacio” which was established by the Jesuits in Manila in 1589. SPANISH ERA Schools Built Original name: Real y Pontificia Universidad de San Ignacio de Manila Years Active: 1590- 1768 Location: Manila
  17. 17. SPANISH ERA Schools Built Original name: Colegio de San Ildefonso Years Active: 1595-1769 Location: Cebu City, Cebu Colegio de San Ildefonso • The Cebu City colegio was established by Fr. Antonio Sedeno, Fr. Pedro Chirino, and Antonio Pereira of the Society of Jesus • After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish territories in 1767, the buildings and facilities were taken over first by the Diocese of Cebu, then the Congregation of the Mission, then later by the Society of the Divine Word. • There are several claims that it is now the University of San Carlos
  18. 18. SPANISH ERA Schools Built Colegio de Sta. Potenciana (1589)- first college for girls in Manila. Destroyed in the 1645 earthquake. School rebuilt but damaged during the British Invasion of 1762. Schools abolished in 1866.
  19. 19. SPANISH ERA Schools Built Colegio de Sta. Potenciana (1589)- first college for girls in Manila. Destroyed in the 1645 earthquake. School rebuilt but damaged during the British Invasion of 1762. Schools abolished in 1866. Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario (1611) is a private, Roman Catholic, teaching and research university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on 28 April 1611 by Miguel de Benavides, Archbishop of Manila, it has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and in Asia and is one of the world's largest Catholic universities in terms of enrollment found on one campus. UST is also the largest university in the city of Manila The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines
  20. 20. Escuela Pia de Manila Established in late 1859 by the Society of Jesus, it is the oldest Jesuit educational institution and third-oldest university in the Philippines. Colegio de San Juan de Letran The college was founded in 1620. Colegio de San Juan de Letran has the distinction of being the oldest college in the Philippines and the oldest secondary institution in Asia.
  21. 21. Educational Aims •To promote Christianity •Promotion of Spanish language • Imposition of Spanish culture SPANISH ERA Summary Educational Types •Formal education •Religious education •Catechism •Doctrine •Vocational course Education Methods •Dictation •Memorization •Moro-Moro/cenaculo •Theater presentation
  22. 22. FIRST REPUBLIC (1899-1901) • The First Philippine Republic or Malolos Republic, is a short-lived nascent revolutionary government in the Philippines. It is the first republic in Asia. • It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899 in Malolos, Bulacan. • It was written by Felipe Calderón y Roca and Felipe Buencamino as an alternative to a pair of proposals to the Malolos Congress by Apolinario Mabini and Pedro Paterno. • The Malolos Congress convened on 15 September, and produced the Malolos Constitution. That constitution was proclaimed on 22 January 1899, transforming the government into what is known today as the First Philippine Republic, with Aguinaldo as its president. • In the meantime, on December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris had been signed, ending the Spanish-American War. Brief History
  23. 23. FIRST REPUBLIC (1899-1901) ARTICLE XIV- EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ARTS, CULTURE AND SPORTS Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. 1899 Malolos Constitution – Article XIV
  24. 24. FIRST REPUBLIC (1899-1901) ARTICLE XIV- EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ARTS, CULTURE AND SPORTS Section 2. (1) Complete, adequate, and Integrated system of Education (2) Free public education in elementary and high school levels. Elementary educations is compulsory for all children of school age. (3) System of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and other incentives for deserving students, esp. the under-privileged. (4) Non-formal, Informal, and Indigenous Learning Systems, Self- Learning, Independent, and Out-Of-School Study Programs in response to community needs 1899 Malolos Constitution – Article XIV
  25. 25. FIRST REPUBLIC (1899-1901) ARTICLE XIV- EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ARTS, CULTURE AND SPORTS Section 2. (5) Civic, vocational, and skills training for adult citizens, PWDs, and Out-of-school youth. Section 3. (1) Constitution as part of the curricula. (2) Patriotism and Nationalism for the country (3) Religion as subject is allowed in public elementary and high schools. 1899 Malolos Constitution – Article XIV
  26. 26. FIRST REPUBLIC (1899-1901) ARTICLE XIV- EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ARTS, CULTURE AND SPORTS Section 4. (1) Complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational system. Supervision and regulation of all educational institutions. (2) The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines excluding those established by religious groups. (3) All revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit educational institutions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. 1899 Malolos Constitution – Article XIV
  27. 27. FIRST REPUBLIC (1899-1901) ARTICLE XIV- EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ARTS, CULTURE AND SPORTS Section 5. (4) The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. Non-teaching academic and non-academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State. (5) The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment. 1899 Malolos Constitution – Article XIV
  28. 28. FIRST REPUBLIC (1899-1901) ARTICLE XIV- EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ARTS, CULTURE AND SPORTS Section 4. (4) Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants, endowments, donations, or contributions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax. Section 5. (1) Local planning in the development of educational policies and programs. (2) Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning. (3) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable, and equitable admission and academic requirements.cralaw 1899 Malolos Constitution – Article XIV
  29. 29. FIRST REPUBLIC (1899-1901) Schools Built Universidad Literaria de Filipinas (October 19, 1898), was established by former President Emilio Aguinaldo. The teachings included Civil and Criminal Law, Administrative Law, Medicine and Surgery, Pharmacy and studies pertaining to the Notarial profession. Academia Militar (October 25, 1898) is the Philippine military school of the Armed Forces of the Philippines now called as Philippine Military Academy. Instituto Burgos (October 1898) the equivalent of a national high school, which offered in its curriculum, languages (Spanish, French, English and Latin); Physics, Chemistry, History, Geography, Philosophy and Spanish Literature.
  30. 30. • The Curriculum • • Science • • Math • • History • • Philosophy • • Law • • Language • • P.E • • Religion • • Music • • Social Sciences FIRST REPUBLIC (1899-1901) Educational System/ Curriculum
  31. 31. Highlights •Curicular reforms •Secularization of education •Greater attention to natural science •The design of a relevant curriculum •Improvement of higher centers of learning •Improvement of educational system •Disproportionate focus on religion •Discourage the attempt of Filipino students to speak in Spanish •Lack of pedagogical skills •Irrelevant courses in the curriculum FIRST REPUBLIC (1899-1901) Educational System/ Curriculum Educational Aim Love of country and of God
  32. 32. AMERICAN PERIOD The American-Devised Curriculum • The curriculum was based on the ideals and traditions of American and her hierarchy of values • English was the medium of instruction • The primary curriculum prescribed in 1904 by the Americans for the Filipinos consisted of three grades which provides training in two aspects: a) Body Training that is consist of singing, drawing, hard word and physical education b) Mental Training that is compose of English (reading, writing, conversation, phonetics and spelling), nature study and arithmetic Educational System/ Curriculum
  33. 33. • In grade III geography and civic were added to the list of the subjects • Intermediate Curriculum consisted of subjects such s arithmetic, geography, science and English science, plant life, physiology and sanitation • Collegiate level, normal schools were opened with a teacher’s training curriculum appropriate for elementary mentors. It’s aim was to replace the soldiers and the Thomasites • The curriculum organization remained separate subjects • Group method of teaching was adopted • A significant aspect of the American devised curriculum was the prohibition of compulsory religious instruction in the public schools AMERICAN PERIOD Educational System/ Curriculum
  34. 34. Curriculum • Primary education • GMRC • Civics • Hygiene and Sanitation • Geography • Intermediate Curriculum • Grammar and composition • Reading, spelling • Science courses • Physiology • Hygiene and Sanitation • Intensive teaching of geography AMERICAN PERIOD Educational System/ Curriculum
  35. 35. Educational Aims • To teach democracy • Separation of church and state AMERICAN PERIOD Educational System/ Curriculum Educational Types •Formal education •First public school •English language •democracy Methods of Education •Socialized recitation •Participation •Debate •Game/playing Role of Teacher •Teach concepts • Develop the rational mind (ex. Debates, empirical evidences) Medium of Instruction •English
  36. 36. COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (1935- 1945) Brief History • The Commonwealth era is the 10 year transitional period in Philippine history from 1935 to 1945 in preparation for independence from the United States as provided for under the Philippine Independence Act or more popularly known as the Tydings-McDuffie Law. • The Commonwealth era was interrupted when the Japanese occupied the Philippines in January 2, 1942. • The Commonwealth government, lead by Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio S. Osmeña went into exile in the U.S., Quezon died of tuberculosis while in exile and Osmeña took over as president. • At the same time, the Japanese forces installed a puppet government in Manila headed by Jose P. Laurel as president. This government is known as the Second Philippine Republic. On October 20, 1944, the Allied forces led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur landed on the island of Leyte to liberate the Philippines from the Japanese. Japan formally surrendered in September 2, 1945.
  37. 37. COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (1935- 1945) Brief History • After liberation, the Commonwealth government was restored. • Congress convened in its first regular session on July 9, 1945. It was the first time the people’s representatives have assembled since their election on November 11, 1941. • Manuel Roxas was elected Senate President, and Elpidio Quirino was chosen President Pro Tempore. Jose Zulueta was speaker of the house, while Prospero Sanidad became speaker pro Tempore. The first law of this congress, enacted as commonwealth act 672, organized the central bank of the Philippines. The commonwealth deal also tackled the issue of collaboration. In September 1945 the counter intelligence corps presented the people who were accused of having collaborated with, or given aid to, the Japanese. Included were prominent Filipinos who had been active in the puppet government that the Japanese had been established. ”A Peoples Court" was created to investigate and decide on the issue. • Amidst this sad state of affairs, the third commonwealth elections were held on April 23, 1946. Sergio Osmeña and Manuel Roxas vied for the Presidency. Roxas won thus becoming the last president of the Philippine Commonwealth. The Commonwealth era formally ended when the United States granted independence to the Philippines, as scheduled on July 4, 1946.
  38. 38. COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (1935-1945) Commonwealth Curriculum- Also known as the period of expansion and reform in the Philippine curriculum •The curriculum for the training of elementary school teachers was expanded by the Bureau of Education by elevating it from the secondary schools to the collegiate level, organizing eight regional normal schools Educational System/ Curriculum
  39. 39. Article XIV Section 5. All educational institutions shall be under the supervision of and subject to regulation by the State. The Government shall establish and maintain a complete and adequate system of public education, and shall provide at least free public primary instruction, and citizenship training to adult citizens. 1935 Constitution COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (1935-1945)
  40. 40. Article XIV Section 5. All schools shall aim to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience, and vocational efficiency, and to teach the duties of citizenship. Optional religious instruction shall be maintained in the public schools as now authorized by law. Universities established by the State shall enjoy academic freedom. The State shall create scholarships in arts, science, and letters for specially gifted citizens. 1935 Constitution COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (1935-1945)
  41. 41. COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (1935-1946) Legal Mandates – Commonwealth Acts •Commonwealth Act #1- preparatory military training shall begin in Elementary grade school at age 10. This act was amended by PD 1706 (August 8, 1980) requiring all citizens to render civil welfare service, law enforcement service and military service. •Commonwealth Act #80- (October 26, 1936) established the Office of Adult Education (vocational training in an effort to eliminate illiteracy) •Commonwealth Act#578 (June 8, 1940) conferred the status of PERSONS IN AUTHORITY upon teachers
  42. 42. COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (1935-1946) Legal Mandates – Commonwealth Acts•Commonwealth Act #586 Education Act of 1940- reduction of number of years in elementary (from 7 to 6), fixing school entrance age 7 years old, national support of elementary education, compulsory attendance in the primary grades for all children enrolled in grade one, introduction of double single session •Commonwealth Act #589-(August 19, 1940) established school rituals in private and public schools •Act #2706- (November 13, 1935) an act making the inspection and recognition of private schools and colleges obligatory for the Secretary of Public Instruction
  43. 43. Educational Practices •“Filipino” language was used as the medium of instruction. •Vocational schools were made more similar in curriculum to Academic schools •Celebration of National Language Week every August COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (1935-1945) Values •Moral character •Personal discipline •Civic conscience •Vocational efficiency •Citizenship traning Educational System/ Curriculum
  44. 44. Educational Aims •Develop moral character •Civic conscience •Vocational efficiency •Preparation for incoming independence COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (1935-1945) Methods of Education •Memorization •C.A.T. •Recitation •Socialized recitation Summary Medium of Instruction •Filipino language Role of Teachers •Promote nationalism (values, moral character, personal discipline)
  45. 45. JAPANESE PERIOD Brief History• GEACPS (Greatest East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere) - was an imperial propaganda concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations during the first third of the Shōwa era by the government and military of the Empire of Japan. Led by Matsuoka Yosuke on August 1, 1940 • December 1941- Corregidor’s Malinta Tunnel • January 7- February 8, 1942- Battle in Bataan • January 1942- Philippine Executive Commission • April 10, 1942- Death march • March 1942- Battle in Corregidor • May 1942- Surrendering of Japanese
  46. 46. Educational System/ Curriculum Japanese Devised Curriculum • They introduced many changes in the curriculum by including Nihongo and abolishing English as a medium of instruction and as a subject • All textbooks were censored and revised • The Japanese-Devised curriculum caused a blackout in the Philippine education and impeded the educational progress Curriculum •School calendar became longer •No summer vacation for students •Class size increased to 60 •Deleted anti-Asian opinions, banned the singing of American songs, deleted American symbols, poems and pictures •Nihongo as a means of introducing and cultivating love for Japanese culture. JAPANESE PERIOD
  47. 47. Educational System/ Curriculum JAPANESE PERIOD Educational Program • June 1942, Military Order No.2- Mandated the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History, and Character education to Filipino students, with emphasis on love for work and dignity of labor • Re-opening of elementary schools • Re-opening of vocational and normal schools • Institutions of higher learning giving courses in agriculture, medicine, fisheries and engineering • Japanese language is popularized to terminate the use of English • Filipino children went to school to learn Japanese songs and games • There was a strict censorship of textbooks and other learning materials • The teachers were to become condescending mouthpieces of Japanese propaganda
  48. 48. Educational System/ Curriculum Six basic principles of Japanese education 1. Realization of new order and promote friendly relations between Japan and the Philippines to the farthest extent 2. Foster a new Filipino culture based 3. Endeavor to elevate the morals of people, giving up over emphasis of materialism 4. Diffusion of the Japanese language in the Philippines 5. Promotion of vocational course 6. To inspire people with the spirit to love neighbor JAPANESE PERIOD
  49. 49. Educational Aims •Eradicate old idea of reliance on western nations •Love of labor •Military training JAPANESE PERIOD Summary Education Types •Nihongo language •Vocational training •Health education agriculture Methods of Education •Stressed dignity of manual labor •Emphasis voc. Ed. Medium of Instruction •Nihongo language
  50. 50. THIRD REPUBLIC Brief History • Transition gov’t ended in 1945, same year World War II ended • July 4, 1946- 3rd Philippine Republic inaugurated at Luneta • Guests: Gen. Douglas McArthur- supreme commander of the Allied Power in Japan; Gen. Milliard Tydings- co-sponsor, Philippine Independence Act; former Gov. Gen. FB Harrison- most beloved American gov. general in Philippines • Most meaningful and solemn moment of the independence ceremony was the raising of the Philippine flag by Pres. Roxas and lowering the American flag by Ambassador McNatt.
  51. 51. THIRD REPUBLIC Brief History Philippine Rehabilitation Act • appropriated $620 million by U.S Sen. Milliard Tydings • In exchange, Philippines grant parity rights to Americans- equal rights with Filipino citizen to develop and exploit natural resources of the Philippines and to operate public utilities in the country
  52. 52. THIRD REPUBLIC Educational System/ Curriculum1. Manuel Roxas (1946-1948) • Focused on the rehabilitation of the school system which was in keeping with the policies of the government • 80% of the schools were ruined; cost of reconstruction: 126 million (annual deficit: P200 million) • Executive Order #94- (1947): Department of Instruction to Department of Education
  53. 53. THIRD REPUBLIC Educational System/ Curriculum1. Manuel Roxas (1946-1948) • Republic Act # 139- “Board on Textbooks” Section 1. • Republic Act # 426 (June 18, 1949): PNS to PNC (BS Eed & MA Ed)
  54. 54. THIRD REPUBLIC Educational System/ Curriculum2. Elpidio Quirino (1948-1953) “Our educational policy must be reviewed and revised for closer coordination with the objectives of our proposed development program, without sacrificing the traditional aim of providing a liberal culture basic to the good life. I hope that the Joint Educational Committee of the Congress engaged in this study will be able to evolve a revision of the school system more adaptable to and in keeping with our national requirements.” -First State of the Nation Address, January 24, 1949
  55. 55. THIRD REPUBLIC Educational System/ Curriculum3. Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) • Attainment of Social and Economic dev. • Republic Act #896 (June 10, 1953)- Elementary Education Act of 1953. This new law restore Grade 7 VII which was abolished by the Education Act 1940. • Republic Act #1124 (June 16, 1954) -created Board of National Education -Sen. Jose P. Laurel as chairman of the Board’s Committee on Education -University of Masses (basic philosophy of education)
  56. 56. THIRD REPUBLIC Educational System/ Curriculum3. Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) • Republic Act #1265 (June 11, 1955)- compulsory daily flag ceremony • Republic Act # 1425 (June 12, 1956)- Rizal as subject
  57. 57. THIRD REPUBLIC Educational System/ Curriculum4. Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961) “No less significant are the strides made in public education. As a measure of insuring effective instruction, the full-day primary school session, which we had before the implementation of Commonwealth Act 586, has been restores and the maximum size of classes has been reduced from 60 to 40 pupils. The vernacular is now being used as a medium of instruction in the first two years of the primary grades, thereby promoting optimum literacy, especially among those pupils who can stay in school for only a few years…
  58. 58. THIRD REPUBLIC Educational System/ Curriculum4. Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961) “The secondary curriculum has been revised so as to provide a common program of studies for the first two years, after which the student is given the option, with the help of a competent counsellor, to choose between a vocational course and a college preparatory course. In the revised curriculum more science and mathematics are offered, in view of their importance in present-day life and world progress…
  59. 59. THIRD REPUBLIC Educational System/ Curriculum4. Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961) “The community school, which has been developed after years of careful experimentation, has become the pattern for our country, particularly in the rural areas. Because of the improvement that this type of school has effected in the living conditions of the people in the community, it has elicited favorable comments from foreign educators who have observed how it works….
  60. 60. THIRD REPUBLIC Educational System/ Curriculum4. Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961) “In line with the economic development program of the Administration, vocational education has been receiving in- creased emphasis. Home industries are being fostered as a means of enabling our people to have a supplementary source of income. All school divisions have organized home industry centers which survey local raw materials to be developed, train workers, standardize products, and assist producers in marketing them.” -First State of the Nation Address, January 27, 1958
  61. 61. THIRD REPUBLIC Educational System/ Curriculum5. Diosdado Macapagal “Basic to the efforts toward economic expansion and the growth of social benefits to the common man is the proper education of the citizenry. It was toward this objective that the Department of Education formulated policies and implemented measures to improve the quality of instruction and to strengthen the curricula in all levels of instruction. Thus, during the past year, 13,000 new classes were opened by the Department of Education on the elementary level as compared to 10,300 new classes opened during 1961.” Second State of the Nation Address, January 28, 1963
  62. 62. THIRD REPUBLIC Summary Fundamental Objectives -Citizenship -Morality -Democracy -Industry -Family Responsibility -Use of leisure -Helping the community -Cultural heritage for youth -Understanding of other nations
  63. 63. THIRD REPUBLIC Educational Program •The concept of academic freedom •Only universities established by the State •Religious instruction in the public schools •Optional and its implementation would have to be in accordance with what was already authorized by the existing law •The creation of scholarships in the arts, sciences and letters was for specially gifted citizens •For those who possess as certain level of capability for academic studies and are unable to afford the cost of college education. Brief History Educational Practices •Moral Character •The quality of a person that guides his thinking, behavior, and relationships with others social concern and involvement •Vocational Efficiency •Productivity •Complete and adequate system of public education •Changes with the changing time and the changing needs of changing human beings
  64. 64. NEW SOCIETY Ferdinand Marcos’ Regime (1965- 1986)Ideology of Education • A commitment to an asset of fundamental values • Theory of society • Program of Action *Values- representing man’s aspirations for himself, society, and world *Constitution as a subject
  65. 65. NEW SOCIETY Ferdinand Marcos’ Regime (1965- 1986)Executive Order 202, 1969 -Create a Presidential Commission to Study Philippine Education (PCSPE) -Ministry of Education- Onofre D. Corpus Presidential Decree 6-A. “Educational Development Decree of 1972” -achieve and maintain social and economic development progress -assure maximum participation of all the people
  66. 66. NEW SOCIETY Ferdinand Marcos’ Regime (1965- 1986)Presidential Decree 6-A. “Educational Development Decree of 1972” 1. Provide for a broad and general education 2. Attain his potential as human being. 3. Enhance the range and quality of individual. 4. Acquire the essential educational foundation. 5. Train the nation’s manpower in the middle level skills. 6. Develop the high level professions for leadership of nation. 7. Respond effectively to changing needs
  67. 67. NEW SOCIETY 1972 Constitution SEC. 8. (1) All educational institutions shall be under the supervision of, and subject to regulation by, the State. The State shall establish and maintain a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development. (2) All institutions of higher learning shall enjoy academic freedom. (3) The study of the Constitution shall be part of the curricula in all schools.
  68. 68. NEW SOCIETY 1972 Constitution (4) All educational institutions shall aim to inculcate love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal discipline, and scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency. (5) The State shall maintain a system of free public, elementary education and, in areas where finances permit, establish and maintain a system of free public education at least up to the secondary level. (6) The State shall provide citizenship and vocational training to adult citizens and out-of-school youth, and create and maintain scholarships for poor and deserving students.
  69. 69. NEW SOCIETY Ferdinand Marcos’ Regime (1965- 1986)(7) Educational institutions, other than those established by religious orders, mission boards, and charitable organizations, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines, or corporations or association sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens. The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines. No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens, and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrolment in any school. The provisions of this sub-section shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents.
  70. 70. NEW SOCIETY Ferdinand Marcos’ Regime (1965- 1986) (8) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, and without cost to them and the Government, religion shall be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools as may be provided by law.
  71. 71. NEW SOCIETY Educational Aims •Love of country •Teaches duties of citizenship •Develops moral character •Self – discipline science and technology and vocational efficiency Education Types •For national development Pledges •Peace & order, •Land reform •Economic development •Development of moral values •Government reorganization •Employment and manpower development •Social services
  72. 72. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Brief History • November 1985- Marcos called for a snap election (Kilusang Bagong Lipunan) • December 1985- Declared candidacy, Cory (United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO) • February 7, 1986- Snap Election (Batasang Pambansa)
  73. 73. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Corazon Aquino’s Administration (1986- 1992) • Freedom constitution • 1987 Constitution (Constitutional Commission) • February 2, 1987 (ratification)
  74. 74. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC 1987 ConstitutionArticle XIV. Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports Section 1. Quality education at all levels, accessible education Section 2. Free, complete education Scholarship grants, student loans Indigenous, OSY, Non-formal Adult citizens, PWD Section 3. Constitution as a subject; patriotism and nationalism Section 4. Educational Institution as supervised by the state Section 5. Regional and sectorial needs (academic freedom, choosing of courses, teacher-training)
  75. 75. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Corazon Aquino’s Administration (1986- 1992)• Executive Order #117- Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sports to Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) • Republic Act 6655 (May 26, 1988)- Free Public Secondary Educational Act of 1988 • Republic Act #7323 (February 3, 1992)- 15- 25 year old employed students during Christmas break and summer vacation. (SPES) • Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report of 1911 • Republic Act #7722 (May 18, 1944)- CHED (former Bureau of Higher Education)
  76. 76. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC FidelV. Ramos’ Administration (1992- 1998)“2. EDUCATION • Ensuring full and unimpeded access by all to both primary and secondary schools is the most effective way of empowering ordinary people. • Education reform must also develop a curriculum strong in science, mathematics, and languages. It must include the enhancement of the conditions of teachers—in both their livelihood and their work. • Vocational education and technical training should keep to their basic purpose, which is to prepare young people for worthwhile jobs, and to teach new technologies that our economy needs…..
  77. 77. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Joseph Estrada’s Administration (1998- 2001)EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 46 ESTABLISHING THE PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION ON EDUCATIONAL REFORM (PCER) WHEREAS, in the early 1990's, the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) submitted its findings to the Philippine Congress on the education system and made several policy recommendations. Most of those policy recommendations have been translated into educational laws but other important recommendations remain to be acted upon;
  78. 78. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Joseph Estrada’s Administration (1998- 2001)EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 46 ESTABLISHING THE PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION ON EDUCATIONAL REFORM (PCER) Section 1. Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER) There is hereby established the Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER), under the Office of the President, which shall be a multi-sectoral body comprised of representatives from government line agencies, the University of the Philippines, the Open University - University of the Philippines; public and private schools at all levels; teachers; the agriculture and industry sectors; the information technology sector; state colleges and universities; and other concerned sectors.
  79. 79. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Joseph Estrada’s Administration (1998- 2001)Sec. 2. Structure a. The Commission will be chaired by a person with outstanding record in education and of proven integrity appointed by the President for the duration of the life of the Commission. Members of the Commission will include the Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports; the Chairman of the Commission on Higher Education; the Director- General of the Technical Education Skills Development Authority; the Director- General of the National Economic Development Authority; a representative of the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry and a representative from private agriculture; representatives each from the Department of Interior and Local Government; Department of Science and Technology, The University of the Philippines, Department of Finance, the state colleges and universities; superintendents; public and private school teachers;
  80. 80. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Joseph Estrada’s Administration (1998- 2001)The Education Committee Chairmen of the Upper and Lower Houses will be invited to attend meetings ex-officio either personally or through their representatives. b. There will be a Secretariat, headed by a full-time Executive Director for the purpose, housed within DECS, and staffed by individuals seconded by DECS, CHED and TESDA. c. There will be a working committee to assist the Executive Director in the design and conduct of the education sector analysis composed of a senior representative of concerned Departments, agencies and private sector constituencies.
  81. 81. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Joseph Estrada’s Administration (1998- 2001)Sec. 3. Coverage The Commission shall be given one year to define a comprehensive and a budget-feasible program of reform in the following areas: 1. Curricula, teaching methods, instructional media, education technologies, textbooks, language policy and school calendar in use at the elementary and secondary levels, using international benchmarks. 2. Modernization of science laboratories, improvement of science and mathematics education and the feasibility of establishing regional centers of excellence in science education.
  82. 82. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Joseph Estrada’s Administration (1998- 2001)3. Upgrading of computer classrooms, computing facilities and internet access in all schools that meet eligibility standards for administering such programs. 4. Expansion, modernization and standardization of our vocational and technical institutions, especially polytechnic colleges and universities. 5. Distance learning and continuing education programs, especially for adults and out-of-school youth, with a view towards possible eventual accreditation.
  83. 83. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Joseph Estrada’s Administration (1998- 2001)6. Tuition financing schemes intended to bring the effective purchasing power of students in line with the real costs of tertiary education. 7. Programs, resources and facilities of state universities and colleges, other than UP, with the intention of rationalizing their academic offering and aligning them with employer requirements in their respective areas. 8. Governance, organization, programs, resources, and facilities of the University of the Philippines, with a view towards developing its flagships campus in Diliman into one of the top ten universities in Asia in time for the UP Centennial in 2008. 9. Other priority areas of concern in education that arise from the research and consultations conducted by the Commission.
  84. 84. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Joseph Estrada’s Administration (1998- 2001)Sec. 4. Process. The report and the recommendation for both executive policy and legislative action will be drawn from an analysis by the Commission of the Philippine educational system, based on research of existing studies and other secondary sources of data, on extensive consultations with different sectors, and on interviews with key persons in the system.
  85. 85. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Joseph Estrada’s Administration (1998- 2001)Sec. 5. Time Frame The Commission will start its work upon the signing of this Executive Order, and submit its final report and recommendations to the Office of the President of the Philippines one-year thereafter. The Commission will automatically be dissolved upon the submission of its report.
  86. 86. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Joseph Estrada’s Administration (1998- 2001)Sec. 6. Operating Requirements The Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) shall provide the sum of P4M annually to be sourced from its existing budget for the operating requirements of Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER) including the payment of compensation of its Chairman/Members in the form of honoraria or per diem on a monthly basis as follows: • One (1) Chairman at P10, 000.00 • Eighteen (18) Members at P3, 000.00 each • One (1) Executive Director (on secondment basis) at P20, 000.00 Sec. 7. Effectivity This Executive Order shall take effect immediately.
  87. 87. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Joseph Estrada’s Administration (1998- 2001)Sec. 6. Operating Requirements The Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) shall provide the sum of P4M annually to be sourced from its existing budget for the operating requirements of Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER) including the payment of compensation of its Chairman/Members in the form of honoraria or per diem on a monthly basis as follows: • One (1) Chairman at P10, 000.00 • Eighteen (18) Members at P3, 000.00 each • One (1) Executive Director (on secondment basis) at P20, 000.00 Sec. 7. Effectivity This Executive Order shall take effect immediately.
  88. 88. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Gloria Arroyo’s Administration (2001- 2010)Easing the Textbook Backlog Some 10 million copies of textbooks have already been distributed by the Department of Education (DepEd) in 19,000 public elementary and secondary schools nationwide. The President assured that all public school students would have textbooks for the priority subjects in grades I to IV, and in the first and second years of high school.
  89. 89. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Gloria Arroyo’s Administration (2001- 2010)Constructing More School Buildings To date, the government has constructed 1, 612 school buildings in barangays unserved by nearby schools. Some 555 schoolhouses will be completed within the next few weeks. The President has directed DepEd to design classrooms within the P250,000 budget so that the government can build more classrooms throughout the country, especially in remote barangays. The President has allocated P40 million for the construction of new classrooms in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
  90. 90. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Gloria Arroyo’s Administration (2001- 2010)Restoring English as Medium of Instruction To prepare the succeeding generations to be globally competitive, the President has directed DepEd to adopt measures that would reverse reported declines in English literacy among Filipinos.
  91. 91. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Gloria Arroyo’s Administration (2001- 2010)Implementing the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) • Another priority area is the upgrading of the teaching of Mathematics and Science in basic education to prepare the youth to be the next generation of knowledge workers. • The revised BEC has been implemented since June 2002 and now focuses on the five learning areas of English, Science, Math, Filipino and Makabayan from the previous eight per Grade/ Year level. • The teaching of science has been given an extended time allotment from 300 minutes to 400 minutes each week to promote the culture of science among students. The number of hours of Mathematics laboratory has likewise been increased. • About 600,000 teachers from both private and public schools have been trained on the new curriculum. A linear, sequential approach in teaching math is being adopted by secondary school teachers to facilitate mastery of basic math principles.
  92. 92. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Gloria Arroyo’s Administration (2001- 2010) Improving Teacher Welfare The DepEd has succeeded in improving teacher welfare by cleaning up its automatic payroll deduction systems (APDS) for teachers with loans. Acting on cases brought to her attention during dialogues and personal visits, the President has ordered a thorough investigation on the alleged influence peddling in the processing of retirement benefits of government teachers. The government has hired an additional of 15,000 new teachers as a result of the supplemental budget acquired from Congress last year.
  93. 93. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Gloria Arroyo’s Administration (2001- 2010) Sparing Public School Teachers from the “vagaries of politics” The Commission on Elections (COMELEC) would start the computerization of the tabulation and counting of ballots in the 2004 national elections, thus sparing public school teachers from this tedious task and preventing them from being involved in politics.
  94. 94. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Gloria Arroyo’s Administration (2001- 2010)Mainstreaming Distance Learning • Initially available in 20 barangays in various parts of the country for the last two years, the Strong Republic Grade School or the government’s distance learning program has expanded to include more depressed villages in the Visayas and Mindanao. • The project, aimed at extending the benefits of education to remote barangays that do not have classrooms and teachers , has made schooling available through television facilities put up in areas where quality of education is very low. • In areas where television cannot reach them, the students are taught through “technovans,” which house a television set and instructional materials in reading, writing and arithmetic.
  95. 95. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Gloria Arroyo’s Administration (2001- 2010)Mainstreaming Distance Learning • Enrollees are required to take a qualifying exam to determine their entry point in the program which encompasses distance learning modules. • In Maguindanao, distance-learning facilities have been set up in major evacuation camps in war-torn areas like Pagalungan and Pagagawan. • Non-government groups particularly corporate foundations have supported the program, donating some of the available 1,500 long distance learning equipment for grade schools.
  96. 96. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Gloria Arroyo’s Administration (2001- 2010)Launching the Internet-based Education Program In support of the national effort to empower and prepare the youth for the Information Age, the ed. venture program has already built 15 fully equipped, Internet-connected and fully air-conditioned computer laboratories in public schools nationwide.
  97. 97. POST-EDSA REPUBLIC Benigno Aquino III’s Administration (2001-2010) • June 24, 2010 Br. Armin Luistro as the Secretary of Education • K-12, June 4, 2011 (Implementation)
  98. 98. SUMMARY
  99. 99. SUMMARY

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