Ch01
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Ch01 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Science: A Way of Knowing Chapter 1 Great Idea: Science is a way of asking and answering questions about the physical universe
  • 2. The Role of Science
  • 3. Chapter Outline
    • The Role of Science
    • The Scientific Method
    • Other Ways of Knowing
    • The Organization of Science
  • 4. The Role of Science
    • Making Choices
      • Ask questions, make observations, form conclusions
      • Applied in a more formal, quantitative way equals science
  • 5. Choosing Gasoline
  • 6. Why Study Science?
    • Most powerful tool for understanding
    • Incorporates basic ideas and theories
    • Provides framework for new questions
    • Provides unparalleled view of order and symmetry of the universe and its workings
  • 7. The Scientific Method
  • 8. Observation
    • History
      • Greek Philosophers
      • Middle Ages
    • Observation – no manipulation
    • Experiment – manipulation
  • 9. Plato and Aristotle with Students
  • 10. Identifying Patterns and Regularities
    • Measurement-better description
    • Data-table or graph
    • Patterns emerge
    • Describe:
      • In words
      • In equation form
      • In symbols
  • 11. Measurements of Falling Objects
  • 12. Measurements Presented Visually in the Form of a Graph
  • 13. Mathematics: The Language of Science
    • Description
      • General
      • Mathematical
    • Mathematics
      • Equation
      • Description
  • 14. Many Ways to Describe a Tree
  • 15. One Way to Look at a Tree
  • 16. Facts, Hypotheses, Laws, and Theories
    • Fact
      • Confirmed observation
    • Hypothesis
      • Educated guess
    • Law
      • Description of nature
    • Theory
      • Well-substantiated description
  • 17. Prediction and Testing
    • Predictions
      • Hypothesis, Theory, Law
      • Must be quantitatively testable
    • Testing
      • Do not prove or disprove
      • Define range of validity
    • Every law and theory of nature is subject to change, based on new observations
  • 18. Predicting the Behavior of Falling Objects
  • 19. The Scientific Method in Operation
    • Cycle
      • Not rigid
    • Believe results
      • No preconceptions
    • No true starting place
    • Results must be reproducible
    • Cycle is continuous
  • 20. The Scientific Method
  • 21.
    • Dynamic process of scientific research
    The Ongoing Process of Science
  • 22. Science in the Making
    • Dimitri Mendeleev and the Periodic Table
  • 23. Periodic Table
  • 24. The Science of Life
    • William Harvey and the Blood’s Circulation
  • 25. Other Ways of Knowing
  • 26. Different Kinds of Questions
    • Cannot always use scientific method
    • Art
      • Use to address age of painting
      • Not for beauty, etc.
    • Religion
      • No conflict between science and religion
      • Faith vs. experiment
  • 27. Pseudoscience
    • Pseudoscience
      • Belief, dogma
      • Ideas not testable
    • Evaluation of a claim
      • Are the ‘facts’ true as stated?
      • Is there an alternative explanation?
      • Is the claim falsifiable?
      • Have claims been tested?
      • Do claims require unreasonable changes in accepted ideas?
  • 28. Fortune Telling
  • 29. Astrology
  • 30. The Organization of Science
  • 31. Divisions of Science
    • Disciplines
      • Historical
      • Modern
    • Approach
      • Field researcher
      • Experimentalists
      • Theorists
  • 32. Scientists Work at Many Different Tasks
  • 33. The Branches of Science
    • Physics
      • Fundamental aspects of nature
    • Chemistry
      • Atoms in combination
    • Biology
      • Living systems
    • Astronomy
      • Objects in space
    • Geology
      • Earth
  • 34. The Web of Knowledge
    • Center
      • Laws of nature
      • Apply to all areas
    • Areas Interconnected
      • All branches integrated
  • 35. The Interconnected Web of Scientific Knowledge
  • 36. Basic and Applied Research and Technology
    • Basic Research
      • Expand knowledge
    • Applied Research
      • Direct application
        • Technology
        • Conservation
        • Medicine
  • 37. Radio Telescope at Arecibo
  • 38. Funding for Science
    • US Government
      • $130 billion
      • NSF, NIH, DOE, DOD, EPA, NASA, NOAA
    • Apply for funds
      • Grant proposal
        • Ranked by independent scientists
        • Highly competitive
  • 39. Major Research Laboratories
  • 40. 2008: Federal Science Funding
  • 41. Communication Among Scientists
    • Collaboration
    • Scientific Meetings
    • Peer reviewed Journals
      • Cornerstone of science