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  1. 1. Science: A Way of Knowing Chapter 1 Great Idea: Science is a way of asking and answering questions about the physical universe
  2. 2. The Role of Science
  3. 3. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The Role of Science </li></ul><ul><li>The Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Other Ways of Knowing </li></ul><ul><li>The Organization of Science </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Role of Science <ul><li>Making Choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions, make observations, form conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied in a more formal, quantitative way equals science </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Choosing Gasoline
  6. 6. Why Study Science? <ul><li>Most powerful tool for understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates basic ideas and theories </li></ul><ul><li>Provides framework for new questions </li></ul><ul><li>Provides unparalleled view of order and symmetry of the universe and its workings </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Scientific Method
  8. 8. Observation <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek Philosophers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Ages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observation – no manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment – manipulation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Plato and Aristotle with Students
  10. 10. Identifying Patterns and Regularities <ul><li>Measurement-better description </li></ul><ul><li>Data-table or graph </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Describe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In equation form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In symbols </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Measurements of Falling Objects
  12. 12. Measurements Presented Visually in the Form of a Graph
  13. 13. Mathematics: The Language of Science <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Many Ways to Describe a Tree
  15. 15. One Way to Look at a Tree
  16. 16. Facts, Hypotheses, Laws, and Theories <ul><li>Fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmed observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated guess </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-substantiated description </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Prediction and Testing <ul><li>Predictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis, Theory, Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be quantitatively testable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not prove or disprove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define range of validity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every law and theory of nature is subject to change, based on new observations </li></ul>
  18. 18. Predicting the Behavior of Falling Objects
  19. 19. The Scientific Method in Operation <ul><li>Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not rigid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Believe results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No preconceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No true starting place </li></ul><ul><li>Results must be reproducible </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle is continuous </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Scientific Method
  21. 21. <ul><li>Dynamic process of scientific research </li></ul>The Ongoing Process of Science
  22. 22. Science in the Making <ul><li>Dimitri Mendeleev and the Periodic Table </li></ul>
  23. 23. Periodic Table
  24. 24. The Science of Life <ul><li>William Harvey and the Blood’s Circulation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Other Ways of Knowing
  26. 26. Different Kinds of Questions <ul><li>Cannot always use scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use to address age of painting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not for beauty, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No conflict between science and religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith vs. experiment </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Pseudoscience <ul><li>Pseudoscience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief, dogma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas not testable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of a claim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the ‘facts’ true as stated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there an alternative explanation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the claim falsifiable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have claims been tested? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do claims require unreasonable changes in accepted ideas? </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Fortune Telling
  29. 29. Astrology
  30. 30. The Organization of Science
  31. 31. Divisions of Science <ul><li>Disciplines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Field researcher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theorists </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Scientists Work at Many Different Tasks
  33. 33. The Branches of Science <ul><li>Physics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental aspects of nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms in combination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects in space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. The Web of Knowledge <ul><li>Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws of nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply to all areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Areas Interconnected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All branches integrated </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. The Interconnected Web of Scientific Knowledge
  36. 36. Basic and Applied Research and Technology <ul><li>Basic Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applied Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Radio Telescope at Arecibo
  38. 38. Funding for Science <ul><li>US Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$130 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSF, NIH, DOE, DOD, EPA, NASA, NOAA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apply for funds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranked by independent scientists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highly competitive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Major Research Laboratories
  40. 40. 2008: Federal Science Funding
  41. 41. Communication Among Scientists <ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Peer reviewed Journals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cornerstone of science </li></ul></ul>