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Spiral of Scientific Method Arun Joseph MPhil

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Research Methodology

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Spiral of Scientific Method Arun Joseph MPhil

  1. 1. Seminar on
  2. 2. Introduction  Knowledge gained as a result of everyday occurrences.  Formulation of generalizations based on first hand experience & the use of logical reasoning.  More efficient & effective approach to expand knowledge, Research.
  3. 3.  Research – Systematic quest for knowledge.  17th century gave birth to modern scientific movement.  Francis Bacon planted the seed of Scientific method.  Reaching conclusions on the basis of observed facts.
  4. 4.  Newton, Galileo's, and their successors eventually combined the inductive and deductive thought processes.  The synthesis of reason and observation produced the modern scientific method of research.  The philosophy common to all research methods, although they may vary from one science to another.
  5. 5. “The Scientific method is one and same in all branches (of science) and that method is the method of all logically trained minds…” ~ Karl Pearson Scientific method is pursuit of truth as determined by logical considerations.
  6. 6.  Relies on empirical evidence.  Utilizes relevant concepts.  Committed to only objective considerations.  Presupposes ethical neutrality.  Results into probabilistic predictions.
  7. 7.  Methodology is made known to all concerned for critical for critical scrutiny are for use in testing the conclusions through replication.  Aims at formulating most general axioms or what can be termed as scientific theories.
  8. 8. o Identification & definition of the problem. o Formulation of a hypothesis. o Implications of hypothesis through deductive reasoning.
  9. 9. o Collection and analysis of evidence. o Verification, rejection or modification of hypothesis.
  10. 10.  Characterized by never ending spiral.  Conceptualized by Dr S.R. Rangananathan. Helpful in the studies on the mode of development of subjects.
  11. 11. Four phases 1) Empirical Phase 2) Hypothesizing Phase 3) Deductive Phase 4) Verification Phase *Schematically represented in the following figure
  12. 12. • Four cardinal points > Nadir, Ascendant, Zenith and Descendant.  Nadir ~ Accumulation of facts obtained by observation, experimentation,…  Ascendant ~ The accumulation of inducted or empirical laws got out of the facts accumulated at the Nadir
  13. 13. Zenith ~ The fundamental laws formulated with the aid of institution of some degree or other so as to comprehend all the inducted or empirical laws accumulated at the ascendant.
  14. 14. Descendant ~ The accumulation of the deducted laws got from the fundamental laws at the Zenith.
  15. 15.  Quadrant 1 – Between Descendant & Nadir  Quadrant 2 – Between Nadir & Ascendant  Quadrant 3 – Between Ascendant & Zenith  Quadrant 4 – Between Zenith & Descendant
  16. 16. Corresponds to the stage in the development of the domain of universe of knowledge, confirming to scientific method.  Primary senses are used  Observations are made of knowees  Progression towards concreteness and regression from abstractness.  Facts are found and recorded.
  17. 17. Corresponds to the stage in which:  Intellect is used  Reasoning is made  Regression from particularization & progression towards generalization  Regression from concreteness & progression towards abstractness  Inducted / Empirical laws are formulated & recorded
  18. 18.  Intuition of some intensity  Inducted / empirical laws stand boiled down to a very small number of fundamental laws.  Regression from particularization & progression towards ultimate generalization  Fundamental laws are seized & recorded
  19. 19.  Intellect is used either by itself or aided  Reasoning is made with the aid of deductive logic  Progression towards concreteness and regression from abstractness  Deducted laws are derived and recorded
  20. 20.  Characterizes a discipline on the basis of it’s method of development rather than on the basis of it’s subject of study
  21. 21.  Any discipline may adopt the scientific method in it’s development  Certain specific attributes of the different subjects become clear  Different models of the development of subjects may be formulated to help the prediction of likely developments in each of subjects
  22. 22.  Facility for the prediction of the trend of development in a subject is variable to the classification and classifier in particular and the librarian in general  Spiral of Scientific method is open ended in nature * Following table gives examples of grouping of subjects with the aid of spirals
  23. 23. Particulars Examples of examples Completed one or more cycles in the spiral (i.e.: all the four quadrants) Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Psychology, Education, History, Political Science, Law Quadrants 1,2 &4 completed and the cycle likely to be completed in due to course Applied sciences such as Engineering, Chemical technology, Animal husbandry, Sociology Quadrants 3 & 4 alone Pure mathematics Quadrants 4 & 1 alone Speculative discipline such as Religion and metaphysics Quadrants 3 alone Mysticism, Fine arts, & Literature proper
  24. 24.  Characterizes a discipline on the basis of it’s method of development  Any discipline may adopt the scientific method in it’s development  Certain specific attributes of the different subjects become clear
  25. 25.  Different models of the development of subjects may be formulated to help the prediction of likely developments in each of the subjects or groups of them  Facility for the prediction of the trend of development in a subject is valuable to the classificationist and classifier in particular and the librarian in general.
  26. 26.  Busha, Charles.H., & Harter, Stephen.P(1980). Research methods in Librarianship. New York: A Subsidiary of Harcourt Brace Jonanovich, 3-21.  Devarajan, G.(2011). Prolegomena to Research Methodology. New Delhi: Ess Ess publications, 20-24.  G.B Singh.(2011). Research Methodology: Advanced techniques and statistical methods. Jaipur: Paradise publishers, 86- 106.
  27. 27.  Lalgarg, Bhanwar, Agarwal, Sulochana., & Renu Kavida.(2002). An introduction to research methodology. Jaipur: RBSA publishers, 6-11.  Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (p) limited, 9-10.  Neelameghan,A.(1967). Research on Universe of subjects .Bangalore: Documentation research and training centre, 339-341.  Seghal, R.L(1998). Designing and evaluation of research in library science. New Delhi: Ess Ess publications, 5-8.

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