Sustaining the Inquiry Cycle:
Digital Literacy Reframed

 Leo Casey,
 National College of Ireland


 Bertram Chip Bruce,
 ...
Background
Question: new digital media - rich opportunities for learning - but how do
  we translate to instructional prac...
Research*
Goal: to propose a new definition and conceptual framework for digital
  literacy in primary schools (DLIPS).

T...
Opening Question
How will we know digital literacy in a class
 room?
Something really useful…..
          Nice to eat - even better with
            cream

          Kids like banana splits

...
Something else that’s useful…..
             Captures the moment

             Kids like taking pictures

             Tea...
Digital Literacy -
The camera and the banana are
 (just) tools to support inquiry
Digital Literacy
the ability to understand and use information in
multiple formats from a wide range of sources
when it is...
Digital Literacy
Digital Literacy is the awareness, attitude and
ability of individuals to appropriately use digital
tools...
Digital Literacy - orientations
      Literacy as skills....           Literacy as social practice.....

individual have o...
Digital Literacy - orientations
                Literacy as social practice.....

              associated with communicat...
Digital Literacy - orientations
                Literacy as social practice.....

              associated with communicat...
Digital Literacy - orientations
                            Literacy as social practice.....
  A class room literacy
based...
Digital Literacy - orientations
                            Literacy as social practice.....
  A class room literacy
based...
Digital Literacy - orientations
                             Literacy as social practice.....
  A class room literacy
base...
A Model of Learning


The Inquiry Cycle (Bruce & Bishop, 2002)
Dewey
“If we roughly classify the impulses which are available in the school,
we may group them under four heads.
There is...
A new definition of digital literacy
“Digital literacy in primary schools involves
      pupils and teachers using digital...
The definition suggests three ways in which digital media
  practices can enhance the Inquiry Cycle.

   (i) practices can...
The DLIPS Research
This study investigated digital literacy in four Irish primary schools:
• disadvantaged schools – not s...
Target Group
• The schools were supported as part of a learning initiative
  whereby schools in the vicinity of Dublin’s D...
Approach

• We asked teachers to select an appropriate project-based activity for
  researchers to observe during the two ...
Approach
• Six investigators worked in pairs as observers.
• Devised and used a Component Checklist (next slide) to
  rate...
Elements of the Component Checklist
Scale for the Component “Ask”
Rating 1   Significant questions e.g. recognizing both the affordances and the constraints
 ...
Each project was classified as a ‘case’:

      Bills New Frock,
      Vikings,
      The Digital Dog,
      How to Make a...
Data Gathering and Analysis
Investigators collated data and posted to a protected web site – this facilitated
   independe...
Outcomes
(i) development and evaluation of the new definition and
    framework for digital literacy

(ii) findings on the...
(i) Framework - Inquiry Cycle Activity Summary




                                           Ask



                     ...
(i)   Framework - Inquiry Cycle Activity Summary
      example How to Make a Banana Split - component “Create”



        ...
(i) Framework - Digital Literacy Classification


                                    Digital Literacy

Digital media prac...
(ii) Findings on classroom practices
• Use of digital technology was generally observed as embedded within
  structured le...
(iii) Observations digital literacy and print
                      literacy
• Evidence that digital literacy and print li...
References
      Bruce, B. C., & Bishop, A. P. (2002). Using the web to support inquiry-based
          literacy developme...
Q&A
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010
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Presentation for Sustaining the Inquiry Cycle: Digital Literacy Reframed presented at the SITE Conference in San Diego on the 2nd of April 2010

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  • Digital literacy in primary school site presentation 2010

    1. 1. Sustaining the Inquiry Cycle: Digital Literacy Reframed Leo Casey, National College of Ireland Bertram Chip Bruce, University of Illinois, Champaign IL. 1
    2. 2. Background Question: new digital media - rich opportunities for learning - but how do we translate to instructional practice? Need a framework that deals with new digital technologies in class room practice. Purpose of such a framework: enable study and evaluation of new media engagement and learning facilitate planning of instruction - affordances and constraints of digital media Components of such a framework: The Inquiry Cycle (a model of learning drawing on Dewey) Definition of Digital Literacy (appropriate for primary schools)
    3. 3. Research* Goal: to propose a new definition and conceptual framework for digital literacy in primary schools (DLIPS). This definition draws on the theoretical work of Dewey and a model of learning based on the Inquiry Cycle (Bruce & Bishop, 2002). This definition and framework was developed and validated in a study of the classroom practices of eight classes in four Irish primary schools. * The research described in this report was supported by a grant from the Research & Development Committee of the Department of Education and Science. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policy of the Department of Education and Science. Full report available here
    4. 4. Opening Question How will we know digital literacy in a class room?
    5. 5. Something really useful….. Nice to eat - even better with cream Kids like banana splits Teacher organises a class activity: making a banana split ..can be eaten later!
    6. 6. Something else that’s useful….. Captures the moment Kids like taking pictures Teacher organises a class activity: taking pictures ..can be reviewed later!
    7. 7. Digital Literacy - The camera and the banana are (just) tools to support inquiry
    8. 8. Digital Literacy the ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers. The concept of literacy goes beyond simply being able to read; it has always meant the ability to read with meaning,
    9. 9. Digital Literacy Digital Literacy is the awareness, attitude and ability of individuals to appropriately use digital tools and facilities to identify, access, manage, integrate, evaluate, analyse and synthesize digital resources, construct new knowledge, create media
    10. 10. Digital Literacy - orientations Literacy as skills.... Literacy as social practice..... individual have or have not associated with communication and situation specific to technology or software about the process of constructing meaning measured by tests described in terms of tasks and activities
    11. 11. Digital Literacy - orientations Literacy as social practice..... associated with communication and situation about the process of constructing meaning described in terms of tasks and activities
    12. 12. Digital Literacy - orientations Literacy as social practice..... associated with communication and situation about the process of constructing meaning described in terms of tasks and activities
    13. 13. Digital Literacy - orientations Literacy as social practice..... A class room literacy based on what goes on - the practices. associated with communication and situation about the process of constructing meaning described in terms of tasks and activities
    14. 14. Digital Literacy - orientations Literacy as social practice..... A class room literacy based on what goes on - the practices. associated with communication and situation about the process of constructing meaning described in terms of tasks and activities
    15. 15. Digital Literacy - orientations Literacy as social practice..... A class room literacy based on what goes on - the practices. associated with communication and situation Therefore literacy about the process of constructing meaning described in terms of learning described in terms of tasks and activities
    16. 16. A Model of Learning The Inquiry Cycle (Bruce & Bishop, 2002)
    17. 17. Dewey “If we roughly classify the impulses which are available in the school, we may group them under four heads. There is the social instinct of the children as shown in conversation, personal intercourse, and communication. …. Then there is the instinct of making -- the constructive impulse . ….the instinct of investigation seems to grow out of the combination of the constructive impulse with the conversational. There is no distinction between experimental science for little children and the work done in the carpenter shop. Children simply like to do things, and watch to see what will happen…. And so the expressive impulse of the children, the art instinct, grows also out of the communicating and constructive instincts.” John Dewey. "The School and the Life of the Child," Chapter 2 in /The School and Society/. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (1907)
    18. 18. A new definition of digital literacy “Digital literacy in primary schools involves pupils and teachers using digital technology to enable, sustain and enrich all aspects of the inquiry cycle of learning as: ask, investigate, create, discuss and
    19. 19. The definition suggests three ways in which digital media practices can enhance the Inquiry Cycle. (i) practices can enable the cycle by offering new entry points such as taking pictures for investigating or facilitating discussion through on-line connection. (ii) practices can sustain the cycle through expansion as in when new questions arise from reflection facilitated by reviewing creative outputs such as a photo story or web site. (iii) digital media practices can enrich the Inquiry Cycle by facilitating different modes of experience and engagement such as visual (the fine detail of the flower), aural enrichment (the sound of the wind), narrative, music, text and symbols.
    20. 20. The DLIPS Research This study investigated digital literacy in four Irish primary schools: • disadvantaged schools – not schools with a long tradition of technology practice; • teachers who were at the early stages of use of digital tools but with just enough support for such practices to be within grasp. Investigation focused on the nature of student engagement and participation, and the connection between digital literacy and print literacy skills.
    21. 21. Target Group • The schools were supported as part of a learning initiative whereby schools in the vicinity of Dublin’s Digital Hub were given additional support with the integration of ICT - such as professional development workshops for teachers and visits by experts in the use of ICT and teaching. • The investigation focused on class projects rather than wider school contexts.
    22. 22. Approach • We asked teachers to select an appropriate project-based activity for researchers to observe during the two school visits – the choice of project was left entirely up to the teacher. • Data collected: • classroom observation using the Component Checklist, • interviews with school principals and teachers, • examination of student project outcomes and class photos, audio recordings and contemporaneous notes
    23. 23. Approach • Six investigators worked in pairs as observers. • Devised and used a Component Checklist (next slide) to rate observations • The Component Checklist was based on the Inquiry Cycle and other variables • Much attention was given to naming and characterizing each of the components and the levels within each component. For full component checklists see Casey et al (2009).
    24. 24. Elements of the Component Checklist
    25. 25. Scale for the Component “Ask” Rating 1 Significant questions e.g. recognizing both the affordances and the constraints and/or the nature of the mediation of the topic Rating 2 Inquiries tend to be more purposeful Rating 3 Inquiries tend to be somewhat limited in scope Rating 4 Some inquiry but questions are disconnected from one another and from other aspects of learning and from lived experience Rating 5 Little evidence of questioning or inquiry
    26. 26. Each project was classified as a ‘case’: Bills New Frock, Vikings, The Digital Dog, How to Make a Banana Split, The Three Little Pigs, Fractions, Memories
    27. 27. Data Gathering and Analysis Investigators collated data and posted to a protected web site – this facilitated independent data input by each observer and subsequent comparisons of individual component ratings. ----------X1------- O1 ------------class---project------------------ O2----X2------- X1 first teacher interview X2 second teacher interview (optional) O1 first class observation O2 second class observation Researchers observed in pairs independently classifying the activities.
    28. 28. Outcomes (i) development and evaluation of the new definition and framework for digital literacy (ii) findings on the practices of primary teachers and pupils using digital media in classroom activities and (iii) observations on the relationship between digital media and the use of print media.
    29. 29. (i) Framework - Inquiry Cycle Activity Summary Ask Investigate Create Communicate Reflect How is… facilitated by activity centered on: Teacher? Group work? Print media? Digital media? Other materials?
    30. 30. (i) Framework - Inquiry Cycle Activity Summary example How to Make a Banana Split - component “Create” Cre a t e Activity centered on… Description Teacher Directs the groups in the desert creation and assists pupils with Photo Story movie Group work Groups make banana splits, take photos and then make Photo Story movies, with support form resource teacher Print media Use of the printed recipe Digital media Pupils use Photo Story software to create movies about making banana splits Other materials Recipe ingredients
    31. 31. (i) Framework - Digital Literacy Classification Digital Literacy Digital media practices transform the inquiry cycle of learning Digital media practices act toward enabling and sustaining the inquiry cycle of learning Digital media practices act toward usage skills Digital media practices act toward learning technical skills Digital media practices not used
    32. 32. (ii) Findings on classroom practices • Use of digital technology was generally observed as embedded within structured learning activities directed at curriculum outcomes. • Tools such as the digital camera, audio devices facilitated pupils in different roles and group work. • Digital outputs such as photo-stories, podcasts and video served as project goals - usually the culmination of a broad range of preparation and production activities
    33. 33. (iii) Observations digital literacy and print literacy • Evidence that digital literacy and print literacy could be mutually supportive – for example, text was used for narrative and dialogue in storyboards, pupils wrote accounts of their activities and many of the projects were derived from books that were being read in class. • Teachers embedded print literacy tasks into pupil activities as they planned and carried out their digital projects. • This research did not extend to measure any uplift in reading scores over time.
    34. 34. References Bruce, B. C., & Bishop, A. P. (2002). Using the web to support inquiry-based literacy development. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45(8), 706-714. Casey, L., Bruce, B. C., Martin, A., Shiel, G., Brown, C., Hallissy, M., et al. (2009). Digital literacy: New approaches to participation and inquiry learning to foster literacy skills among primary school children. Retrieved 19th of October 2009 from http://hdl.handle.net/2142/9765. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education (60th Anniversary ed.). Indianapolis: Kappa Delta Pi. Dewey, J. (1991/1938). Experience and education (original work published 1938). In J. A. Boydston (Ed.), John dewey: The latter works, 1938-1939 (Vol. 13). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press Gilster, P. (1997). Digital literacy. New York: Wiley Computer Publishing. Martin, A. (2006). Literacies for the Digital Age. In A. Martin & D. Madigan (Eds.), Digital Literacies for Learning (pp. 3-25). London: Facet Publications.
    35. 35. Q&A
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