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Topic
EFFECTOFDIGITALLITERACYONTHEACADEMIC
PERFORMANCEOFSTUDENTSATHIGHER
EDUCATIONLEVELINPAKISTAN
Presented By
Qaisar Abbas, PhD-Scholar (Education)
Roll No.301
Supervisor
Dr. Shafqat Hussain
Chairman Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad
Introduction
• Advancements in technology are forming new possibilities,
practices, demands and hence new, literacies. New literacies
of this era are collection of some important abilities, which
are considered to create and communicate meanings,
develop one-self, and participate in a fast changing society.
• As, the world is converting into digital and everything is
shifting online such as various kinds of shopping stores,
teaching and learning platforms, banking system, selling and
purchasing platforms and much more.
• This innovative environment demands some particular skills
to be successful in every field of life as well as in the field of
education (Churchill, 2009). The following literacies of this
era are shown in figure 2.1 at next slide.
Introduction
Figure 2.1: Today’s new literacies (Churchill, 2009, Slide 5)
Introduction
Concept of Digital Literacy
• Traditional literacy skills and practices involve reading and writing in print
formats, or in the print environment (Kymes, 2005; Colwell, 2013;
Afflerbach et al., 2014; Nauman & Salmeron, 2016), whereas engaging in
literary practices in electronic formats, or in the digital environment, falls
under the category of digital literacies.
• The term digital literacy was based upon various former literacies like visual
literacy, technological literacy, computer literacy, ICT literacy and
information literacy. Bawden (2001) explained the first definition of “Digital
Literacy” which was made in the anonymous book of Gilster (1997). Gilster
highlights the idea that digital literacy is not only about computer
operating, but about the concepts that we master. He, told as “capability to
understand and to use information in multiple formats from a wide variety
of sources when it is presented through computers”.
• According to Hargittai (2002) digital literacy is “the ability of any individual
to find, organize, understand, evaluate, and produce information using
digital technology”. Digitally well-educated person can communicate and
effort more efficiently, as compared to non-digitally literate.
Introduction
• Digital literacy is the awareness, attitude and abilities of people to properly usage
of digital gadgets and facilities of identifying, accessing, managing, integrating,
evaluating, analyzing and synthesizing resources available online, constructing new
knowledge, creating media expressions, and communicating with others, in the
perspective of specific life situations, in order to enable constructive social action;
and to reflect upon this process (Martin & Grudziecki, 2006).
• According to Rubble and Bailey (2007) digital literacy is “The capability to use
digital technology and knowing when and how to use it.”
• The interpretation of digital literacy as a survival skill, a life-skill or a way of life and
not primarily linked with formal education, has recently been promoted (Ministry
of Education, 2003; Eshet-Alkalai, 2004; Martin, 2006; & European Commission,
2008).
• Jacobson and Mackey (2013) proclaim that digital literacy is related to reasoning
and American Library Association ALA (2011) described as digital literacy is
person’s abilities about usage of ICTs to discover, assess, create, and communicate
obtained information, using intellectual and technical skills. Thus, digital Literacy is
known as broad concept which contains various literacies.
Introduction
Sub-Disciplines of Digital Literacy
• Additionally Ranieri, Fini, and Calvani (2009) stated the following sub-
disciplines that cover the field of digital literacy:
Sub-Disciplines Definition
Computer Literacy It deals with the knowledge and understanding about the usage of
computer in addition to application software for practical determinations
(Martin & Grudziecki, 2006).
Information Literacy Information literacy deals with searching online sources, evaluating,
combining the material, analyzing the trustworthiness of sources, using
and citing legally and ethically, concentrating subjects and framing
questions & hypothesis for research in perfect, effective, and efficient
manner (Eisenberg, Lowe & Spitzer, in Meyer et al., 2010)
Introduction
Sub-Disciplines of Digital Literacy.
Sub-Disciplines Definition
Technology Literacy Technology deals with computer skills. It is the capability in order to
utilize computers and other technology to enhance learning, production,
and performance (United States Department of Education, 1996).
Visual Literacy Visual literacy deals with the capability of reading, interpreting, and
understanding information offered in visual images; the capability to turn
all types of information into pictures, graphics, or forms that assist
communicate the information; a collection of skills that empower people to
discriminate and interpret the visible actions, objects or symbols, natural or
constructed, that they encounter in the environment (Stokes, 2002).
Introduction
Sub-Disciplines of Digital Literacy.
Obviously, DL considered as the basic ability of technological capabilities and knowledge
to the engagement in complex, non-linear, cognitive and social activities that enable a
person to live, learn, and work in a digital era (JISC, 2009).
Sub-Disciplines Definition
Communication Literacy Communication literacy deals with the capability of communicating
efficiently as individuals and then work collaboratively in groups, by
publishing technologies (such as word processor, database,
spreadsheet, drawing tools…..), the internet besides other electronic
and telecommunication tools (Winnepeg School Division, 2010)
Media Literacy
Media literacy deals with a sequence of communication competencies,
comprising the capability of accessing, analyzing, evaluating and
communicating information in a diversity of forms consisting of print
and non-print messages (Alliance for a Media Literate America, 2010).
Examples of Digital Literacy Non-Examples of Digital Literacy
Understanding how to use web browsers, search engines, email,
text, wiki, blogs, Photoshop, PowerPoint, video creation/editing
software , etc. to showcase learning
Learning just how to use multi-media to research and
investigate a specific topic
Evaluating online resources for accuracy/trustworthiness of
information
Using online media without any knowledge or
guidelines on how to judge whether the information
is accurate or trustworthy.
Using online classes to enhance learning in the classroom.
Encouraging students to use technology to showcase their
learning.
Technology as a specials class separate from the daily
classroom.
Choosing appropriate media to showcase learning - understand
what platforms will best illustrate your message and learning to
peers and educators.
Typing papers (research, opinion or narrative stories)
on a computer or using search engines only to find
information.
Using an interactive whiteboard in the classroom for lessons and
allowing students to use the interactive whiteboard on a daily
basis.
Children dropping out of school to independently
learn without guidance
Using the web ( web sites video, music) to enhance the learning of
your students
Having a computer lab in your institution.
Students and teachers creating online content to be utilized both
in and out of the classroom.
Examples (RubbleandBailey,2007)
Rationale of the Study
• The current environment of digital technologies established a concept
that people of this environment, particularly students, are unable to
combat with the digital world without achieving proper skills of digital
literacy. Commonly, at academic level it is clear that digital literacy
might enhance the skills of the students to use computers and online
resources in educational field in productive ways. In the context of our
country, Pakistan, digital technologies are still under involving phase in
most of the organizations related to education. Hence, in this
technological era, students have to use various technological tools and
resources for learning during their higher studies to achieve their goals
of education in this modern world. Therefore, this study aimed to
discover effect of digital literacy on the academic performance of the
students.
Statement of the Problem
• As Pakistan is lacking behind globally with respect to the
digital literacy, there is earnest need to peep into the
situation and take maximum benefits of digital literacy
because in this era of innovation and technological
advancement, digital literacy is recognized as the new label
for education. There is no choice for teachers and students to
gain a level of digital literacy to walk with the rising digital
world. Governments as well as higher education institutions
are also striving hard to provide environments for online
learning to acquire some levels of digital literacy of the
common people as well as the university students. Hence,
this study focused, about effect of digital literacy, on the
academic performance of students.
Objectives of the Study
• The objectives of this research were:
1. To discover the perceived level of digital literacy of the students at Higher
Education Level.
2. To investigate the effect of digital literacy on the academic performance of
the students at Higher Education Level.
3. To inspect the effect of digital literacy on the communication skills of the
students at Higher Education Level.
4. To probe the effect of digital literacy on the research skills of the students at
Higher Education Level.
5. To Probe the effect of digital literacy on the confidence level of the students
at Higher Education Level.
6. To investigate the barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy at
Higher Education Level.
7. To compare the significant difference in the perceptions of students (gender-
wise) and (public & private wise) regarding digital literacy, communication
skills, research skills, confidence and barriers in learning and practices of
digital literacy.
Research Questions
The below were the research questions of the study:
1. What is the perceived level of digital literacy of the students?
2. Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy
and the academic performance of the students?
3. Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy
and communication skills of the students?
4. Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy
and research skills of the students?
5. Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy
and the confidence level of the students?
6. What are the barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy?
7. Is there any significant difference between the opinions of male and female scholar
regarding perceived level of digital literacy, communication skills, research skills,
regarding confidence and barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy?
8. Is there any significant difference between the opinions of students of public and
private universities regarding perceived level of digital literacy, communication
skills, research skills, confidence barriers in learning and practices of digital
literacy?
Significance of the Study
• The findings of this study would be significant and may be helpful for
the students, teachers, and institutions of higher education, policy
makers, and government to distinguish the gaps regarding integration
of digital literacy in teaching-learning process in this technological era
as digital literacy is acknowledged as an important tool of daily life in
21st century and new label for education.
• Additionally, the study is significant as it has discovered the perceived
level of skills of digital literacy among the scholars. It is backbone for
discovering effects of digital literacy on communication skills, research
skills, confidence skills, barriers, and the performance of the scholars at
higher education level in Pakistan.
Delimitation of the Study
• Keeping in view the time and resources, this research study
was delimited to:
• Higher ranked 10 universities by HEC
• 05 public Universities
• 05 private Universities
• located in the province of the Punjab, Pakistan.
• Perception based.
Research Methodology
• Research Design
The present research was designed to discover “Effect of digital
literacy on the academic performance of students at higher
education level in Pakistan”. The researcher adopted mixed
method followed by “QUAN-QUAL” approach for the study. A
questionnaire and semi-structured interviews of students were
used for data collection.
• Research population
The population of this study consisted of all the students of
M.S/M.Phil & PhD of higher ranked 10 universities (05 public
and 05 private) located in the province of the Punjab, Pakistan.
Research Methodology
• Sample of the Study
Eight hundred (800) students of MS/M.Phil and PhD scholars were
selected as sample of the study. Multistage sampling technique was used
for the selection of the sample.
• Research Instruments
Two research instruments were used in this study. The first one was a
questionnaire consisting of two parts and 75 statements. Part first of
questionnaire, having 35 statements, was adapted and part second of
questionnaire , having 40 statements, was developed by the researcher.
The second one was semi-structured interview schedule for qualitative
data collection.
Research Methodology
• Validity & Reliability of the Instruments
• The face and content validity of the both instruments was confirmed
through obtaining expert opinion from five Professors of Social
Sciences (Education Department), two of Computer Science and one
language expert. Their suggestions were discussed with the supervisor
and necessary amendments were made in the instruments.
• Later on pilot testing phase was carried out through validated
questionnaire on 50 university students to obtain their responses for
improvement and to reduce errors. In the light of responses received
through pilot testing, the instrument was slightly amended and shaped
to its present status. Later on scale reliability test was computed as
Croanbach’s alpha coefficient appeared (α= .83) which was acceptable
to use for data collection.
Research Methodology
Factor wise reliability of the questionnaire
Factors Items Cronbach alpha value
Digital Literacy (5 sub factors) 35 .83
Communication skills 09 .86
Research skills 12 .88
Confidence 09 .79
Barriers 10 .83
Total factors: 09 75 .83
(Overall reliability)
Research Methodology
• Data Collection
Data was collected from the respondents through various techniques like,
personal visits, online research tool, using Google form, e-mail etc.
• Data Analysis
Descriptive statistics (Mean, SD) were used to discover the perceived
level of students’ digital literacy skills, communication skills, research
skills, confidence, and barriers in learning digital literacy.
Pearson r test was computed to explore relationship between digital
literacy and academic performance, communication skills, research
skills and confidence of the students.
t-test was applied to discover difference between the views of male and
female students & public and private sector regarding perceptions
towards digital literacy, communication skills, research skills, confidence
and barriers towards learning digital literacy.
Results of the Study
• Descriptive analysis is followed by mean and standard deviation for
discovering how highly the students perceive digital literacy. In this
regard the criteria below was adopted to judge the students’
perceptions:(Rabee & Shreikh, 2018).
Mean: Perceiving Degree:
Less than 1.8 -Very low
1.8 to 2.6 -Low
2.6 to 3.4 -Moderate
3.4 to 4.2 -High
4.2 and above -Very High
Results of the Study
• Objective 1: To discover the level of digital literacy of the students
• RQ 1: What is the perceived level of digital literacy of the students?
• Results show that students had high level of digital literacy skills in
three factors but had moderate level in two factors of digital literacy.
Sr. Factors of Digital Literacy
Mean
SD
Perceiving
degree
Rank
1. Understanding of digital literacy 3.47 0.99 High 3
2. Digital literacy skills in finding information through digital tools 3.68 0.96 High 1
3. Digital literacy skills in critically evaluating information, online
interaction, and online tools
3.54 1.02 High 2
4. Digital literacy skills in managing and communicating
information
3.17 1.07 Moderate 5
5. Digital literacy skills in collaboration and share of digital content 3.29 1.04 Moderate 4
Overall Mean 3.43 1.01 High -
Results of the Study
• Objective 2: To investigate the effect of digital literacy on the academic
performance of the students at Higher Education Level
• RQ 2: Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of
digital literacy and the academic performance of the students?
Relationship between digital literacy and academic performance of the students:
The statistical information revealed that there is negative correlation between
digital literacy and CGPA of the students(r= -.025). The result of P-value (.475, P >
0.01 & 0.05 levels) also verified that there is insignificant and negative
correlation between digital literacy and academic performance (CGPA). It
concluded that digital literacy had no effect on students’ CGPA.
Variables Digital_ Literacy CGPA_ Last_ Exam
Digital_ Literacy
Pearson Correlation -.025
Sig. (2-tailed) .475
N= 800 800
CGPA_ Last_ Exam
Pearson Correlation -.025
Sig. (2-tailed) .475
N= 800 800
Results of the Study
• Objective 3: To examine the effect of digital literacy on communication skills of the students
at Higher Education Level.
• RQ 3: Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy and
communication skills of the students?
Relationship between effects of digital literacy and students’ communication skills:
The table above revealed a positive correlation between digital literacy and communication
skills (r= .705). The result of P-value (.000, P < 0.01 & 0.05 levels) also verified that there is
statistical significant and positive correlation between digital literacy and communication skills.
It concluded that digital literacy had significant effect on communication skills of the students.
Variables Digital_ Literacy Communication Skills
Digital_ Literacy
Pearson Correlation .705**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000*
N 800 800
Communication Skills
Pearson Correlation .705**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000*
N 800 800
**.Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*.Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Results of the Study
• Objective 4: To probe the effect of digital literacy on research skills of the
students at Higher Education Level.
• RQ 4: Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of
digital literacy and research skills of the students?
Relationship between digital literacy and students’ research skills:
The table above exposed a positive correlation among digital literacy and
research skills (r= .624). The result of P-value (.000, P < 0.01 & 0.05 levels) also
proved that there is statistical significant and positive correlation between digital
literacy and research skills. It revealed that digital literacy had significant effects
on research skills of the students.
Variables Digital_ Literacy Research_ Skills
Digital_ Literacy
Pearson Correlation .624**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000*
N 800 800
Research_ Skills
Pearson Correlation .624**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000*
N 800 800
**.Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*.Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Results of the Study
• Objective 5: To Probe the effect of digital literacy on confidence level of the
students at Higher Education Level.
• RQ 5: Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital
literacy and the confidence of the students?
Relationship between digital literacy and students’ confidence skills:
The statistical evidences of this table reported that there is positive correlation
among digital literacy and confidence (r= .638). The result of P-value (.000, P < 0.01
& 0.05 levels) also evidenced that there is statistical significant and positive
correlation between digital literacy and confidence. It concluded that digital
literacy had significant effect on confidence skills of the students.
variables Digital_ Literacy Confidence
Digital_ Literacy
Pearson Correlation .638**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000*
N 800 800
Confidence
Pearson Correlation .638**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000*
N 800 800
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Results of the Study
• Objective 6: To investigate the barriers in learning and practices of digital
literacy at Higher Education Level.
• RQ 6: What are the barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy?
Means and SDs of students’ responses about barriers in learning Digital Literacy factor (N=800):
Result shows students perceptions that barriers in learning DL are High.
Sr. Statements
Barriers in learning DL:
Mean
SD
Perceiving
Degree
Rank
1. Lack of students’ interest 3.58 1.06 High 6
2. Lack of teachers’ interest 3.42 1.11 High 10
3. Lack of time to learn about digital technologies 3.50 1.14 High 9
4. Lack of teachers’ knowledge about digital technologies 3.51 1.17 High 8
5. Lack of students’ knowledge about digital technologies 3.65 1.07 High 5
6. Lack of teachers’ training about digital technologies 3.72 1.07 High 4
7. Insufficient internet facilities at University 3.54 1.14 High 7
8. Low speed Internet issues at University 3.86 1.09 High 1
9. The cost of internet connection/packages is too high 3.78 1.07 High 2
10. Lack of availability of digital devices at University 3.79 1.09 High 3
Overall Mean: 3.63 1.10 High -
Results of the Study
• Objective 7: To compare the significant difference in the perceptions of students (gender
wise) regarding perceived level of digital literacy, communication skills, research skills,
confidence and barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy.
• RQ 7: Is there any significant difference between the opinions of male and female scholars
regarding perceived level of digital literacy, communication skills, research skills, regarding
confidence and barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy?
• Results presented in above table show that there was no significant difference between the
perceptions of students belonging to male & female gender regarding said factors.
Factors Gender N Mean SD df t-value p-value
Digital Literacy
Male 389 3.5282 .61310
798 2.209 .027
Female 411 3.4225 .60879
Communication skills
Male 389 3.6992 .80876
798 2.342 .019
Female 411 3.5693 .65567
Research Skills
Male 389 3.6702 .62575
798 .987 .324
Female 411 3.6187 .68240
Confidence skills
Male 389 3.7369 .70234
798 1.065 .273
Female 411 3.6797 .64569
Barriers
Male 389 3.6213 .74049
798 -1.066 .287
Female 411 3.7072 1.13739
Results of the Study
• Objective 8: To compare the significant difference in the perceptions of students of (public
& private sector university wise) regarding digital literacy, communication skills, research
skills, confidence and regarding barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy.
• RQ 8. Is there any significant difference between the opinions of students of public and
private universities regarding perceived level of digital literacy, communication skills,
research skills, confidence barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy?
Results presented in above table show that there was no significant difference between the
perceptions of students of private and public universities regarding said factors.
Factors Uni. Sector N Mean SD df t-value p-value
Digital Literacy
Private 300 3.4838 .60807
798 1.561 .119
public 500 3.4138 .62314
Communication skills
Private 300 3.6296 .70944
798 .946 .344
public 500 3.5804 .71519
Research Skills
Private 300 3.6377 .65868
798 .325 .745
public 500 3.6219 .66689
Confidence
Private 300 3.7113 .66915
798 .583 .560
public 500 3.6830 .66018
Barriers
Private 300 3.6858 .96789
798 .426 .670
public 500 3.6543 1.07878
Analysis of Qualitative Data
On the basis of quantitative data results, 20 students (10 having low digital
literacy level and high CGPA and 10 having high digital literacy level and low
CGPA) were identified and interviewed for collection of qualitative data. The
qualitative data was analyzed through thematic analysis. Considering each
factor, following themes were prepared:
Theme 1: Students’ awareness, and involvement in digital practices
Q.1. How do you perceive digital literacy?
Majority of the respondents stated that digital literacy is something about
the use of a computer, smartphone, and other technological devices while
the minority of the respondents explained digital literacy is the study
about information and communication technology (ICT). The minority of
the respondents said that digital literacy is to search properly on internet
in a short time and proper handling of MS Office Package.
Analysis of Qualitative Data
Theme 2: Managing and communicating information
Q.2. How can you share your own work to website, blog, and online forum?
Most of the respondents answered that they could share their own work
to others through social networking sites such as Facebook, Whatsapp,
Twitter, and E-mail. None of them did know how to develop a website,
write a blog and participate in an online forum. Some respondents of M.
Phil said that they could make a channel on YouTube and could share their
content there which they could write related to some informative topic
and could share it easily on social networking sites. Minority of the
respondents told that through e-mail they could communicate
information to other people.
Majority of the respondents answered that they could create audio, video
files through smartphones and could easily share with other people but
they had no such skills to create a webpage using online resources.
Analysis of Qualitative Data
Theme 3: Digital Literacy and communication skills
Q.3. How can digital literacy improve your communication skills?
• Majority of the respondents exposed that they had sufficient skills
regarding the use of smartphone applications and through every day
using various websites, Facebook pages, Whatsapp groups, YouTube,
they could improve their communication skills.
• Respondents also told that studying good research articles empowered
them a good framework for reading, speech and motivated students for
good writing and communication.
• Students declared that they knew many ways to improve
communication through Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, Messenger,
Whatsapp, YouTube, Email, Chat Rooms etc.
Analysis of Qualitative Data
Theme 4: Digital Literacy and research skills
Q.4. How can digital literacy improve your academic work and research skills?
• Majority of the respondents answered that practicing and studying various books,
articles, journals, and online database had improved their academic and research
skills.
• Respondents exposed that following the teachers’ guidelines can improve
students’ academic work and research skills.
• Respondents said that by using Digital literacy, they could find out the authentic
and valid piece of work, different sources of information, type of technology more
effective in their work. They could improve the quality of his work.
• Respondents voiced that reading online articles and books had improved their
research skills but sometimes it was difficult to access the books related to
research in the library, so digital literacy was the only way that they could use to
search and improve their academic work and research skills.
Analysis of Qualitative Data
Theme 5: Digital Literacy and confidence ability
Q.5. How can digital literacy improve your confidence in sharing your own work to
others?
• Most of the respondents explained that practicing various online trainings through
computer and internet students could improve their confidence. Majority of the
respondents told that participating in various seminars and workshops they could
improve their confidence to share their own work to others. Some responded that
Digital literacy gives us a platform to present our thinking on different events on
national and international issues. It provided them with authentic and valid
information. Interaction with different ethnic social groups and different genders
improved their confidence level. They not only could talk but also make live video
calls.
• Respondents exposed that as they studied a number of blogs of different people
from different cultures, and observed their opinion about any issue, so it gave
them the confidence to share their work with other people.
Analysis of Qualitative Data
Theme 6: Barrier in Learning Digital Literacy
Q.6. How can these barriers in digital literacy be removed, please suggest some
measures? (Lack of students’ interest, Lack of time to learn about digital tools, insufficient internet facility, low
speed internet, non-availability of digital devices inside university and high cost of internet packages).
• Majority of the respondents replied that teachers should motivate students to learn
digital literacy, ICT literacy and the use of other software related to their studies,
government should offer free high-speed internet facility inside university, various types
of digital devices should be installed inside the University, low packages of the Internet
should be introduced, teachers should train the students about ICT skills during
coursework. For insufficient internet facility: they recommended the use of Zong 3g/4g
net packages.
• At the university level, the Government should allocate the amount to purchase the
necessary digital devices. Easily available devices should be provided to students like
iPods and Mobile phones etc. It was also discovered through interviews that, for
improving students’ interest in digital literacy, teachers should give guidance to the
students. So, first of all the teachers should play their role and then university should
try to remove the barriers regarding learning and practices of digital literacy.
Analysis of Qualitative Data
Theme 7: Promoting Digital Literacy
Q.7. What are your suggestions about promoting digital literacy at University
Level?
• Most of the respondents suggested that introducing a comprehensive course
and regular training sessions regarding digital literacy could promote digital
literacy level of the students. 1) Awareness should be created among different
ethnic groups of the community. 2) Higher authority of University should
arrange different workshops and seminars about digital literacy. 3) For Lectures
on job, courses should be arranged. 4) Easy access to digital library which
provide students online materials. 5) Digital literacy should be an essential part
of each educational program.
• Respondents expressed that for promoting digital literacy, availability and easy
access to digital devices should be ensured inside University. A fast and free
Wifi in all the areas of University must be provided for promoting digital
literacy.
Analysis of Qualitative Data
Theme 8: Academic Performance
Q.8. Do you believe that your CGPA is due to digital literacy skills or any
other factor? Explain:
• Mostly respondents replied that CGPA is solely linked with the
syllabus of the program and by completing teachers’ assignments
and through other academic work CGPA could be improved.
• Majority of the respondents exposed that by following teachers’
directions and guidelines students could achieve high CGPA in their
coursework. During interview majority of the respondents said that
their higher CGPA was due to regular studying in departmental
library and handouts provided by the teachers.
Conclusions of the Study
• The study concluded that the students had high level of digital literacy skills
in three factors (1.understanding about digital literacy factor, 2.finding
information through the use of digital tools factor, and 3.critically evaluating
information online interaction and online tools factor) and had a moderate
level of digital literacy skills in two factors (1.digital literacy in managing and
communicating information & 2.collaboration and share of digital
contents).
• The study also concluded that digital literacy had significant effects on
communication skills, research skills and confidence of the students but
digital literacy had an insignificant effect on the CGPA of the students.
• Qualitative data concluded that CGPA is solely linked with the syllabus of the
program of study and after completion of teachers’ assignments and other
academic work, CGPA could be improved. Study also concluded that after
following the directions and guidelines of teachers, students could achieve
higher CGPA in their coursework.
Recommendations of the Study
• The university management as well as government agencies should
plan various types of trainings/workshop/seminars for students
regarding improvement of Digital Literacy in managing and
communicating information factor & in collaboration and share of
digital content factor using digital tools.
• The concerned staff of general category universities as well as
government agencies should adopt necessary measure to decrease
various barriers in learning Digital Literacy inside the universities
culture.
• During course work of MS/MPhil & PhD a compulsory course regarding
digital literacy should be launched for students to train them with
various online tools related to digital literacy.
Recommendations of the Study
• It is also recommended that government should plan to develop
maximum students’ interest towards digital literacy, teachers interest
towards digital literacy, sufficient facilities for learning digital literacy,
installation of various digital devices inside universities for students’
practices, compulsory course about digital literacy for students and
teachers before higher studies, various trainings regarding digital
technologies for teachers and students, provision of sufficient un-
interrupted internet facility with high speed and low cost internet
packages to improve the digital literacy of the students.
• This research study was completed in public and private universities
belonging to general category located in the province of the Punjab,
Pakistan. It is recommended that same kind of studies should be explored
at other category universities of Pakistan.
• This study discovered perceived level of digital literacy only; it is
recommended that future studies may be conducted to discover actual
level of digital literacy through experimental research design.
References
• American Library Association. (2013). Digital literacy, libraries and public policy. Washington, DC:
Office for Information Technology Policy.
• Belshaw, D.A.J. (2011). What is Digital Literacy? A Pragmatic investigation. Published Ph.D.
Dissertation, Durham University, United Kingdom.
• Hargittai, E. (2002). Second-level digital divide: differences in people’s online skills, First Monday,
vol. 7(4), pp. 1–19.
• Jones-Kavalier, B. R. & Flannigan, S. L. (2006). Connecting the digital dots: Literacy of the 21st
century. Educause Quarterly, 29(2), 8-10.
• Litt, E. (2013). Measuring users' internet skills: A review of past assessments and a look toward
the future, New Media Society, 15(4), 612-630.
• Meyers, E., Erickson, I., Small, R. (2013). Digital literacy and informal learning environments: an
introduction. Learning, media and technology, 38(4), 355-367.
• Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2007) Working Party on The
Information Economy. Broadband And ICT Access And Use By Households And Individuals.
Available at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/44/11/39869349.pdf
• Prensky, M. (2001a). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6.
• UNESCO (2004). The Plurality of Literacy and its Implications for Policies. UNESCO Education
Sector. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001362/136246e.pdf
• UNESCO (2011). Digital literacy in Education. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in
Education: Moscow
• Van, D. J. (2005). The Deepening Divide. Inequality in The Information Society. London: Sage
Publications.
Thanks All
For more information
Please contact
Dr. Qaisar Abbas
GC University Faisalabad Pakistan
E-mai: drqaj@yahoo.com
Cell:+92-333-6700905

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Digital literacy by Dr Qaisar Abbas

  • 1.
  • 2. Topic EFFECTOFDIGITALLITERACYONTHEACADEMIC PERFORMANCEOFSTUDENTSATHIGHER EDUCATIONLEVELINPAKISTAN Presented By Qaisar Abbas, PhD-Scholar (Education) Roll No.301 Supervisor Dr. Shafqat Hussain Chairman Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad
  • 3. Introduction • Advancements in technology are forming new possibilities, practices, demands and hence new, literacies. New literacies of this era are collection of some important abilities, which are considered to create and communicate meanings, develop one-self, and participate in a fast changing society. • As, the world is converting into digital and everything is shifting online such as various kinds of shopping stores, teaching and learning platforms, banking system, selling and purchasing platforms and much more. • This innovative environment demands some particular skills to be successful in every field of life as well as in the field of education (Churchill, 2009). The following literacies of this era are shown in figure 2.1 at next slide.
  • 4. Introduction Figure 2.1: Today’s new literacies (Churchill, 2009, Slide 5)
  • 5. Introduction Concept of Digital Literacy • Traditional literacy skills and practices involve reading and writing in print formats, or in the print environment (Kymes, 2005; Colwell, 2013; Afflerbach et al., 2014; Nauman & Salmeron, 2016), whereas engaging in literary practices in electronic formats, or in the digital environment, falls under the category of digital literacies. • The term digital literacy was based upon various former literacies like visual literacy, technological literacy, computer literacy, ICT literacy and information literacy. Bawden (2001) explained the first definition of “Digital Literacy” which was made in the anonymous book of Gilster (1997). Gilster highlights the idea that digital literacy is not only about computer operating, but about the concepts that we master. He, told as “capability to understand and to use information in multiple formats from a wide variety of sources when it is presented through computers”. • According to Hargittai (2002) digital literacy is “the ability of any individual to find, organize, understand, evaluate, and produce information using digital technology”. Digitally well-educated person can communicate and effort more efficiently, as compared to non-digitally literate.
  • 6. Introduction • Digital literacy is the awareness, attitude and abilities of people to properly usage of digital gadgets and facilities of identifying, accessing, managing, integrating, evaluating, analyzing and synthesizing resources available online, constructing new knowledge, creating media expressions, and communicating with others, in the perspective of specific life situations, in order to enable constructive social action; and to reflect upon this process (Martin & Grudziecki, 2006). • According to Rubble and Bailey (2007) digital literacy is “The capability to use digital technology and knowing when and how to use it.” • The interpretation of digital literacy as a survival skill, a life-skill or a way of life and not primarily linked with formal education, has recently been promoted (Ministry of Education, 2003; Eshet-Alkalai, 2004; Martin, 2006; & European Commission, 2008). • Jacobson and Mackey (2013) proclaim that digital literacy is related to reasoning and American Library Association ALA (2011) described as digital literacy is person’s abilities about usage of ICTs to discover, assess, create, and communicate obtained information, using intellectual and technical skills. Thus, digital Literacy is known as broad concept which contains various literacies.
  • 7. Introduction Sub-Disciplines of Digital Literacy • Additionally Ranieri, Fini, and Calvani (2009) stated the following sub- disciplines that cover the field of digital literacy: Sub-Disciplines Definition Computer Literacy It deals with the knowledge and understanding about the usage of computer in addition to application software for practical determinations (Martin & Grudziecki, 2006). Information Literacy Information literacy deals with searching online sources, evaluating, combining the material, analyzing the trustworthiness of sources, using and citing legally and ethically, concentrating subjects and framing questions & hypothesis for research in perfect, effective, and efficient manner (Eisenberg, Lowe & Spitzer, in Meyer et al., 2010)
  • 8. Introduction Sub-Disciplines of Digital Literacy. Sub-Disciplines Definition Technology Literacy Technology deals with computer skills. It is the capability in order to utilize computers and other technology to enhance learning, production, and performance (United States Department of Education, 1996). Visual Literacy Visual literacy deals with the capability of reading, interpreting, and understanding information offered in visual images; the capability to turn all types of information into pictures, graphics, or forms that assist communicate the information; a collection of skills that empower people to discriminate and interpret the visible actions, objects or symbols, natural or constructed, that they encounter in the environment (Stokes, 2002).
  • 9. Introduction Sub-Disciplines of Digital Literacy. Obviously, DL considered as the basic ability of technological capabilities and knowledge to the engagement in complex, non-linear, cognitive and social activities that enable a person to live, learn, and work in a digital era (JISC, 2009). Sub-Disciplines Definition Communication Literacy Communication literacy deals with the capability of communicating efficiently as individuals and then work collaboratively in groups, by publishing technologies (such as word processor, database, spreadsheet, drawing tools…..), the internet besides other electronic and telecommunication tools (Winnepeg School Division, 2010) Media Literacy Media literacy deals with a sequence of communication competencies, comprising the capability of accessing, analyzing, evaluating and communicating information in a diversity of forms consisting of print and non-print messages (Alliance for a Media Literate America, 2010).
  • 10. Examples of Digital Literacy Non-Examples of Digital Literacy Understanding how to use web browsers, search engines, email, text, wiki, blogs, Photoshop, PowerPoint, video creation/editing software , etc. to showcase learning Learning just how to use multi-media to research and investigate a specific topic Evaluating online resources for accuracy/trustworthiness of information Using online media without any knowledge or guidelines on how to judge whether the information is accurate or trustworthy. Using online classes to enhance learning in the classroom. Encouraging students to use technology to showcase their learning. Technology as a specials class separate from the daily classroom. Choosing appropriate media to showcase learning - understand what platforms will best illustrate your message and learning to peers and educators. Typing papers (research, opinion or narrative stories) on a computer or using search engines only to find information. Using an interactive whiteboard in the classroom for lessons and allowing students to use the interactive whiteboard on a daily basis. Children dropping out of school to independently learn without guidance Using the web ( web sites video, music) to enhance the learning of your students Having a computer lab in your institution. Students and teachers creating online content to be utilized both in and out of the classroom. Examples (RubbleandBailey,2007)
  • 11. Rationale of the Study • The current environment of digital technologies established a concept that people of this environment, particularly students, are unable to combat with the digital world without achieving proper skills of digital literacy. Commonly, at academic level it is clear that digital literacy might enhance the skills of the students to use computers and online resources in educational field in productive ways. In the context of our country, Pakistan, digital technologies are still under involving phase in most of the organizations related to education. Hence, in this technological era, students have to use various technological tools and resources for learning during their higher studies to achieve their goals of education in this modern world. Therefore, this study aimed to discover effect of digital literacy on the academic performance of the students.
  • 12. Statement of the Problem • As Pakistan is lacking behind globally with respect to the digital literacy, there is earnest need to peep into the situation and take maximum benefits of digital literacy because in this era of innovation and technological advancement, digital literacy is recognized as the new label for education. There is no choice for teachers and students to gain a level of digital literacy to walk with the rising digital world. Governments as well as higher education institutions are also striving hard to provide environments for online learning to acquire some levels of digital literacy of the common people as well as the university students. Hence, this study focused, about effect of digital literacy, on the academic performance of students.
  • 13. Objectives of the Study • The objectives of this research were: 1. To discover the perceived level of digital literacy of the students at Higher Education Level. 2. To investigate the effect of digital literacy on the academic performance of the students at Higher Education Level. 3. To inspect the effect of digital literacy on the communication skills of the students at Higher Education Level. 4. To probe the effect of digital literacy on the research skills of the students at Higher Education Level. 5. To Probe the effect of digital literacy on the confidence level of the students at Higher Education Level. 6. To investigate the barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy at Higher Education Level. 7. To compare the significant difference in the perceptions of students (gender- wise) and (public & private wise) regarding digital literacy, communication skills, research skills, confidence and barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy.
  • 14. Research Questions The below were the research questions of the study: 1. What is the perceived level of digital literacy of the students? 2. Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy and the academic performance of the students? 3. Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy and communication skills of the students? 4. Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy and research skills of the students? 5. Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy and the confidence level of the students? 6. What are the barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy? 7. Is there any significant difference between the opinions of male and female scholar regarding perceived level of digital literacy, communication skills, research skills, regarding confidence and barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy? 8. Is there any significant difference between the opinions of students of public and private universities regarding perceived level of digital literacy, communication skills, research skills, confidence barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy?
  • 15. Significance of the Study • The findings of this study would be significant and may be helpful for the students, teachers, and institutions of higher education, policy makers, and government to distinguish the gaps regarding integration of digital literacy in teaching-learning process in this technological era as digital literacy is acknowledged as an important tool of daily life in 21st century and new label for education. • Additionally, the study is significant as it has discovered the perceived level of skills of digital literacy among the scholars. It is backbone for discovering effects of digital literacy on communication skills, research skills, confidence skills, barriers, and the performance of the scholars at higher education level in Pakistan.
  • 16. Delimitation of the Study • Keeping in view the time and resources, this research study was delimited to: • Higher ranked 10 universities by HEC • 05 public Universities • 05 private Universities • located in the province of the Punjab, Pakistan. • Perception based.
  • 17. Research Methodology • Research Design The present research was designed to discover “Effect of digital literacy on the academic performance of students at higher education level in Pakistan”. The researcher adopted mixed method followed by “QUAN-QUAL” approach for the study. A questionnaire and semi-structured interviews of students were used for data collection. • Research population The population of this study consisted of all the students of M.S/M.Phil & PhD of higher ranked 10 universities (05 public and 05 private) located in the province of the Punjab, Pakistan.
  • 18. Research Methodology • Sample of the Study Eight hundred (800) students of MS/M.Phil and PhD scholars were selected as sample of the study. Multistage sampling technique was used for the selection of the sample. • Research Instruments Two research instruments were used in this study. The first one was a questionnaire consisting of two parts and 75 statements. Part first of questionnaire, having 35 statements, was adapted and part second of questionnaire , having 40 statements, was developed by the researcher. The second one was semi-structured interview schedule for qualitative data collection.
  • 19. Research Methodology • Validity & Reliability of the Instruments • The face and content validity of the both instruments was confirmed through obtaining expert opinion from five Professors of Social Sciences (Education Department), two of Computer Science and one language expert. Their suggestions were discussed with the supervisor and necessary amendments were made in the instruments. • Later on pilot testing phase was carried out through validated questionnaire on 50 university students to obtain their responses for improvement and to reduce errors. In the light of responses received through pilot testing, the instrument was slightly amended and shaped to its present status. Later on scale reliability test was computed as Croanbach’s alpha coefficient appeared (α= .83) which was acceptable to use for data collection.
  • 20. Research Methodology Factor wise reliability of the questionnaire Factors Items Cronbach alpha value Digital Literacy (5 sub factors) 35 .83 Communication skills 09 .86 Research skills 12 .88 Confidence 09 .79 Barriers 10 .83 Total factors: 09 75 .83 (Overall reliability)
  • 21. Research Methodology • Data Collection Data was collected from the respondents through various techniques like, personal visits, online research tool, using Google form, e-mail etc. • Data Analysis Descriptive statistics (Mean, SD) were used to discover the perceived level of students’ digital literacy skills, communication skills, research skills, confidence, and barriers in learning digital literacy. Pearson r test was computed to explore relationship between digital literacy and academic performance, communication skills, research skills and confidence of the students. t-test was applied to discover difference between the views of male and female students & public and private sector regarding perceptions towards digital literacy, communication skills, research skills, confidence and barriers towards learning digital literacy.
  • 22. Results of the Study • Descriptive analysis is followed by mean and standard deviation for discovering how highly the students perceive digital literacy. In this regard the criteria below was adopted to judge the students’ perceptions:(Rabee & Shreikh, 2018). Mean: Perceiving Degree: Less than 1.8 -Very low 1.8 to 2.6 -Low 2.6 to 3.4 -Moderate 3.4 to 4.2 -High 4.2 and above -Very High
  • 23. Results of the Study • Objective 1: To discover the level of digital literacy of the students • RQ 1: What is the perceived level of digital literacy of the students? • Results show that students had high level of digital literacy skills in three factors but had moderate level in two factors of digital literacy. Sr. Factors of Digital Literacy Mean SD Perceiving degree Rank 1. Understanding of digital literacy 3.47 0.99 High 3 2. Digital literacy skills in finding information through digital tools 3.68 0.96 High 1 3. Digital literacy skills in critically evaluating information, online interaction, and online tools 3.54 1.02 High 2 4. Digital literacy skills in managing and communicating information 3.17 1.07 Moderate 5 5. Digital literacy skills in collaboration and share of digital content 3.29 1.04 Moderate 4 Overall Mean 3.43 1.01 High -
  • 24. Results of the Study • Objective 2: To investigate the effect of digital literacy on the academic performance of the students at Higher Education Level • RQ 2: Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy and the academic performance of the students? Relationship between digital literacy and academic performance of the students: The statistical information revealed that there is negative correlation between digital literacy and CGPA of the students(r= -.025). The result of P-value (.475, P > 0.01 & 0.05 levels) also verified that there is insignificant and negative correlation between digital literacy and academic performance (CGPA). It concluded that digital literacy had no effect on students’ CGPA. Variables Digital_ Literacy CGPA_ Last_ Exam Digital_ Literacy Pearson Correlation -.025 Sig. (2-tailed) .475 N= 800 800 CGPA_ Last_ Exam Pearson Correlation -.025 Sig. (2-tailed) .475 N= 800 800
  • 25. Results of the Study • Objective 3: To examine the effect of digital literacy on communication skills of the students at Higher Education Level. • RQ 3: Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy and communication skills of the students? Relationship between effects of digital literacy and students’ communication skills: The table above revealed a positive correlation between digital literacy and communication skills (r= .705). The result of P-value (.000, P < 0.01 & 0.05 levels) also verified that there is statistical significant and positive correlation between digital literacy and communication skills. It concluded that digital literacy had significant effect on communication skills of the students. Variables Digital_ Literacy Communication Skills Digital_ Literacy Pearson Correlation .705** Sig. (2-tailed) .000* N 800 800 Communication Skills Pearson Correlation .705** Sig. (2-tailed) .000* N 800 800 **.Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *.Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
  • 26. Results of the Study • Objective 4: To probe the effect of digital literacy on research skills of the students at Higher Education Level. • RQ 4: Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy and research skills of the students? Relationship between digital literacy and students’ research skills: The table above exposed a positive correlation among digital literacy and research skills (r= .624). The result of P-value (.000, P < 0.01 & 0.05 levels) also proved that there is statistical significant and positive correlation between digital literacy and research skills. It revealed that digital literacy had significant effects on research skills of the students. Variables Digital_ Literacy Research_ Skills Digital_ Literacy Pearson Correlation .624** Sig. (2-tailed) .000* N 800 800 Research_ Skills Pearson Correlation .624** Sig. (2-tailed) .000* N 800 800 **.Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *.Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
  • 27. Results of the Study • Objective 5: To Probe the effect of digital literacy on confidence level of the students at Higher Education Level. • RQ 5: Is there any significant relationship between the perceived level of digital literacy and the confidence of the students? Relationship between digital literacy and students’ confidence skills: The statistical evidences of this table reported that there is positive correlation among digital literacy and confidence (r= .638). The result of P-value (.000, P < 0.01 & 0.05 levels) also evidenced that there is statistical significant and positive correlation between digital literacy and confidence. It concluded that digital literacy had significant effect on confidence skills of the students. variables Digital_ Literacy Confidence Digital_ Literacy Pearson Correlation .638** Sig. (2-tailed) .000* N 800 800 Confidence Pearson Correlation .638** Sig. (2-tailed) .000* N 800 800 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
  • 28. Results of the Study • Objective 6: To investigate the barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy at Higher Education Level. • RQ 6: What are the barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy? Means and SDs of students’ responses about barriers in learning Digital Literacy factor (N=800): Result shows students perceptions that barriers in learning DL are High. Sr. Statements Barriers in learning DL: Mean SD Perceiving Degree Rank 1. Lack of students’ interest 3.58 1.06 High 6 2. Lack of teachers’ interest 3.42 1.11 High 10 3. Lack of time to learn about digital technologies 3.50 1.14 High 9 4. Lack of teachers’ knowledge about digital technologies 3.51 1.17 High 8 5. Lack of students’ knowledge about digital technologies 3.65 1.07 High 5 6. Lack of teachers’ training about digital technologies 3.72 1.07 High 4 7. Insufficient internet facilities at University 3.54 1.14 High 7 8. Low speed Internet issues at University 3.86 1.09 High 1 9. The cost of internet connection/packages is too high 3.78 1.07 High 2 10. Lack of availability of digital devices at University 3.79 1.09 High 3 Overall Mean: 3.63 1.10 High -
  • 29. Results of the Study • Objective 7: To compare the significant difference in the perceptions of students (gender wise) regarding perceived level of digital literacy, communication skills, research skills, confidence and barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy. • RQ 7: Is there any significant difference between the opinions of male and female scholars regarding perceived level of digital literacy, communication skills, research skills, regarding confidence and barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy? • Results presented in above table show that there was no significant difference between the perceptions of students belonging to male & female gender regarding said factors. Factors Gender N Mean SD df t-value p-value Digital Literacy Male 389 3.5282 .61310 798 2.209 .027 Female 411 3.4225 .60879 Communication skills Male 389 3.6992 .80876 798 2.342 .019 Female 411 3.5693 .65567 Research Skills Male 389 3.6702 .62575 798 .987 .324 Female 411 3.6187 .68240 Confidence skills Male 389 3.7369 .70234 798 1.065 .273 Female 411 3.6797 .64569 Barriers Male 389 3.6213 .74049 798 -1.066 .287 Female 411 3.7072 1.13739
  • 30. Results of the Study • Objective 8: To compare the significant difference in the perceptions of students of (public & private sector university wise) regarding digital literacy, communication skills, research skills, confidence and regarding barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy. • RQ 8. Is there any significant difference between the opinions of students of public and private universities regarding perceived level of digital literacy, communication skills, research skills, confidence barriers in learning and practices of digital literacy? Results presented in above table show that there was no significant difference between the perceptions of students of private and public universities regarding said factors. Factors Uni. Sector N Mean SD df t-value p-value Digital Literacy Private 300 3.4838 .60807 798 1.561 .119 public 500 3.4138 .62314 Communication skills Private 300 3.6296 .70944 798 .946 .344 public 500 3.5804 .71519 Research Skills Private 300 3.6377 .65868 798 .325 .745 public 500 3.6219 .66689 Confidence Private 300 3.7113 .66915 798 .583 .560 public 500 3.6830 .66018 Barriers Private 300 3.6858 .96789 798 .426 .670 public 500 3.6543 1.07878
  • 31. Analysis of Qualitative Data On the basis of quantitative data results, 20 students (10 having low digital literacy level and high CGPA and 10 having high digital literacy level and low CGPA) were identified and interviewed for collection of qualitative data. The qualitative data was analyzed through thematic analysis. Considering each factor, following themes were prepared: Theme 1: Students’ awareness, and involvement in digital practices Q.1. How do you perceive digital literacy? Majority of the respondents stated that digital literacy is something about the use of a computer, smartphone, and other technological devices while the minority of the respondents explained digital literacy is the study about information and communication technology (ICT). The minority of the respondents said that digital literacy is to search properly on internet in a short time and proper handling of MS Office Package.
  • 32. Analysis of Qualitative Data Theme 2: Managing and communicating information Q.2. How can you share your own work to website, blog, and online forum? Most of the respondents answered that they could share their own work to others through social networking sites such as Facebook, Whatsapp, Twitter, and E-mail. None of them did know how to develop a website, write a blog and participate in an online forum. Some respondents of M. Phil said that they could make a channel on YouTube and could share their content there which they could write related to some informative topic and could share it easily on social networking sites. Minority of the respondents told that through e-mail they could communicate information to other people. Majority of the respondents answered that they could create audio, video files through smartphones and could easily share with other people but they had no such skills to create a webpage using online resources.
  • 33. Analysis of Qualitative Data Theme 3: Digital Literacy and communication skills Q.3. How can digital literacy improve your communication skills? • Majority of the respondents exposed that they had sufficient skills regarding the use of smartphone applications and through every day using various websites, Facebook pages, Whatsapp groups, YouTube, they could improve their communication skills. • Respondents also told that studying good research articles empowered them a good framework for reading, speech and motivated students for good writing and communication. • Students declared that they knew many ways to improve communication through Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, Messenger, Whatsapp, YouTube, Email, Chat Rooms etc.
  • 34. Analysis of Qualitative Data Theme 4: Digital Literacy and research skills Q.4. How can digital literacy improve your academic work and research skills? • Majority of the respondents answered that practicing and studying various books, articles, journals, and online database had improved their academic and research skills. • Respondents exposed that following the teachers’ guidelines can improve students’ academic work and research skills. • Respondents said that by using Digital literacy, they could find out the authentic and valid piece of work, different sources of information, type of technology more effective in their work. They could improve the quality of his work. • Respondents voiced that reading online articles and books had improved their research skills but sometimes it was difficult to access the books related to research in the library, so digital literacy was the only way that they could use to search and improve their academic work and research skills.
  • 35. Analysis of Qualitative Data Theme 5: Digital Literacy and confidence ability Q.5. How can digital literacy improve your confidence in sharing your own work to others? • Most of the respondents explained that practicing various online trainings through computer and internet students could improve their confidence. Majority of the respondents told that participating in various seminars and workshops they could improve their confidence to share their own work to others. Some responded that Digital literacy gives us a platform to present our thinking on different events on national and international issues. It provided them with authentic and valid information. Interaction with different ethnic social groups and different genders improved their confidence level. They not only could talk but also make live video calls. • Respondents exposed that as they studied a number of blogs of different people from different cultures, and observed their opinion about any issue, so it gave them the confidence to share their work with other people.
  • 36. Analysis of Qualitative Data Theme 6: Barrier in Learning Digital Literacy Q.6. How can these barriers in digital literacy be removed, please suggest some measures? (Lack of students’ interest, Lack of time to learn about digital tools, insufficient internet facility, low speed internet, non-availability of digital devices inside university and high cost of internet packages). • Majority of the respondents replied that teachers should motivate students to learn digital literacy, ICT literacy and the use of other software related to their studies, government should offer free high-speed internet facility inside university, various types of digital devices should be installed inside the University, low packages of the Internet should be introduced, teachers should train the students about ICT skills during coursework. For insufficient internet facility: they recommended the use of Zong 3g/4g net packages. • At the university level, the Government should allocate the amount to purchase the necessary digital devices. Easily available devices should be provided to students like iPods and Mobile phones etc. It was also discovered through interviews that, for improving students’ interest in digital literacy, teachers should give guidance to the students. So, first of all the teachers should play their role and then university should try to remove the barriers regarding learning and practices of digital literacy.
  • 37. Analysis of Qualitative Data Theme 7: Promoting Digital Literacy Q.7. What are your suggestions about promoting digital literacy at University Level? • Most of the respondents suggested that introducing a comprehensive course and regular training sessions regarding digital literacy could promote digital literacy level of the students. 1) Awareness should be created among different ethnic groups of the community. 2) Higher authority of University should arrange different workshops and seminars about digital literacy. 3) For Lectures on job, courses should be arranged. 4) Easy access to digital library which provide students online materials. 5) Digital literacy should be an essential part of each educational program. • Respondents expressed that for promoting digital literacy, availability and easy access to digital devices should be ensured inside University. A fast and free Wifi in all the areas of University must be provided for promoting digital literacy.
  • 38. Analysis of Qualitative Data Theme 8: Academic Performance Q.8. Do you believe that your CGPA is due to digital literacy skills or any other factor? Explain: • Mostly respondents replied that CGPA is solely linked with the syllabus of the program and by completing teachers’ assignments and through other academic work CGPA could be improved. • Majority of the respondents exposed that by following teachers’ directions and guidelines students could achieve high CGPA in their coursework. During interview majority of the respondents said that their higher CGPA was due to regular studying in departmental library and handouts provided by the teachers.
  • 39. Conclusions of the Study • The study concluded that the students had high level of digital literacy skills in three factors (1.understanding about digital literacy factor, 2.finding information through the use of digital tools factor, and 3.critically evaluating information online interaction and online tools factor) and had a moderate level of digital literacy skills in two factors (1.digital literacy in managing and communicating information & 2.collaboration and share of digital contents). • The study also concluded that digital literacy had significant effects on communication skills, research skills and confidence of the students but digital literacy had an insignificant effect on the CGPA of the students. • Qualitative data concluded that CGPA is solely linked with the syllabus of the program of study and after completion of teachers’ assignments and other academic work, CGPA could be improved. Study also concluded that after following the directions and guidelines of teachers, students could achieve higher CGPA in their coursework.
  • 40. Recommendations of the Study • The university management as well as government agencies should plan various types of trainings/workshop/seminars for students regarding improvement of Digital Literacy in managing and communicating information factor & in collaboration and share of digital content factor using digital tools. • The concerned staff of general category universities as well as government agencies should adopt necessary measure to decrease various barriers in learning Digital Literacy inside the universities culture. • During course work of MS/MPhil & PhD a compulsory course regarding digital literacy should be launched for students to train them with various online tools related to digital literacy.
  • 41. Recommendations of the Study • It is also recommended that government should plan to develop maximum students’ interest towards digital literacy, teachers interest towards digital literacy, sufficient facilities for learning digital literacy, installation of various digital devices inside universities for students’ practices, compulsory course about digital literacy for students and teachers before higher studies, various trainings regarding digital technologies for teachers and students, provision of sufficient un- interrupted internet facility with high speed and low cost internet packages to improve the digital literacy of the students. • This research study was completed in public and private universities belonging to general category located in the province of the Punjab, Pakistan. It is recommended that same kind of studies should be explored at other category universities of Pakistan. • This study discovered perceived level of digital literacy only; it is recommended that future studies may be conducted to discover actual level of digital literacy through experimental research design.
  • 42. References • American Library Association. (2013). Digital literacy, libraries and public policy. Washington, DC: Office for Information Technology Policy. • Belshaw, D.A.J. (2011). What is Digital Literacy? A Pragmatic investigation. Published Ph.D. Dissertation, Durham University, United Kingdom. • Hargittai, E. (2002). Second-level digital divide: differences in people’s online skills, First Monday, vol. 7(4), pp. 1–19. • Jones-Kavalier, B. R. & Flannigan, S. L. (2006). Connecting the digital dots: Literacy of the 21st century. Educause Quarterly, 29(2), 8-10. • Litt, E. (2013). Measuring users' internet skills: A review of past assessments and a look toward the future, New Media Society, 15(4), 612-630. • Meyers, E., Erickson, I., Small, R. (2013). Digital literacy and informal learning environments: an introduction. Learning, media and technology, 38(4), 355-367. • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2007) Working Party on The Information Economy. Broadband And ICT Access And Use By Households And Individuals. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/44/11/39869349.pdf • Prensky, M. (2001a). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6. • UNESCO (2004). The Plurality of Literacy and its Implications for Policies. UNESCO Education Sector. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001362/136246e.pdf • UNESCO (2011). Digital literacy in Education. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education: Moscow • Van, D. J. (2005). The Deepening Divide. Inequality in The Information Society. London: Sage Publications.
  • 43. Thanks All For more information Please contact Dr. Qaisar Abbas GC University Faisalabad Pakistan E-mai: drqaj@yahoo.com Cell:+92-333-6700905