Chapter 3 Personality and Values Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A. Judge
After studying this chapter you should be able to:
Explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality.
Describe the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality framework.
Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model.
Explain how the major personality attributes predict behavior at work.
Contrast terminal and instrumental values.
List the dominant values in today’s workforce.
Identify Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture.
The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others
Most often described in terms of measurable traits that a person exhibits, such as shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal and timid
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Most widely used personality-assessment instrument in the world
Individuals are classified as extroverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving (J or P)
Classifications combined into 16 personality types (i.e. INTJ or ESTJ)
The Big-Five Model
Openness to Experience
Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB
Self-esteem – a person’s view of themselves
Locus of control – degree to which you believe you have control of your own fate
Machiavellianism – degree to which a person is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance and believes that the ends can justify the means
Narcissism – degree of sense of self-importance and arrogance
Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB
Self-monitoring – adjust their behavior to external, situational factors
Risk taking – willingness to take chances
Type A Personality – excessive competitiveness and sense of time urgency
Proactive personality – identify opportunities, show initiative, take action and persevere
Personality and National Culture
A country’s culture influences the dominant personality characteristics of its population.
Represent basic, enduring convictions that "a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence."
Represent a prioritizing of individual values
Identified by the relative importance an individual assigns to such values as freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty, obedience, and equality
Rokeach Value Survey
Terminal values - refers to desirable end-states of existence
Goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime
Instrumental values - refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values
Examples of Terminal Values
Examples of Instrumental Values
Contemporary Work Cohorts Confident, financial success, self-reliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships 2000 to present Nexters Work/life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationships 1985-2000 Xers Success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to career 1965-1985 Boomers Hard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organization 1950s or early 1960s Veterans Dominant Work Values Entered the Workforce Cohort
Managers consistently report that the action of their bosses is the most important factor influencing ethical and unethical behavior in their organizations.
Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures
Individualism vs. collectivism
Masculinity vs. femininity
Long-term vs. short-term orientation
Globe Framework for Assessing Cultures
Personality-Job Fit Theory
It is more important that employee’s personalities fit with the overall organization’s culture than with the characteristics of any specific job.
The fit of employee’s values with the culture of their organization predicts job satisfaction, commitment to the organization and low turnover.
Implications for Managers
Evaluate the job, the work group and the organization to determine the optimum personality fit
Find job candidates who not only have the ability, experience and motivation to perform but also possess a value system that is compatible with the organization’s.
Explained the factors that determine an individual’s personality.
Described the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality framework.
Identified the key traits in the Big Five personality model.
Explained how the major personality attributes predict behavior at work.
Contrasted terminal and instrumental values.
Listed the dominant values in today’s workforce.
Identified Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture.