Foundations Of Individual Behavior


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Foundations Of Individual Behavior

  1. 1. Foundations Of Individual Behavior
  2. 2. MARS Model of Individual Behavior Individual Behavior and Results Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress Role Perceptions Situational Factors Motivation Ability
  3. 3. Employee Motivation <ul><li>Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>persistence </li></ul></ul>M A R S BAR
  4. 4. Employee Ability <ul><li>Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>competencies  personal characteristics that lead to superior performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>person  job matching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>select qualified people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>develop employee abilities through training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>redesign job to fit person's existing abilities </li></ul></ul></ul>M A R S BAR
  5. 5. Employee Role Perceptions <ul><li>Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding what tasks to perform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding relative importance of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks </li></ul></ul>M A R S BAR
  6. 6. Situational Factors <ul><li>Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work facilities </li></ul></ul>M A R S BAR
  7. 7. Types of Behavior in Organizations Types of Work-Related Behavior Task Performance Organizational Citizenship Counter- Productive Behaviors Maintaining Work Attendance Joining/Staying with the Organization
  8. 8. Schwartz’s Values Model Conservation Self-enhancement Self-transcendence Openness to Change
  9. 9. Values Congruence <ul><li>Values congruence -- where two or more entities have similar value systems </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences of incongruence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatible decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower satisfaction and commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased stress and turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits of incongruence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced problem definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents “corporate cults” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Hyundai Crosses Cultures in Alabama <ul><li>When Korean automobile giant Hyundai Motor Company recently opened its manufacturing plant in Montgomery, Alabama, local residents and Hyundai executives alike paid close attention to differences in Korean and American cultural values. </li></ul>© AP Photo/Yonhap
  11. 11. Individualism- Collectivism Peru Chile Italy Portugal Turkey U.S.A. Japan Egypt Korea France China Zimbabwe Mexico Hong Kong Taiwan Collectivism High Low Individualism High Low
  12. 12. Power Distance The degree that people accept an unequal distribution of power in society Japan Netherlands U.S.A. Russia High Power Distance China Low Power Distance
  13. 13. Uncertainty Avoidance High U. A. Low U. A. Japan France U.S.A. The degree that people tolerate ambiguity (low) or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance). China Singapore
  14. 14. Achievement-Nurturing Achievement Nurturing Japan U.S.A. Sweden The degree that people value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism (achievement) versus relationships and well-being of others (nurturing) China
  15. 15. Long/Short-Term Orientation Japan Netherlands Russia Long-Term Orientation Short-Term Orientation China The degree that people value thrift, savings, and persistence (long-term) versus past and present issues, respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations (short-term). U.S.A.
  16. 16. Four Ethical Principles Utilitarianism Individual Rights Greatest good for the greatest number of people Fundamental entitlements in society Distributive Justice People who are similar should receive similar benefits Care Favor those with whom we have special relationships
  17. 17. Influences on Ethical Conduct <ul><li>Moral intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>degree that issue demands ethical principles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethical sensitivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situational influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behavior </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Supporting Ethical Behavior <ul><li>Ethical code of conduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes standards of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: Limited effect alone on ethical behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethics training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness and clarification of ethics code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice resolving ethical dilemmas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethics officers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate and counsel; hear about wrongdoing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethical leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate integrity and role model ethical conduct </li></ul></ul>