Chapter 4 your response to your environment
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Chapter 4 your response to your environment

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Chapter 4 your response to your environment Chapter 4 your response to your environment Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 4
  •  Explain the theories of Erikson, Havighurst, Maslow, and Kohlberg concerning personal development. Describe the use of defense mechanisms in responding to your environment. Explain various types of personal response patterns.
  •  Every situation in your life requires you to respond to your environment. Many theories have been formed concerning the development of humans and their personalities.
  •  Erikson’s theory is that personality development is affected by each of eight stages in the life cycle. In each Stage, a person confronts certain crises that must be resolved before moving to the next stage.
  •  Occurs during infancy and establishes our most basic sense of trust. Consistent love & attention → confidence and trust. Unloved or abused → insecure and mistrustful.
  •  Occurs between ages one and four Children begin to experience autonomy. Autonomy – the freedom of self- direction
  •  Reach this stage around four or five. Initiative – desires to begin action. Children begin to develop imagination and begin to do things on their own.
  •  From ages six to twelve. They learn that work is worthwhile and meaningful. Inferiority – feeling unimportant or inadequate.
  •  Occurs during adolescence Identity – knowing who you are As adolescents gain maturity, they begin to view life and the world around them differently.
  •  The sixth stage is concerned with establishing a sense of intimacy with others. Young adults who succeed in this stage have accepted themselves as worthwhile persons.
  •  In the seventh stage, adults develop a sense of generativity. Generativity – Concern for future generations
  •  A sense of integrity develops in people who succeed in the final stage of development. Integrity – A state of being complete. The person is satisfied with his or her life.
  •  Havighurst identified developmental tasks that people perform as they grow. Success in these tasks leads to happiness and success in other developmental tasks they will perform later in life. Failure leads to unhappiness, disapproval by society, and difficulty with later developmental tasks.
  •  Becoming more adult Deciding on roles Accepting your physical self Becoming more independent Preparing for marriage and family life Selecting an occupation Developing personal priorities Becoming more socially responsible
  •  Because you are human, you have certain needs. You share these needs with all other humans, but you fulfill them in unique ways. In Maslow’s system, he arranged needs in order of their priorities.
  • Physical Needs
  •  Physical needs have first priority. Fulfillment of physical needs is necessary for good health, a state of well-being, and the continuation of life.
  •  Once you have satisfied your physical needs, you can address other needs. You need to feel safe from physical danger. You need to feel secure in daily routines so you know what to expect from life.
  •  Everyone needs to be needed. You need to feel that you are accepted by others, and you need to feel secure in your relationships.
  •  You need esteem (respect and admiration). Self-esteem must be established first. You must respect yourself first before you can expect others to respect you.
  •  Self-actualization is the realization of your full potential. To reach this level, all other levels of needs must be at least partially fulfilled.
  •  Kohlberg believed that people pass through a series of predictable stages in their moral thinking. Morals – Beliefs about right and wrong behavior.
  •  Preconventional Level: Moral decisions are based on punishment & rewards. ◦ Stage 1 – Threat of punishment influences decisions ◦ Stage 2 – Desire for rewards influences decisions
  •  Conventional Level: Moral decisions are based on social rules and expectations. ◦ Stage 3 – Opinions of others influence decisions ◦ Stage 4 – Respect for law and order guides behavior
  •  Postconventional Level – Moral decisions are based on personal ethics concerning what is morally right ◦ Stage 5 – Personal priorities concerning individual human rights influence decisions ◦ Stage 6 – Self-chosen ethical principles guide decisions
  •  Each time something happens in your environment to threaten your self- esteem, you react. Defense Mechanisms – Ways that people may react, almost automatically, to anxiety- producing events or threats.
  •  Direct attack – In response to a threat to your self-esteem, you attack the source of your threat. Compensation – Using a substitute method to achieve a desired goal. Rationalization – When you explain your weaknesses or failure by giving socially acceptable excuses
  •  Projection – When you blame other people or things for your failures. ◦ Scapegoat – The person who bears the pain for the others; taking the blame for something you didn’t do.
  •  Displacement – Transferring an emotion connected with one person or thing to an unrelated person or thing. Conversion – Transferring the energy of desire you cannot express into a physical symptom or complaint
  •  Regression – A defense mechanism in which you revert back to a less mature stage of development. Idealization – Valuing something far more than its worth. ◦ Something in your life that means a lot to you even if its not worth anything.
  •  Daydreaming Giving Up
  •  Anger Fear Depression Attitudes Prejudices – An opinion formed without knowledge. Stereotypes – The false belief that all members of a given group are the same.