1.Extension Deepening of interestof the self School activities, Peer groups Youth Child organizationsand the family Opposite Vocational, moral, and civic sex responsibilities.
During early adolescence, Early adulthood: maturethe individual was in the psychosocial development ismidst of an identity crisis, measured by the successfula struggle that reached its resolution of the stage aspeak during intimacy versus isolation 2. Relatingadolescence. warmly with others – capacity to be intimate with and towards othersThe young adult is ready The Individual may developfor intimacy, which means not strong bonds of intimacy inonly committing the self to friendships that offer, amongpersonal relationships but also other features, mutuality,nurturing the motivation to empathy, and reciprocity.maintain them.
3. Emotional Security• Full acceptance of • Acceptance as being part of the normal self self including • Does not allow emotions imperfections to rule his/her life but• Seek to fulfil • does not reject• own potentials Self • emotions as being Emotional • alien in nature either acceptance acceptance Confidence in Frustration self-• spontaneity; one is expression tolerance • Capacity to continue• aware of one’s own functioning even during emotions, is not afraid of time of stress – a very them, and has control formidable goal over their expression.
4. Realistic PerceptionAbility to keep in touch with Ability to reality, perceive the Avoid mis-use without distorting the surround- of defense environment ings mechanismsfor self-serving accurately purposes
driven by a need to express his/her competence through some type of activity. identifies with her work and displaysstrives to develop pride in the skills skils he/she needed to possesses produce the finished product 5. Possession of skills and competence
6. Knowledge of theSelf (Objectification) Possesses self insight Knows what he/she can do, cannot do, ought to do Modifies behavior to fulfil his/her roles as worker, marriage partner, and parents as source of stability and ego identity that are developed in the performance of these roles.
copes with failure if these goals are not met.develops an intelligent theory of life and work toward implementing it. embodies the concept of guiding purpose, ideals, needs, goals, and values 7. Establishing a unifying philosophy of life
Group Activity• Pictionary• Points (2 pts. each art work)• 2 groups –Each group assigns an artist
Level 1 Pre- Conventional MoralityStage 1: Punishment and Obedience Stage 2: Rewards Whatever leads to punishment is The right way to behave is the wrong way that is rewarded
Stage 0At this stage, the individual:• Avoids pain and seeks pleasure• Has no sense of obligation to anyone else• Self-absorbed (unaware of anyone’s needs other than those that are self-serving)• Does what he/she wants to do• Amoral (unethical)• Egocentric in assuming that the world revolves around his/her needs and desires• No sense of cause-effect• Typically between the ages of 0-7
Stage 1At this stage, the individual:• Obey rules to avoid punishment• Sense of right and wrong is determined by what is punished and what is not punished• Obeys superior authority and allows him to make the rules - authority has the power to inflict pain• Is responsive to rules that will affect his/her physical well-being• Is usually over the age of 7
Stage 2At this stage, the individual:• Motivated by vengeance or has “an eye for an eye” philosophy• Self-absorbed while assuming that he/she is generous• Thinks that everyone gets the same, regardless of need (equal sharing)• The end justifies the means• Will do a favor only to get a favor• Expects a reward for every non-selfish deed he/she does• Is usually over the age of 10
Level II Conventional Morality Stage 3 Good intentions Stage 4Behaving that conforms to good Obedience to authority behavior
Stage 3At this stage, the individual:• Gives importance to peer approval• Moral decisions are based on what will please a limited group and make the person feel included• Considers “majority” as the behavior of the “in crowd” or peer group• Thinks that intensions are as important as deeds - expects others to accept intentions or promises in place of deeds• Begins to put himself/herself in another’s shoes and think from another perspective• May continue to be in this stage until he/she has reached the age of 20
Stage 4At this stage, the individual: Maintenance of law and order is of supreme important Duty-bound - believes in rigid rules that should not be changed Respects authority and obeys it without question Supports the rights of the majority or majority rule without concern for those in the minority Is part of about 80% of the population that does not progress past stage 4
Level III Post-Conventional Morality Stage 5 Stage 6Difference between legal and Individual principles of moral right conscience
Stage 5At this stage, the individual:• Believes in the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people (Utilitarianism)• Believes in contracts in which both parties compromise and yet both receive benefits (SCT)• Believes in consensus (everyone agrees), rather than in majority rule• Respects the rights of the minority especially the rights of the individual• Believes that change in the law is possible but only through the system• Has reached the same stage as the official morality of the nation
Stage 6At this stage, the individual: Does not compromise high principles, thus, may forfeit his/her life in order to uphold them Believes that there are higher moral principles than those represented by social rules and customs Obeys these self-chosen high moral principles Is willing to accept the consequences for disobedience of the social rule he/she has rejected Uses only passive resistance and has no use for violence in any form Believes in granting justice and dignity to all human beings as inalienable human rights Respects justice for its moral and legal nature Believes that the dignity of humanity is sacred and that all humans have value
Stage 7At this stage, the individual:• Is a “seeker of justice in an unjust world”• Has a cosmic perspective of life• Neglects any consideration for self• Focuses on the whole, a view of self as part of the infinite whole and not as an individual part that is significant• Feels desperate and sees a problematic world he/she is incapable of repairing• Possesses an altruism that is difficult for the world to understand• Has the ability to forgive and compassionate that often runs in conflict with the world’s sense of justice (i.e. moral level)
Kohlberg observed that some had apparently undergone moral stage regression Could be resolved either by allowing for moral regression or by extending the theory. Kohlberg chose the latter, postulating the existence of sub- stages in which the emerging stage has not yet been fully integrated into the personality. Kohlberg noted a stage 4½ or 4+, a transition from stage four to stage five that shared characteristics of both. In this stage the individual is disaffected with the arbitrary nature of law and order reasoning; responsibility is frequently turned from being defined by society to viewing society itself as responsible. This was often observed in students entering college.
SUMMARY • Outward manifestation of your self – from the limits of your family to makingDIMENSIONS yourself a responsible member of the bigger world.OF MATURITY • Inner developments that would lead to a very important aspect of human MORAL living, knowing what is right and wrong, and fighting for what is right becauseDEVELOPMENT now you know the significance of your action in the bigger world.
References• Turner, Jeffrey and Helms, Donald. 1989. Contemporary Adulthood. Rolt Rinehart and Winston, Inc.• Bee, Helen. 1992. The Journey of Adulthood. Macmillan Pub. Co.• Internet materials• From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia• Becca Pangborn, Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development PowerPoint. presentation