Chapter 4
   Explain the theories of Erikson,    Havighurst, Maslow, and    Kohlberg concerning personal    development.   Describ...
   Every situation in your    life requires you to    respond to your    environment.   Many theories have    been forme...
   Erikson’s theory is that    personality development    is affected by each of    eight stages in the life    cycle.  ...
   Occurs during infancy and establishes our    most basic sense of trust.   Consistent love & attention → confidence an...
   Occurs between ages    one and four   Children begin to    experience    autonomy.   Autonomy – the    freedom of se...
   Reach this stage    around four or five.   Initiative – desires to    begin action.   Children begin to    develop i...
   From ages six to twelve.   They learn that work is worthwhile and    meaningful.   Inferiority – feeling unimportant...
   Occurs during    adolescence   Identity – knowing who    you are   As adolescents gain    maturity, they begin to   ...
   The sixth stage is    concerned with    establishing a sense of    intimacy with others.   Young adults who    succee...
   In the seventh stage,    adults develop a    sense of generativity.   Generativity –    Concern for future    generat...
   A sense of integrity    develops in people    who succeed in the    final stage of    development.   Integrity – A st...
   Havighurst identified developmental tasks    that people perform as they grow.   Success in these tasks leads to happ...
   Becoming more adult   Deciding on roles   Accepting your physical self   Becoming more independent   Preparing for...
   Because you are    human, you have    certain needs. You    share these needs with    all other humans, but    you ful...
Physical Needs
   Physical needs have first priority.   Fulfillment of physical needs is necessary for    good health, a state of well-...
   Once you have    satisfied your physical    needs, you can    address other needs.   You need to feel safe    from ph...
   Everyone needs to    be needed.   You need to feel    that you are    accepted by others,    and you need to    feel ...
   You need esteem    (respect and    admiration).   Self-esteem must    be established first.   You must respect    yo...
   Self-actualization is    the realization of    your full potential.   To reach this level, all    other levels of nee...
   Kohlberg believed    that people pass    through a series of    predictable stages in    their moral thinking.   Mora...
   Preconventional Level: Moral decisions are    based on punishment & rewards.    ◦ Stage 1 – Threat of punishment influ...
   Conventional Level: Moral decisions are based    on social rules and expectations.    ◦ Stage 3 – Opinions of others i...
   Postconventional Level –    Moral decisions are based    on personal ethics    concerning what is    morally right    ...
   Each time something happens in your    environment to threaten your self-    esteem, you react.   Defense Mechanisms ...
   Direct attack – In response to a threat to your    self-esteem, you attack the source of your    threat.   Compensati...
   Projection – When    you blame other    people or things for    your failures.    ◦ Scapegoat – The      person who be...
   Displacement – Transferring an emotion    connected with one person or thing to an    unrelated person or thing.   Co...
   Regression – A defense    mechanism in which you    revert back to a less mature    stage of development.   Idealizat...
   Daydreaming   Giving Up
   Anger   Fear   Depression   Attitudes   Prejudices – An opinion formed without    knowledge.   Stereotypes – The ...
Chapter 4 your response to your environment
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Chapter 4 your response to your environment

  1. 1. Chapter 4
  2. 2.  Explain the theories of Erikson, Havighurst, Maslow, and Kohlberg concerning personal development. Describe the use of defense mechanisms in responding to your environment. Explain various types of personal response patterns.
  3. 3.  Every situation in your life requires you to respond to your environment. Many theories have been formed concerning the development of humans and their personalities.
  4. 4.  Erikson’s theory is that personality development is affected by each of eight stages in the life cycle. In each Stage, a person confronts certain crises that must be resolved before moving to the next stage.
  5. 5.  Occurs during infancy and establishes our most basic sense of trust. Consistent love & attention → confidence and trust. Unloved or abused → insecure and mistrustful.
  6. 6.  Occurs between ages one and four Children begin to experience autonomy. Autonomy – the freedom of self- direction
  7. 7.  Reach this stage around four or five. Initiative – desires to begin action. Children begin to develop imagination and begin to do things on their own.
  8. 8.  From ages six to twelve. They learn that work is worthwhile and meaningful. Inferiority – feeling unimportant or inadequate.
  9. 9.  Occurs during adolescence Identity – knowing who you are As adolescents gain maturity, they begin to view life and the world around them differently.
  10. 10.  The sixth stage is concerned with establishing a sense of intimacy with others. Young adults who succeed in this stage have accepted themselves as worthwhile persons.
  11. 11.  In the seventh stage, adults develop a sense of generativity. Generativity – Concern for future generations
  12. 12.  A sense of integrity develops in people who succeed in the final stage of development. Integrity – A state of being complete. The person is satisfied with his or her life.
  13. 13.  Havighurst identified developmental tasks that people perform as they grow. Success in these tasks leads to happiness and success in other developmental tasks they will perform later in life. Failure leads to unhappiness, disapproval by society, and difficulty with later developmental tasks.
  14. 14.  Becoming more adult Deciding on roles Accepting your physical self Becoming more independent Preparing for marriage and family life Selecting an occupation Developing personal priorities Becoming more socially responsible
  15. 15.  Because you are human, you have certain needs. You share these needs with all other humans, but you fulfill them in unique ways. In Maslow’s system, he arranged needs in order of their priorities.
  16. 16. Physical Needs
  17. 17.  Physical needs have first priority. Fulfillment of physical needs is necessary for good health, a state of well-being, and the continuation of life.
  18. 18.  Once you have satisfied your physical needs, you can address other needs. You need to feel safe from physical danger. You need to feel secure in daily routines so you know what to expect from life.
  19. 19.  Everyone needs to be needed. You need to feel that you are accepted by others, and you need to feel secure in your relationships.
  20. 20.  You need esteem (respect and admiration). Self-esteem must be established first. You must respect yourself first before you can expect others to respect you.
  21. 21.  Self-actualization is the realization of your full potential. To reach this level, all other levels of needs must be at least partially fulfilled.
  22. 22.  Kohlberg believed that people pass through a series of predictable stages in their moral thinking. Morals – Beliefs about right and wrong behavior.
  23. 23.  Preconventional Level: Moral decisions are based on punishment & rewards. ◦ Stage 1 – Threat of punishment influences decisions ◦ Stage 2 – Desire for rewards influences decisions
  24. 24.  Conventional Level: Moral decisions are based on social rules and expectations. ◦ Stage 3 – Opinions of others influence decisions ◦ Stage 4 – Respect for law and order guides behavior
  25. 25.  Postconventional Level – Moral decisions are based on personal ethics concerning what is morally right ◦ Stage 5 – Personal priorities concerning individual human rights influence decisions ◦ Stage 6 – Self-chosen ethical principles guide decisions
  26. 26.  Each time something happens in your environment to threaten your self- esteem, you react. Defense Mechanisms – Ways that people may react, almost automatically, to anxiety- producing events or threats.
  27. 27.  Direct attack – In response to a threat to your self-esteem, you attack the source of your threat. Compensation – Using a substitute method to achieve a desired goal. Rationalization – When you explain your weaknesses or failure by giving socially acceptable excuses
  28. 28.  Projection – When you blame other people or things for your failures. ◦ Scapegoat – The person who bears the pain for the others; taking the blame for something you didn’t do.
  29. 29.  Displacement – Transferring an emotion connected with one person or thing to an unrelated person or thing. Conversion – Transferring the energy of desire you cannot express into a physical symptom or complaint
  30. 30.  Regression – A defense mechanism in which you revert back to a less mature stage of development. Idealization – Valuing something far more than its worth. ◦ Something in your life that means a lot to you even if its not worth anything.
  31. 31.  Daydreaming Giving Up
  32. 32.  Anger Fear Depression Attitudes Prejudices – An opinion formed without knowledge. Stereotypes – The false belief that all members of a given group are the same.

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