Swiss Child PsychologistResearched and studied hishis own children. Patters of intelligence which explain how adult intelligence originates in infancy.
Appear in the same order for all children, but not always at the same age.#1 Sensorimotor Period#2 Preoperational Period#3 Concrete Operations Period#4 Formal Operations*each have several sub-stages.
Birth > Age 2 Learn through senses and own actions Egocentric – thinking only about him or herself Object Permanence – the idea that an object exists even when it is not in view.
Age 2 > Age 7 Children think of everything in terms of: ◦ their own activities ◦ what they perceive at the moment Their unusual perspectives are often seen as “imaginative” Understand abstract language (love, beauty)
Concentration is limited (one thing at a time) Often solve problems by pretending. Real and make believe are blurred.
Age 7 > 11 Children can think logically Still learn best from experience (senses) Need to see/experience a problem to solve it. Understand logical processes such as “the glasses experiment”
Age 11 > adulthood Capable of symbolic learning – interpreting meaning from words, symbols, numbers. Do not need to experience something to understand it. (logical, critical, compassionate) Able to make plans, goals for the future. Detect subtle or hidden meaning.
Presents a “crisis”,choice or fork in the roadRequires choosing apathway Mastery of a stageallows for smoothertransition into the next
Successes and failures mould how we see the world, ourselves and others. Personality can be changed by new experience at any stage. (choosing a fork in the road)
Development depends on whether or not needs are being met. Trust comes with predictability of care. Unpredictability and uncertainty of care/support creates mistrust.
Autonomy = independence, ability to stand alone. Age 2-3 Taking care of themselves Independence through learning and exploring Need for encouraging caregivers Shame comes from discouragement and over- protection
Age 4-5 Child is learning to feel purposeful and take initiative Freedom, exploration and questioning “Why??” Guilt comes from criticism, lack of recognition
Age 6 to 11 Industry = making an effort Inferiority = feeling less important, defeated Expanding beyond family – school, sports, activities Importance of family life in preparing for school.
Adolescence (12-18) Focus on peers and social groups Modelling yourself after someone Influence of friends, teachers, media and less focus on family
Young adulthood Seeking out a partner, “testing the waters” of relationships Good experiences leads to intimacy Rejection, disappointment leads to isolation
Mid-life Generativity = full, productive life Stagnation = lack of development Productivity creates a sense of accomplishment (family, career, kids) Stagnation fosters lack of achievement, low self worth
Old age Integrity = completeness, pride “Am I proud of what I have done?”. Facing regrets, dissatisfaction, mistakes, failures.
As humans move through the stages they progress from parental and familial relationships, to peers, and finally romantic. Mastery of each stage is not required, but helps navigate later stages. The last stage is the only one that cannot be revisited.
1920s-1980s American psychologist and university professor Expert in moral education and logic Interested in: How people respond to moral dilemmas!
Level determined by the reasons a person gives for making a decision.
Child will care about what is right or wrong, good or bad. Judges an action based on the consequences they experience
Child acts to AVOID punishment. Acts in order to receive reward. Obey rules for positive consequence.
Personal needs determine right and wrong. Right action satisfies own needs and maybe the needs of others. “Making a trade” or doing a favour.
Make decisions to live up to the expectations of others. Family, Friends, Social Group, Nation, the Law Meeting these expectations is more important than consequences.
Good behaviours = actions that please others! Appearing to be “normal” or have “good intentions” is important. Approval indicates moral behaviour. Kohlberg believes that MOSTPeople don’t move past thisstage.
Good behaviour = following the rules and respecting authority Behaving to maintain social order and display respect. Example: Respecting others’ property.
A person identifies morality and values according to validity. Less influenced by authority and personal interest. Judgements based on abstract personal principles.
Right actions determined by more “general rights” Agreed on by society as a whole Awareness of personal values and legal Not all cultures and societies have the same concepts of right and wrong.
Right decision is a decision of personal conscience. Appeals to universal, consistent truths. Focus: Justice, Equality, Human Dignity.
We have to go step by step – no skipping stages! Typically we don’t reach the higher stages. Having “role models” in the higher stages helps us grow. Learning by example. Stages progress from an individual to universal level.
Pre-conventional ◦ consequences they see, meeting own needs. Conventional ◦ The expectations of others ◦ Rules and social order Post-conventional ◦ Abstract personal principles ◦ LESS on authority