Piaget, Erikson and Kohlberg
   Swiss Child PsychologistResearched and studied hishis own children.   Patters of intelligence which explain how    a...
   Appear in the same order for all children, but    not always at the same age.#1     Sensorimotor Period#2     Preopera...
   Birth > Age 2   Learn through senses and own actions   Egocentric – thinking only about him or    herself   Object ...
   Age 2 > Age 7   Children think of everything in terms of:    ◦ their own activities    ◦ what they perceive at the mo...
   Concentration is limited (one thing at a time)   Often solve problems by pretending.   Real and make believe are blu...
   Age 7 > 11   Children can think logically   Still learn best from experience (senses)   Need to see/experience a pr...
   Age 11 > adulthood   Capable of symbolic learning – interpreting    meaning from words, symbols, numbers.   Do not n...
The 8 Stages
Presents a “crisis”,choice or fork in the roadRequires choosing apathway  Mastery of a stageallows for smoothertransiti...
   Successes and failures mould how we see the    world, ourselves and others.   Personality can be changed by new    ex...
   Development depends on whether or not    needs are being met.   Trust comes with predictability of care.   Unpredict...
   Autonomy = independence, ability to stand    alone.   Age 2-3   Taking care of themselves   Independence through le...
   Age 4-5   Child is learning to feel purposeful and take    initiative   Freedom, exploration and questioning    “Why...
   Age 6 to 11   Industry = making an effort   Inferiority = feeling less important, defeated   Expanding beyond famil...
   Adolescence (12-18)   Focus on peers and social groups   Modelling yourself after someone   Influence of friends, t...
   Young adulthood   Seeking out a partner, “testing the waters” of    relationships   Good experiences leads to intima...
   Mid-life   Generativity = full, productive life   Stagnation = lack of development   Productivity creates a sense o...
   Old age   Integrity = completeness, pride   “Am I proud of what I have done?”.   Facing    regrets, dissatisfaction...
   As humans move through the stages they    progress from parental and familial    relationships, to peers, and finally ...
3 Levels, 6 Sub-Stages
   1920s-1980s   American psychologist and university    professor   Expert in moral education and logic   Interested ...
   Level determined by the reasons a    person gives for making a    decision.
   Child will care about what is right or    wrong, good or bad.   Judges an action based on the    consequences they ex...
   Child acts to AVOID punishment.   Acts in order to receive reward.   Obey rules for positive consequence.
   Personal needs determine right and    wrong.   Right action satisfies own needs and    maybe the needs of others.   ...
   Make decisions to live up to the    expectations of others.   Family, Friends, Social Group, Nation, the    Law   Me...
   Good behaviours = actions that please    others!   Appearing to be “normal” or have “good    intentions” is important...
   Good behaviour = following the rules and    respecting authority   Behaving to maintain social order and display    r...
   A person identifies morality and values    according to validity.   Less influenced by authority and    personal inte...
   Right actions determined by more “general    rights”   Agreed on by society as a whole   Awareness of personal value...
   Right decision is a decision of personal    conscience.   Appeals to universal, consistent truths.   Focus: Justice,...
   We have to go step by step – no skipping    stages!   Typically we don’t reach the higher stages.   Having “role mod...
   Pre-conventional    ◦ consequences they see, meeting own needs.   Conventional    ◦ The expectations of others    ◦ R...
   http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/stor    y/2012/01/18/ottawa-odawa-    fundraising.html
HHS 4M1 - Child Development
HHS 4M1 - Child Development
HHS 4M1 - Child Development
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HHS 4M1 - Child Development

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HHS 4M1 - Child Development

  1. 1. Piaget, Erikson and Kohlberg
  2. 2.  Swiss Child PsychologistResearched and studied hishis own children. Patters of intelligence which explain how adult intelligence originates in infancy.
  3. 3.  Appear in the same order for all children, but not always at the same age.#1 Sensorimotor Period#2 Preoperational Period#3 Concrete Operations Period#4 Formal Operations*each have several sub-stages.
  4. 4.  Birth > Age 2 Learn through senses and own actions Egocentric – thinking only about him or herself Object Permanence – the idea that an object exists even when it is not in view.
  5. 5.  Age 2 > Age 7 Children think of everything in terms of: ◦ their own activities ◦ what they perceive at the moment Their unusual perspectives are often seen as “imaginative” Understand abstract language (love, beauty)
  6. 6.  Concentration is limited (one thing at a time) Often solve problems by pretending. Real and make believe are blurred.
  7. 7.  Age 7 > 11 Children can think logically Still learn best from experience (senses) Need to see/experience a problem to solve it. Understand logical processes such as “the glasses experiment”
  8. 8.  Age 11 > adulthood Capable of symbolic learning – interpreting meaning from words, symbols, numbers. Do not need to experience something to understand it. (logical, critical, compassionate) Able to make plans, goals for the future. Detect subtle or hidden meaning.
  9. 9. The 8 Stages
  10. 10. Presents a “crisis”,choice or fork in the roadRequires choosing apathway Mastery of a stageallows for smoothertransition into the next
  11. 11.  Successes and failures mould how we see the world, ourselves and others. Personality can be changed by new experience at any stage. (choosing a fork in the road)
  12. 12.  Development depends on whether or not needs are being met. Trust comes with predictability of care. Unpredictability and uncertainty of care/support creates mistrust.
  13. 13.  Autonomy = independence, ability to stand alone. Age 2-3 Taking care of themselves Independence through learning and exploring Need for encouraging caregivers Shame comes from discouragement and over- protection
  14. 14.  Age 4-5 Child is learning to feel purposeful and take initiative Freedom, exploration and questioning “Why??” Guilt comes from criticism, lack of recognition
  15. 15.  Age 6 to 11 Industry = making an effort Inferiority = feeling less important, defeated Expanding beyond family – school, sports, activities Importance of family life in preparing for school.
  16. 16.  Adolescence (12-18) Focus on peers and social groups Modelling yourself after someone Influence of friends, teachers, media and less focus on family
  17. 17.  Young adulthood Seeking out a partner, “testing the waters” of relationships Good experiences leads to intimacy Rejection, disappointment leads to isolation
  18. 18.  Mid-life Generativity = full, productive life Stagnation = lack of development Productivity creates a sense of accomplishment (family, career, kids) Stagnation fosters lack of achievement, low self worth
  19. 19.  Old age Integrity = completeness, pride “Am I proud of what I have done?”. Facing regrets, dissatisfaction, mistakes, failures.
  20. 20.  As humans move through the stages they progress from parental and familial relationships, to peers, and finally romantic. Mastery of each stage is not required, but helps navigate later stages. The last stage is the only one that cannot be revisited.
  21. 21. 3 Levels, 6 Sub-Stages
  22. 22.  1920s-1980s American psychologist and university professor Expert in moral education and logic Interested in: How people respond to moral dilemmas!
  23. 23.  Level determined by the reasons a person gives for making a decision.
  24. 24.  Child will care about what is right or wrong, good or bad. Judges an action based on the consequences they experience
  25. 25.  Child acts to AVOID punishment. Acts in order to receive reward. Obey rules for positive consequence.
  26. 26.  Personal needs determine right and wrong. Right action satisfies own needs and maybe the needs of others. “Making a trade” or doing a favour.
  27. 27.  Make decisions to live up to the expectations of others. Family, Friends, Social Group, Nation, the Law Meeting these expectations is more important than consequences.
  28. 28.  Good behaviours = actions that please others! Appearing to be “normal” or have “good intentions” is important. Approval indicates moral behaviour. Kohlberg believes that MOSTPeople don’t move past thisstage.
  29. 29.  Good behaviour = following the rules and respecting authority Behaving to maintain social order and display respect. Example: Respecting others’ property.
  30. 30.  A person identifies morality and values according to validity. Less influenced by authority and personal interest. Judgements based on abstract personal principles.
  31. 31.  Right actions determined by more “general rights” Agreed on by society as a whole Awareness of personal values and legal Not all cultures and societies have the same concepts of right and wrong.
  32. 32.  Right decision is a decision of personal conscience. Appeals to universal, consistent truths. Focus: Justice, Equality, Human Dignity.
  33. 33.  We have to go step by step – no skipping stages! Typically we don’t reach the higher stages. Having “role models” in the higher stages helps us grow. Learning by example. Stages progress from an individual to universal level.
  34. 34.  Pre-conventional ◦ consequences they see, meeting own needs. Conventional ◦ The expectations of others ◦ Rules and social order Post-conventional ◦ Abstract personal principles ◦ LESS on authority
  35. 35.  http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/stor y/2012/01/18/ottawa-odawa- fundraising.html

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