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Housing chapter 2


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Housing chapter 2

  1. 1. Housing: ChapterHousing: Chapter 22 Influences on HousingInfluences on Housing
  2. 2. Early ShelterEarly Shelter  Early Humans livedEarly Humans lived in caves thatin caves that provided a degree ofprovided a degree of safety and protectionsafety and protection from the weather andfrom the weather and wild animals.wild animals.  Another form of earlyAnother form of early shelter was a dugout,shelter was a dugout, which is a large holewhich is a large hole dug in the earth.dug in the earth.
  3. 3. Housing of NativeHousing of Native AmericansAmericans  Native AmericansNative Americans occupied Northoccupied North America beforeAmerica before Europeans arrived.Europeans arrived.  The materials usedThe materials used for their housingfor their housing depended on whatdepended on what was available in thewas available in the section of the countrysection of the country in which they which they lived.
  4. 4. Housing of ColonistsHousing of Colonists  The first sheltersThe first shelters used by theused by the European settlersEuropean settlers were copied afterwere copied after Native AmericanNative American dwellings.dwellings.  Other houses wereOther houses were built of sod.built of sod.  Dirt floors wereDirt floors were common.common.  The abundance ofThe abundance of trees in the easterntrees in the eastern forests made the logforests made the log cabin convenient tocabin convenient to  The first log cabinsThe first log cabins were built about 1640were built about 1640 by Swedish andby Swedish and Finnish colonists.Finnish colonists.
  5. 5. Housing During 1700sHousing During 1700s and 1800sand 1800s  Throughout the 1700Throughout the 1700 and 1800sand 1800s farmhouses rangedfarmhouses ranged in design andin design and construction fromconstruction from sod houses to logsod houses to log cabins to ranchcabins to ranch houses.houses.  At the same time,At the same time, large plantationlarge plantation houses were built inhouses were built in the south.the south.
  6. 6. Urban HousingUrban Housing  The housing in citiesThe housing in cities was built closewas built close together andtogether and croweded withcroweded with inhabitants, causinginhabitants, causing a high density.a high density.  DensityDensity is theis the number of people innumber of people in a given area.a given area.  A number ofA number of tenement houses,tenement houses, or early apartments,or early apartments, were constructedwere constructed before housingbefore housing regulations existed.regulations existed.  The first of theseThe first of these houses appeared inhouses appeared in New York CityNew York City around 1840.around 1840.
  7. 7. Urban HousingUrban Housing  The first row housesThe first row houses were built in the 1820s.were built in the 1820s.  Rwo houses are aRwo houses are a continuous group ofcontinuous group of dwellings connected bydwellings connected by common sidewalls.common sidewalls.  Two-family dwellings,Two-family dwellings, called duplexes werecalled duplexes were built soon after.built soon after.
  8. 8. Changes in HousingChanges in Housing  Wood and Coal burningWood and Coal burning stoves appeared instoves appeared in houses.houses.  Oil and gas lampsOil and gas lamps replaced candles.replaced candles.  Iceboxes were available.Iceboxes were available.  However, only peopleHowever, only people with high incomes couldwith high incomes could afford to take advantageafford to take advantage of these newof these new developments.developments.
  9. 9. Housing in the 1900sHousing in the 1900s  During the early 1900s, the number ofDuring the early 1900s, the number of immigrants to the U.S. increased dramaticallyimmigrants to the U.S. increased dramatically and many moved to cities and this meant moreand many moved to cities and this meant more housing was needed.housing was needed.  Then, during World War I, almost no housingThen, during World War I, almost no housing was built, except by the federal government.was built, except by the federal government.  This caused a housing shortage.This caused a housing shortage.  The impact of the increased population, WorldThe impact of the increased population, World War I, and the Great Depression had leftWar I, and the Great Depression had left housing conditions in a neglected state.housing conditions in a neglected state.
  10. 10. New Solutions toNew Solutions to Housing ShortagesHousing Shortages  In response to housingIn response to housing shortages, factory-shortages, factory- produced units emergedproduced units emerged as a major type ofas a major type of American housing.American housing.  Factory-built housingFactory-built housing units helped with theunits helped with the housing shortage byhousing shortage by serving as year-roundserving as year-round housing for manyhousing for many people.people.
  11. 11. Steps to ImproveSteps to Improve HousingHousing  AA new townnew town is anis an urban developmenturban development consisting of a smallconsisting of a small to midsize city with ato midsize city with a broad range ofbroad range of housing and plannedhousing and planned industrial,industrial, commercial, andcommercial, and recreational facilities.recreational facilities.
  12. 12. Steps to ImproveSteps to Improve HousingHousing  AA subdivisionsubdivision is ais a smaller version of thesmaller version of the new town town concept.  In a subdivision, theIn a subdivision, the density and types ofdensity and types of buildings are controlled.buildings are controlled.  Subdivisions are oftenSubdivisions are often created fromcreated from undeveloped land byundeveloped land by private investors calledprivate investors called developers.developers.
  13. 13. The NavajoThe Navajo  A group’s culture influences its housing, andA group’s culture influences its housing, and the housing becomes part of the culture.the housing becomes part of the culture.  The Navajo, a tribe from the Southwest, lived inThe Navajo, a tribe from the Southwest, lived in aa hoganhogan, which was a building made of logs, which was a building made of logs and mud.and mud.  The windows faced west and a single doorThe windows faced west and a single door faced east.faced east.  The placement of the door had religiousThe placement of the door had religious significance.significance.  The Navajo believed the door must face east so theThe Navajo believed the door must face east so the spirit guardians could enter.spirit guardians could enter.
  14. 14. Spanish StyleSpanish Style  Before regions in theBefore regions in the South becameSouth became states, they werestates, they were settled by thesettled by the Spanish.Spanish.  The Spanish builtThe Spanish built missions withmissions with whitewashed wallswhitewashed walls and red-tiled roofs.and red-tiled roofs.
  15. 15. Societal Influences onSocietal Influences on HousingHousing  Signs of societal change are everywhere.Signs of societal change are everywhere.  They can be seen in the growth of theThey can be seen in the growth of the cities and the movement of people tocities and the movement of people to new jobs and jobs and locations.  They can be seen in relationships andThey can be seen in relationships and lifestyles.lifestyles.  Many of these changes affect housing.Many of these changes affect housing.
  16. 16. Household SizeHousehold Size  The U.S. Cencus Bureau collects data toThe U.S. Cencus Bureau collects data to provide information onprovide information on demographicsdemographics, which, which are statistical facts about the humanare statistical facts about the human population.population.  In 1790 the average household size wasIn 1790 the average household size was between 3 and 7.between 3 and 7.  In 1900 the majority had 2 and 5.In 1900 the majority had 2 and 5.  In 2000, the census showed that only 1 or 2In 2000, the census showed that only 1 or 2 people lived in most households toady.people lived in most households toady.
  17. 17. People withPeople with DisabilitiesDisabilities  A disability mayA disability may interfere with ainterfere with a person’s ability toperson’s ability to walk.walk.  Their housing mustTheir housing must allow them to carryallow them to carry out day-to-dayout day-to-day activities with as littleactivities with as little restriction asrestriction as possible.possible.
  18. 18. Working at HomeWorking at Home  The number of people working from theirThe number of people working from their homes is is increasing.  TelecommutingTelecommuting is working at home oris working at home or another site through an electronic link toanother site through an electronic link to a central office’s computer.a central office’s computer.  Working at home not only presentsWorking at home not only presents challenges for designing the workspacechallenges for designing the workspace but also for dealing with distractions.but also for dealing with distractions.
  19. 19. EnvironmentalEnvironmental Influences on HousingInfluences on Housing  TheThe natural environmentnatural environment is provided byis provided by nature.nature.  Land, water, trees, and solar energy.Land, water, trees, and solar energy.  TheThe constructed environmentconstructed environment includesincludes the natural environment after it has beenthe natural environment after it has been changed by human effort.changed by human effort.  TheThe behavioral environmentbehavioral environment is an ais an a housing environment for people tohousing environment for people to interact with one another.interact with one another.
  20. 20. How Housing AffectsHow Housing Affects the Economythe Economy  One way to measure theOne way to measure the economy is to determineeconomy is to determine the number of familiesthe number of families that can afford to buy athat can afford to buy a median-priced home inmedian-priced home in their area.their area.  High mortgage rates andHigh mortgage rates and high unemploymenthigh unemployment affects the ability ofaffects the ability of households to purchasehouseholds to purchase housing.housing.
  21. 21. How the EconomyHow the Economy Affects HousingAffects Housing  TheThe housing markethousing market is the transfer ofis the transfer of dwellings from thedwellings from the producers to theproducers to the consumers.consumers.  The strength of theThe strength of the housing markethousing market depends on supplydepends on supply and demand.and demand.
  22. 22. High TechHigh Tech  Homes now may include media rooms orHomes now may include media rooms or home theaters complete with largehome theaters complete with large screens and high tech sound systems.screens and high tech sound systems.  Many architects and interior designersMany architects and interior designers useuse computer-aided drafting andcomputer-aided drafting and design (CADD),design (CADD), which is software andwhich is software and hardware that creates designs with ahardware that creates designs with a
  23. 23. GovernmentalGovernmental Influences on HousingInfluences on Housing  Laws regulatingLaws regulating housing beganhousing began during colonial times.during colonial times.  Since the 1930s, theSince the 1930s, the federal governmentfederal government has stepped up itshas stepped up its efforts to improveefforts to improve housing conditions inhousing conditions in the U.S.the U.S.
  24. 24. Housing StandardsHousing Standards  Standards includeStandards include building codesbuilding codes,, establish minimumestablish minimum standards for materialsstandards for materials and constructionand construction methods.methods.  AA zoning regulation,zoning regulation, isis a governmenta government requirement that controlsrequirement that controls land use.
  25. 25. The End!The End!