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The Future of Life Sciences 2013 for Max Planck Institute

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Top 10 List of Life Sciences Opportunities - The next wave of the biotechnology revolution is underway and promises to reshape the world in ways even more transformative than the agricultural, …

Top 10 List of Life Sciences Opportunities - The next wave of the biotechnology revolution is underway and promises to reshape the world in ways even more transformative than the agricultural, industrial and information revolutions that preceded it. It is not nimaginable that at some point, all biological processes, human and otherwise, will be understood and managed. Some of the most likely sources of life sciences discontinuities are genomic sequencing and synthesis, synthetic biology, nanoscience and aging.

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  • 1. Melanie Swan MS Futures Group +1-650-681-9482 @LaBlogga, @DIYgenomics www.MelanieSwan.com m@melanieswan.com http://www.youtube.com/TechnologyPhilosophe September 9, 2013 Max Planck Institute, Göttingen, Germany Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Image credit: Natasha Vita-More, Primo Posthuman The Future of Life Sciences
  • 2. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 2 About Melanie Swan  Founder DIYgenomics, science and technology innovator and philosopher  Current projects: MelanieSwan.com  Education: MBA Finance, Wharton; BA French/Economics, Georgetown Univ  Work experience: Fidelity, JP Morgan, iPass, RHK/Ovum, Arthur Andersen  Sample publications: Source: http://melanieswan.com/publications.htm  Swan, M. Crowdsourced Health Research Studies: An Important Emerging Complement to Clinical Trials in the Public Health Research Ecosystem. J Med Internet Res 2012, Mar;14(2):e46.  Swan, M. Scaling crowdsourced health studies: the emergence of a new form of contract research organization. Personalized Medicine 2012, Mar;9(2):223-234.  Swan, M. Steady advance of stem cell therapies. Rejuvenation Res 2011, Dec;14(6):699-704.  Swan, M., Hathaway, K., Hogg, C., McCauley, R., Vollrath, A. Citizen science genomics as a model for crowdsourced preventive medicine research. J Participat Med 2010, Dec 23; 2:e20.  Swan, M. Multigenic Condition Risk Assessment in Direct-to-Consumer Genomic Services. Genet Med 2010, May;12(5):279-88.  Swan, M. Emerging patient-driven health care models: an examination of health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2009, 2, 492-525.
  • 3. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 3 What is your world-changing vision?  Where will you be in one year?  Start-up company?  Back in school?  Working for someone else?  Who are your role models?
  • 4. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Agenda  Our Futuristic World  Top 10 Life Sciences Opportunities  Synthetic Biology, Regenerative Medicine, 3D Printing, Genomics/Omics  Neuroscience, Nanotechnology, Big Data, Citizen Science, Quantified Self  Aging, Space  Conclusion  Potential Risks  Summary 4
  • 5. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 5 The future… Image: http://www.sydmead.com
  • 6. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences …is notoriously difficult to predict Seemed likely to occur first: Positional nanoassembly Actually occurred first: Young lady’s illustrated primer 6
  • 7. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 7 Miniaturization Trend, Next Node: Microdots Computing machinery Room(s) size Handheld Invisible Non matter- based? 2050s2000s10-100 years ago 2100+ Information storage DNA sequencing
  • 8. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 8 Information Transmission Eras Painting, scrolls Press, Transistor DNA Analog Digital Life code ? ? 2000-21001455 & 1950-200017,300 years ago 2100+ (Kuhnian paradigms, Foucauldian epistemes)
  • 9. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 9 Prominent Artificial Intelligence Eras Expert syst, CYC NLP, HTM, NCC Google, Watson Enumeration Biomimicry Big data ? ? 2000s+1990s+1950s 2100+
  • 10. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Big Data: Personal Health Informatics 10 DNA: SNP mutations Microbiomics Proteomics RNA expression profiling Epigenetics Health 2.0: Personal Health Informatics DNA: Structural variation Metabolomics Academic papers re: integrated health data streams: Auffray C, et al. Looking back at genomic medicine in 2011. Genome Med. 2012 Jan 30;4(1):9. Chen R et al. Personal omics profiling reveals dynamic molecular and medical phenotypes. Cell. 2012 Mar 16;148(6):1293-307.
  • 11. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Human Agency: Collective Intelligence Computing 11 Crowdsourcing Quantified self- tracking DIYbio labs Consumer blood tests Citizen science Concierge research Consumer genomics Health 2.0: Crowdsourced Health Computing Ambient mental performance optimization Continuous sampling
  • 12. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences DNA sequencing: 10x/yr improvement 12 Life Code: Biology is an Information Technology http://pubs.acs.org/cen/_img/87/i50/8750cover2_law.gifhttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/images/nature11875-f1.2.jpg Code Conversion: Digital to DNA
  • 13. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 13 Biology is the Information Technology Image credit: J. Craig Venter Institute Image credit: Anthony Atala lab Image credit: Thomas Matthiesen Artificial cell booted to life Algal biofuel Image credit: http://www.rexresearch.com Whole organ decellularization and recellularization (heart) Organ regeneration (urethra) DNA nanotechnology latch box for drug delivery Image credit: Aarhus University
  • 14. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Global Population: Growing and Aging 14 UN Habitat – 2010 http://avondaleassetmanagement.blogspot.com/2012/05/japan-aging-population.html
  • 15. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences  2.4B Users in 2012, 8% growth, emerging markets Worldwide Internet Penetration 15Mary Meeker, Internet Trends, http://www.kpcb.com/insights/2013-internet-trends
  • 16. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences  1.5B subscribers, 31% growth, 21% worldwide penetration in 2013E Worldwide Smartphone Penetration 16Mary Meeker, Internet Trends, http://www.kpcb.com/insights/2013-internet-trends
  • 17. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences  Over 50% worldwide population in 2008  5 billion in 2030 (estimated)  Megacity: (>10 million and possibly 2,000/km2 ) Human Urbanization: Living in Cities 17
  • 18. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 18 Megacity Growth Rates Wikipedia
  • 19. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Himalayas Water Tower Biomimicry-inspired Dwelling Design Living Treehouses – Mitchell Joachim Masdar, Abu Dhabi – Energy City of the Future
  • 20. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Reconfiguration of Space: Seasteading
  • 21. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Urban Agriculture: Vertical Farms 21 San Diego, California (planned) Singapore (existing)
  • 22. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Transportation Revolution 22 Solar Power: Tesla + Solar City Self-Driving CarPersonalized Pod Transport Google's Self-Driving Cars Complete 300K Miles Without Accident, Deemed Ready for Commuting http://techcrunch.com/2012/08/07/google-cars-300000-miles-without-accident/
  • 23. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 23 Wireless Internet-of-Things Source: Swan, M. Sensor Mania! The Internet of Things, Objective Metrics, and the Quantified Self 2.0. J Sens Actuator Netw 2012. Image credit: Cisco
  • 24. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Sensor Mania! 24 Source: Swan, M. Sensor Mania! The Internet of Things, Objective Metrics, and the Quantified Self 2.0. J Sens Actuator Netw 2012.
  • 25. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Agenda  Our Futuristic World  Top 10 Life Sciences Opportunities  Synthetic Biology, Regenerative Medicine, 3D Printing, Genomics/Omics  Neuroscience, Nanotechnology, Big Data, Citizen Science, Quantified Self  Aging, Space  Conclusion  Potential Risks  Summary 25
  • 26. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Top 10 Life Sciences Opportunities Quantified Self (QS) Wearables Internet-of-Things (IOT) Space Aging Health Extension Robotics Regenerative Medicine Big Data Genomics “Omics” Preventive Medicine Nanotechnology Neuroscience Collective Intelligence DIYscience Participatory Health Synthetic Biology 26 3D Printing Biotechnology
  • 27. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 27 1. Synthetic Biology Revolution  Vision  Harness design rules of biology  Definition – biology as an engineering medium  Directed redesign and de novo construction of biological entities such as enzymes, genetic circuits, and cells  Extensive applications  Energy, Food, Pharmaceuticals, Materials, Chemicals  Main approaches (cellular chassis runs DNA code)  Metabolic engineering (bacteria produce diesel)  Extending E. coli capacity (yeast produces medicine)  Biomimicry (replicate biological function in synthetic systems)  de novo Synthesis (create new functionality) “This century’s transistor” Source: Swan, M. Synbio Revolution: Biology is the Engineering Medium, 6/26/11 http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2011/06/synbio-revolution-biology-is.html
  • 28. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 28 1. Biological Design Software http://partsregistry.org Select System, Device, or Part Level
  • 29. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 29 1. Print DNA Code to Cellular Chassis
  • 30. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 30 1. Biofuels  First generation  Food crop feedstock: sugar, starch, vegetable oil, animal fats  Fuel types: vegetable oil, biodiesel, butanol, ethanol, syngas  Second generation  Non-crop feedstock: cellulose, biomass: wheat, corn, wood  Fuel types: biohydrogen, biomethanol, DMF, bio-DME, biohydrogen diesel, mixed alcohols, wood diesel  Third generation  Algae feedstock  Fourth generation  CO2 feedstock: CO2 converted to methane by bacteria Algal Oil http://biodynamics.ucsd.edu/pubs/articles/Ferry12.pdf http://openwetware.org/images/1/1f/Biofuels.pdf
  • 31. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Why Important? Scope: possibility of designing and remaking every aspect of the biological world 1. Synthetic Biology Biotechnology Applications 31 http://www.haaretz.com/business/the-start-up-that-translates-the-abcs-of-dna-1.486016 http://scientopia.org/blogs/everydaybiology/2010/08/17/e-chromi-and-the-scatalog/ Sustainable Natural Lighting Fluorescent Angelfish Glowing Arabidopsis BioMolecular Design and Synthesis ATP Synthase E. Chromi Water Sensors Environmental Sensing Landmine Sensing Plant: Arabidopsis thaliana
  • 32. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 2. Regenerative Medicine and 3D Printing 32 Whole Organ Decellularization and Recellularization (Heart) Organ Regeneration Lab-grown Meat Personalized 3D Models
  • 33. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 2. Custom 3D Printed Objects and Food 33 Why Important? Potential near-term widespread application of medical and personalized object printing http://www.plummerfernandez.com/Digital-Natives http://www.dezeen.com/2013/05/13/print-shift-extract-3d-printed-food/
  • 34. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 34 3. Genomics and Personalized ‘Omics’ 1. Established genomic applications  Ancestry  Carrier status  Identity (paternity, forensics) 1. Maturing  Health condition risk1  Pharmaceutical response2 1. Emerging  Athletic performance capability  Environment/toxin processing  Nutrigenomics, OTC product response, HLA matching (dating)3 1. Frontier  Predictive wellness profiling: aging, cancer, immune response  Social intelligence, cognitive performance, identity construction Image credit: http://bit.ly/fovpJc 1 Source: Swan M. Multigenic condition risk assessment in direct-to-consumer genomic services. Genet Med. 2010 May;12(5):279-88. 2 Source: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ScienceResearch/ResearchAreas/Pharmacogenetics/ucm083378.htm 3http://www.genepartner.com/index.php/science 75
  • 35. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Operated on the Crowdsourced Health Research Study Platform GENOMERA http://genomera.com/studies/thinking-fast-and-slow-study Objective: Investigate whether a genetic predisposition for loss aversion and optimism bias may be linked to real-life behavior Inspired by Daniel Kahneman’s book ‘Thinking Fast and Slow’ (2011) Hypothesis: Individuals with polymorphisms in genes related to neural processes may be more susceptible to two phenomena that shape human thinking, loss aversion and optimism bias Genotypic Examination: 5-HTTLPR, COMT Val(158)Met, T102C, DRD2/ANKK1, PDYN, OXTR Phenotypic Examination: Loss Aversion, Optimum Bias Instruments 3. Thinking Fast and Slow Study
  • 36. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Operated on the Crowdsourced Health Research Study Platform GENOMERA http://genomera.com/studies/social-intelligence-genomics-empathy-building Objective: Confirm and extend research linking genetic profile and social intelligence Hypothesis: Individuals with certain genetic profiles may have greater natural capacity for characteristics of social intelligence Genotypic Examination: OXTR, DRD2, COMT, BDNF (genes which have been associated with optimism and empathy, extraversion, and altruism) Phenotypic Examination: Interpersonal Reactivity Index Instrument 3. Social Genomics: Empathy Study Genotype Phenotype Intervention Outcome+ + = DIYgenomics Preventive Medicine Methodology :
  • 37. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 3. Big Data: Integrated Health Data Streams 37 Swan, M. Health 2050: The Realization of Personalized Medicine through Crowdsourcing, the Quantified Self, and the Participatory Biocitizen. J Pers Med 2012, 2(3), 93-118. Genome SNP mutations Structural variation Epigenetics Microbiome Transcriptome Environmentome Metabolome Diseasome Proteome Personal and Family Health History Prescription History Lab Tests: History and Current Demographic Data Self-reported data: health, exercise, food, mood journals, etc. Biosensor Data Objective Metrics Quantified Self Device Data Mobile App Data Quantified Self Data Streams Traditional Data StreamsOmics Data Streams Standardized Instrument Response Legend: Consumer-available
  • 38. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 3. Personal Microbiomics 38 Image credit: Grice EA et al, Nat Rev Microbiol, 2011, Figure 3 20 Microbiome Ecosystem Zones Image credits: my.microbes.eu My.microbes.eu Gut Enterotype Analysis  Disease risk, drug response, and nutrient generation  Enterotype affiliation and nutrients1 1. Bacteroides (biotin synthesis) 2. Prevotella (thiamine synthesis) 3. Ruminococcus (folate synthesis) 1 Source: Arumugam M et al. Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome. Nature. 2011 May 12;473(7346):174-80.
  • 39. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 3. Genome Politics, Policy, and Regulation  Individual’s right to their own genomic data  Validity, Utility, Actionability, Probability1  Our world is not Gattaca  Individuals having and sharing health data has reduced stigma and discrimination2  Global concerns: human cloning, sex selection, genetic privacy, non-discrimination  UN Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine 1997 (Chapter IV Human Genome)  Council of Europe Biomedicine Convention 1997  US Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) 2008 39 1 Swan, M. Multigenic Condition Risk Assessment in Direct-to-Consumer Genomic Services. Genet Med 2010, May;12(5):279-88. 2 Kido T and Swan M. The Potential Power of Personal Genomics in Reducing Social Stereotypes: Attitudinal Study and Computer Animation of Results for 4,000 Japanese Respondents. ASHG 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3312949 Why Important? Cornerstone component in the realization of preventive medicine, goal = avoid clinical onset of disease
  • 40. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 4. Neuroscience and Brain Research 40  Neuroscience innovation areas  Tools and processes for characterization and intervention in development, function, and pathology of the nervous system  Recent Innovations  fMRI resolution and real-time use  Neuronal stem cell generation via somatic reprogrammming,1 organoid2  Minimally-invasive robot-assisted neurosurgery  Speech and Image Recognition  Natural Language Processing (NLP), Cognitive Computing (IBM Watson)  Google image recognition3 1 Swan, M. Recent Advances in Neural Stem Cell Generation. Future Neurology 2012, Jul;7(4):473-482. 2 http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/aug/28/miniature-brains-test-tubes-neuroscience 3 Le QV, et al, Building high-level features using large scale unsupervised learning. 2011. http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.6209 Organoid fMRI Imaging IBM Watson Image Recognition
  • 41. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 4. Brain Modularity and Minimalism 41  Human Connectome Project  3D mapping of neural pathways  Neocortical connects: regular grid and neighborhood structure  Blue Brain Project  Neocortical scanning, simulation, modeling (rat 2011, human 2023E)  UTexas Cerebellum Modeling  Cerebellum simulation  Massively repeated cerebellum wiring pattern http://www.humanconnectome.org http://newbooksinbrief.com/2012/11/27/25-a-summary-of-how-to-create-a-mind-the-secret-of-human-thought-revealed-by-ray-kurzweil http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~ai-lab/pubs/NeuralNets12-Li.pdf 3D Neural Modeling Why Important? Final frontier in science, and applications could have significant worldwide benefit Neocortical Column Simulation Neocortical Grid and Neighborhood Structure
  • 42. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 42 5. Nanotechnology: Nanomedicine  Drug delivery  DNA nanotechnology  Organ repair  Biomolecular interface  Medical nanorobots, cognitive nanorobots Respirocytes Microbivore Artery Cleaner Nanoparticles VasculocyteClottocytes DNA WalkerHolliday Junction Quantum Dot Dyes Farther future Present Source: Swan, M. Top ten recent nanomedical advances. Book chapter in Clinical Nanomedicine: from Bench to Bedside 2011, Forthcoming. Holliday Junction: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130321141448.ht DNA: Structural Building Block
  • 43. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 5. Nanotechnology: Microfluidics 43 Why Important? Underlying driver of high-precision medical and diagnostic applications, preventive medicine, neuroprosthetics  MEMS, microfluidics, lab-on-a-chip1  Human-body-on-a-chip2  Paper-based microfluidics3 Gut-on-a-chip Lung-on-a-chip2 Lab-on-a-chip1 1 http://wyss.harvard.edu/viewpressrelease/80/harvards-wyss-institute-creates-living-human-gutonachip 2 web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/human-body-on-a-chip-research-funding-0724.html 3 bmf.aip.org/resource/1/biomgb/v6/i1/p011301_s1?bypassSSO=1 Lab-on-Paper Diagnostics (DFA.org)3
  • 44. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 6. Participatory Health and DIYscience 44 (Light) Ecosystem: Level of Engagement (Intense) Social Media Mobile Health Apps Tele- Medicine PHRs (personal health records) Consumer Genomics Community Labs Quantified self- tracking Citizen science Swan, M. Crowdsourced Health Research Studies: An Important Emerging Complement to Clinical Trials in the Public Health Research Ecosystem. J Med Internet Res 2012, Mar;14(2):e46 Citizen Scientist: Anyone conducting scientific investigation without professional training in the field DIYbio (do-it-yourself biology) http://diybionyc.blogspot.com
  • 45. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 45 6. Health Social Networks and Collaboration Source: Extended from Swan, M. Emerging patient-driven health care models: an examination of health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 2, 492-525. Health collaboration & experimentation communities Health social networks (global & local)
  • 46. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 46 6. Genomera ‘eBay of health studies’ May 2013: 600+ community members, 30 studies with 10-65 enrollees Site access via www.DIYgenomics.org Why Important? Hasten pace of scientific discovery and results implementation, extend science landscape and DIY attitude
  • 47. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 7. Quantified Self, Wearables, IOT  Goal: personalized knowledge through quantified self-tracking  Global community: ‘show n tell’ meetups  Outcome: optimality and improvement  Example: personalized interventions for depression, low energy, sleep quality 47 Image credit: http://www.nationalpost.com Image credit: Quantified Self IOT = Internet-of-Things Source: Swan, M. Overview of Crowdsourced Health Research Studies. 2012.
  • 48. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 48 7. Quantified Self Project Examples  Low-cost home-administered blood, urine, saliva tests OrSense continuous non-invasive glucose monitoring Cholestech LDX home cholesterol test ZRT Labs dried blood spot tests  Food consumption (1 yr)1 and the Butter Mind study2  Study 1 Source: http://flowingdata.com/2011/06/29/a-year-of-food-consumption-visualized 2 Source: http://quantifiedself.com/2011/01/results-of-the-buttermind-experiment
  • 49. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Smartring (ElectricFoxy), Electronic tattoos (mc10), $1 blood API (Sano Intelligence), Continuous Monitors (Medtronic) 49 Smart Gadgetry Creates Continuous Personal Information Climate Smartphone, Fitbit, Smartwatch (Pebble), Electronic T-shirt (Carre) 7. Sensor Mania! Wearable Electronics Source: Swan, M. Sensor Mania! The Internet of Things, Objective Metrics, and the Quantified Self 2.0. J Sens Actuator Netw 2012.
  • 50. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 7. BioSensor Electronic Tattoos 50 http://www.jacobsschool.ucsd.edu/pulse/winter2013/page3.shtml#tattoos Electrochemical Sensors Tactile Intelligence: Haptic Data Glove Chemical Sensors Disposable Electronics Wearable Electronics: Detect External Threats and Track Internal Vital Signs
  • 51. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 51 Magnetic Sense: Finger and Arm Magnets North Paw Haptic Compass Anklet and Heart Spark http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D4shfNufqSg http://sensebridge.net/projects/heart-spark Extending our senses in new ways to perceive data as sensation Serendipitous Joy: Smile- triggered EMG muscle sensor with an LED headband display 7. Building Exosenses for the Qualified Self Source: Swan, M. Sensor Mania! The Internet of Things, Objective Metrics, and the Quantified Self 2.0. J Sens Actuator Netw 2012.
  • 52. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 7. Augmenting the Brain 24/7 Consumer EEG, Eye-tracking, Emotion-Mapping, Augmented Reality Glasses 52 Consumer EEG Rigs 1.0 2.0 Augmented Reality Glasses Why Important? Thinking Shift to: My health is my responsibility … and I have the tools to make managing it fun and easy Source: Swan, M. Sensor Mania! The Internet of Things, Objective Metrics, and the Quantified Self 2.0. J Sens Actuator Netw 2012.
  • 53. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 53  Annual data creation on the order of zetabytes  90% of the world’s data created in the last 2 years  Fastest growing segment: life sciences imaging data 8. Big Data and Information Visualization Mary Meeker, Internet Trends, http://www.kpcb.com/insights/2013-internet-trends http://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/white-papers/healthcare-leveraging-big-data-paper.pdf
  • 54. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 8. Life Sciences Big Data Visualization 54 Consumer/QS Data Patient Data Integrated Health Data Streams Social Graph Data Public Health Data Environmental Monitoring Why Important? A wholly new way of reacting to information: formerly everything was signal, now 99% is noise
  • 55. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 9. Aging and Health Extension: Prescriptive 55  Neurodegenerative disease (ApoE)  Cholesterol testing and management: exercise, vitamins, stress reduction1  Neuroplasticity enhancement  Rejuvenation research  Bioremediation enzymes2  Genetic therapies: RNA interference, allotopic expression2  DIYgenomics studies: memory, sleep, telomere-lengthening, skin response Bioremediation Enzymes 1 REVEAL Study http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/16/health/research/16dementia.html?_r=0 2 http://sens.org/research/intramural Lipoprotein Particle Density
  • 56. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 9. Aging: Telomere Length 56 Telomeres (DNA tips) shorten with Aging http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808324 (2013) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20822369 (2011) Astragalus Root Scientist: Maria Blasco Scientist: Cal Harley Telomere-length Testing: What is your Biological Age?
  • 57. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 9. DIYgenomics Telomere Study  Telomerase genes, telomere length, and intervention  Telomere-lengthening and immune system benefits (Harley CB et al, Rejuvenation Res, 2011, de Jesus BB et al, Aging Cell, 2011) 57 Source: http://genomera.com/studies/aging-telomere-length-and-telomerase-activation-therapy
  • 58. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 9. Aging: Skin Rejuvenation  Topical Treatments  Retinoids (Retin-A)  Retinoid substitutes  Salicin, CoQ10, Intense Pulsed Light  Filler injections  Botox, hyaluronic acid, transdermal hexapeptides, bio-roller microneedle therapy  Cellular therapies  Injected collagen-producing fibroblasts (LaViv, Vavelta)  Stem cell face lift  Dermal substitutes, spray-on skin, wound-healing, scar reduction 58 http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/translational-antiaging-skin-research PermaDerm 3D Spray-on Skin Microneedle bio-roller Salicin (Willow Bark)
  • 59. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 9. DIYgenomics Retin-A Skin Study  Can personal genomics (TERC, TERT, ILA1, TNF) predict Retin-A reaction and side-effects? 59 Source: http://genomera.com/studies/retin-a-wonder-cream-for-acne-and-wrinkles-is-there-a-genomic-link
  • 60. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 60 9. DIYgenomics Memory Study Source: http://genomera.com/studies/aging-telomere-length-and-telomerase-activation-therapy Goal: 100 member cohort •Genotype: COMT, DRD2, SLC6A3 (~5 SNPs) (neurotransmitter modulation) •Phenotype: memory test (20-25 minutes) •Background questionnaire
  • 61. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 9. Aging, Life Extension, Robotics 61 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MaTfzYDZG8c&feature=share Why Important? Possibility of reducing human suffering, and extending well-being, productivity, and quality of life Robotic Helpers Robotic Companions Wearable Exoskeletons Self-Driving Cars/Pod Transport Senior Empowerment
  • 62. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 10. Future of Life Sciences in Space 62 http://www.planetaryresources.com http://www.youtube.com/user/virgle Asteroid Mining: Water, CHON, Metals Mars Caves: Shelter and Ice Search for Life Over 150 Exoplanets Confirmed Cyanobacteria: SynBio on the Moon
  • 63. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 63 Source: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/oscillator/2012/03/31/foods-in-the-year-2000/ Why Important? Field of exploration, growth, survival, resource- generation, travel, and entertainment for our future
  • 64. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Agenda  Our Futuristic World  Top 10 Life Sciences Opportunities  Synthetic Biology, Regenerative Medicine, 3D Printing, Genomics/Omics  Neuroscience, Nanotechnology, Big Data, Citizen Science, Quantified Self  Aging, Space  Conclusion  Potential Risks  Summary 64
  • 65. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Top 10 Life Sciences Opportunities Quantified Self (QS) Wearables Internet-of-Things (IOT) Space Aging Health Extension Robotics Regenerative Medicine Big Data Genomics “Omics” Preventive Medicine Nanotechnology Neuroscience Collective Intelligence DIYscience Participatory Health Synthetic Biology 65 3D Printing Biotechnology
  • 66. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Future of Life Sciences Summary  Biology is the information science of the century  Wider ecosystem: institutions to citizen scientists  Preventive Medicine: avoid disease onset, optimality  Data: continuous, automated, objective metrics with attendant access, sharing, security, privacy concerns  Biocitizenry: rights and responsibilities, health as a human right 66
  • 67. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 67 Future of Life Sciences: Participatory Health Individual 2. Peer collaboration and health advisors Health social networks, crowdsourced studies, health advisors, wellness coaches, preventive care plans, boutique physicians, genetics coaches, aestheticians, medical tourism 3. Public health system Deep expertise of traditional health system for disease and trauma treatment 1. Continuous health information climate Automated digital health monitoring, self-tracking devices, and mobile apps providing personalized recommendations Source: Extended from Swan, M. Emerging patient-driven health care models: an examination of health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 2, 492-525.
  • 68. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Frontier: Mental Performance Optimization 68 ‘Siri 2.0’ Personal Virtual Coach from DIYgenomics Sources: http://cbits.northwestern.edu and http://quantifiedself.com/2009/03/a-few-weeks-ago-i Source: DIYgenomics Social Intelligence Study http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/w/page/48946791/social_intelligence PTSD App Mood Management Apps from Mobilyze and M. Morris Source: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/ ptsdcoach.asp
  • 69. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 69 But wait…Bioethical Risks and Society 1 http://www.nature.com/news/glowing-plants-spark-debate-1.13131  Regulation (synthetic biology, genetics, stem cells)  Unsupervised release of synthetic organisms1  Practitioner ethics, registry, and licensing  Safeguards: control and if necessary extinguish technology  Monitoring and enforcement: top-down and bottom-up  Ownership (IP) rights and responsibilities  Policy issues  Digital divide accessibility, non-discrimination, medical tourism  Manufacturing standards, raw materials sourcing  PRECEDENTS: Recombinant DNA, Nanotechnology
  • 70. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 70 Biological Warfare and Public Health  Can these technologies be weaponized?  Biological Weapons Convention (1972)  Offense prohibited; defensive research  Open publishing (AIDS, SARS)  Risk assessment  Access to existing samples  Creating pathogens is difficult  Superbugs (Staph aureus), emerging infections  Simultaneous development of defenses  Sensors
  • 71. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 71 Bioethics Practitioner Standards 1 http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0060073  Follow Hippocratic oath principles: autonomy, privacy, beneficence  Research Ethics Recommendations for Whole-Genome Research: Consensus Statement1 March 25, 2008 • Consent • Withdrawal from research • Return of results • Public data release  Synthetic biology biosafety  Reviews: external pre-experimental and ongoing  Responsibility-taking: signature, documentation  Safe design: non-reproductive, activation-based, suicide gene  Safeguards for unintended consequences
  • 72. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 72  Models  Protected, open-source, shared foundation  Successive tiers cleared to public use  1996 Bermuda Principles  2000 Clinton: genome sequences ineligible for patent  Considerations  Product window, cost of development, market demand  Open-source information, fee-based services  Definitional issues  What is life?  Can genetically modified organisms be patented?  Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 1980 Ethics: Intellectual Property
  • 73. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences Heidegger in the Age of Biotechnicity  Technology discloses the world to us in a way that could endanger us because we are not aware of it  Technology is not bad in itself  Our attunement to technology as a means of deeply revealing the world to us could help us away from the forgetfulness of being, our lostness in daily projects  We should tune into the enframing capability of technology in the background disclosing to us the possibilities for the meaningfulness of our being  See technology is an enabler, not a means to an end 73 Heidegger, M. The Question Concerning Technology, 1954
  • 74. September 9, 2013 Future of Life Sciences 74 What is your world-changing vision?  Where will you be in one year?  Start-up company?  Back in school?  Working for someone else?  Who are your role models?
  • 75. Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Creative Commons 3.0 license Image: Natasha Vita-More, Primo Posthuman Vielen Dank! Questions? The Future of Life Sciences Melanie Swan MS Futures Group +1-650-681-9482 @LaBlogga, @DIYgenomics www.MelanieSwan.com m@melanieswan.com http://www.youtube.com/TechnologyPhilosophe