A nutrient is a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body. Some provide energy. All help build cells and tissues, regulate bodily processes such as breathing. No single food supplies all the nutrients the body needs to function.
What is a Nutrient
Food Guide Pyramid
It is one of the most imp of all substances we ingest.
Water participates in chemical reactions in the body.
Adequate water intake helps stabilize body temperature.
Flushes the toxic waste products out of the system
Calories per gram:
Protein 1 Gram = 4 calories
Carbohydrates 1 Gram = 4 calories
Fat 1 Gram = 9 calories
One of the most imp function is source of energy
some examples: Glucose, sucrose, cellulose
Glucose, in the body is broken down to make energy. Excess glucose taken in during a meal is stored in the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen.
Glycogen supplies glucose in periods between meals
Cellulose is made from glucose molecules. It forms water insoluble Fiber.
These are fats and oils found in plants and animals.
Function as rich energy molecules, Maintain structure of cells.
Examples : Triglycerides, Steroids
Consuming large quantities of triglycerides from Animal fat increases one’s risk of developing Atherosclerosis.
One of the best known steroids is cholesterol. Cholesterol is used to make other steroids, such as vitamin D and sex hormones in men and women.
Amino Acids and Proteins
Proteins are important for making enzymes, hormones and many structural components such as collagen, which make up our hair, finger nails and part of our bones.
Proteins in the human body consists of 20 different amino acids.
Body is capable of producing 12 amino acids from nitrogen and smaller molecules derived from carbohydrates and fats. Some need to be provided by diet and these are called Essential amino acids
Foods rich in proteins are milk, eggs, meat, fish, poultry, legumes, cheese, soy products
These constitute vitamins and minerals
Vitamins play imp role in chemical reactions in the cells of the body
Most vitamins are not made in the cells so they must be ingested in the food we eat.
Vitamins fall in 2 categories :Fat soluble(A,D,E,K), Water soluble (Vit B group and C)
Vitamin A is converted into light sensitive pigments in the receptor cells in the retina
Vit D deficiency produces rickets, a disease that results in bone deformities
Vit E deficiency include sensitivity of erythrocytes and appearance of abnormal cell membranes.
Vit k is essential for synthesis and function of clotting factors.
Vit B complex work in conjunction with enzymes, promoting cellular reactions that supply energy or synthesize materials which support cells in the body.
Vit C is required for maintaining normal connective tissue, as well as for wound healing.
Humans require about 2 dozen minerals, such as calcium,sodium,iron and potassium, to carry out normal body functions.
They are derived from the food we eat and beverages we drink.
They make up parts of our body such as the bones and also play important roles in the body functions such as muscle contraction.