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Topic Nutrition: GCSE

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  • Nutrition

    1. 1. Nutrition Scientific Terminology
    2. 2. Proteins <ul><li>Proteins are large organic compounds made of amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>There function in the body is to grow and repair tissues and cells and to aid in the formation of antibodies that enable the body to fight infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Nuts, meat etc </li></ul><ul><li>Protein is composed of amino acids, which are in turn made up of mostly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.  A few amino acids also contain sulfur: both Cysteine and Methionine. Thus, proteins containing these amino acids would be made up of very small amounts of sulfur, in addition to the more common elements listed above. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Carbohydrates are an ideal source of energy for the body. This is because they can be converted more readily into glucose, the form of sugar that's transported and used by the body, than can proteins or fats. Even so, a diet too high in carbohydrates can upset the delicate balance of your body's blood sugar level, resulting in fluctuations in energy and mood that leave you feeling irritated and tired. </li></ul><ul><li>starch is a polymer of glucose molecules. It consists of a mixture of 2 polysaccharides: </li></ul><ul><li>25% amylase - about 2000 glucose residues are linked by the alpha 1-4 glycosidic linkage. It is un-branched and forms a helix. </li></ul><ul><li>75% amylopectin - branched chains about 100000 glucose units. Glucose is joined by the alpha 1-4 glycosidic linkage and at branched points the alpha 1-6 glycosidic linkages occur. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Fats / Lipids <ul><li>Fats provide a source of concentrated energy as well as the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Fat transports these vital nutrients around the body. We also need fat for hormone metabolism, healthy skin and hair, tissue repair, protecting the internal organs and to prevent excessive loss of body heat. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated and non-saturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions of fat include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage of energy (fat stores double the amount of energy the same mass of carbohydrate/protein does) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cushioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of nerve impulses </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Water <ul><li>Water is perhaps the most important component of complex living organisms. It forms the basic medium in which life processes take place - from intricate biochemical reactions inside cells to the removal of waste products from the body. Even the smallest degree of water loss can impair physical and mental function. </li></ul><ul><li>We need water for 4 reasons </li></ul><ul><li>if we don’t have water our body’s survival is limited up to a small number of days </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Helps remove waste </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps our body at a steady temperature </li></ul>
    6. 6. Vitamins <ul><li>A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. A compound is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. </li></ul><ul><li>You'll find high levels of vitamin C in red berries, kiwi, red and green bell peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, spinach, and juices made from guava, grapefruit, and orange. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C chemically decomposes under certain conditions, many of which may occur during the cooking of food. Normally, boiling water at 100°C is not hot enough to cause any significant destruction of the nutrient, which only decomposes at 190°C, despite popular opinion. However, pressure cooking, roasting, frying and grilling food is more likely to reach the decomposition temperature of vitamin C. Longer cooking times also add to this effect, as will copper food vessels, which catalyse the decomposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Another cause of vitamin C being lost from food is leaching, where the water-soluble vitamin dissolves into the cooking water, which is later poured away and not consumed. However, vitamin C doesn't leach in all vegetables at the same rate; research shows broccoli seems to retain more than any other. Research has also shown that fresh-cut fruits don't lose significant nutrients when stored in the refrigerator for a few days. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Minerals <ul><li>A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium can be found in Yogurt, milk, baked beans, Oranges (nuts, seeds, chocolate chips). </li></ul><ul><li>calcium does many things for your body. Everyone knows calcium is great for the bones. It also plays a role in keeping your muscles and nerves working properly. It also helps blood clot and keeps your heart functioning properly. Lacking calcium in your diet can greatly affect your health for years to come. For example you could have weak and crippled bones or lacking heart functionality </li></ul>
    8. 8. Fibre <ul><li>Fibre is an important component of a healthy balanced diet. We get fibre from plant-based foods, but it's not something the body can absorb. This means fibre is not a nutrient and contains no calories or vitamins. Fibre helps your digestive system to process food and absorb nutrients. Fibre lowers blood cholesterol. Fibre helps to control blood sugar levels, </li></ul><ul><li>which in turn controls appetite. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Digestive System <ul><li>The Digestive system is a group of organs that help digest the food. Food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients before they can be absorbed into the blood and carried to cells throughout the body. Digestion is the process by which food and drink are broken down into their smallest parts so the body can use them to build and nourish cells and to provide energy. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Vitamin B <ul><li>The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Historically, the B vitamins were once thought to be a single vitamin, referred to as vitamin B (much like how people refer to vitamin C or vitamin D). Later research showed that they are chemically distinct vitamins that often coexist in the same foods. Supplements containing all eight are generally referred to as a vitamin B complex. Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific name of each vitamin (e.g. B1, B2, B3 etc) </li></ul>Deficiency may lead to anemia, depression, dermatitis, high blood pressure (hypertension), water retention, and elevated levels of homocysteine. pyridoxine Vitamin B 6 Deficiency can result in acne and paresthesia, although it is uncommon. pantothenic acid Vitamin B 5 Deficiency, along with a deficiency of tryptophan causes pellagra. Symptoms include aggression, dermatitis, insomnia, weakness, mental confusion, and diarrhea. In advanced cases, pellagra may lead to dementia and death. niacin Vitamin B 3 Deficiency effects Name Vitamin Name