Learning Game Design Workshop

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Slides for the Learning Game Design Workshop conducted at ASTD ICE 2013 conference

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Learning Game Design Workshop

  1. 1. Play to LearnLearning Game Design WorkshopPresented bySharon Boller&Dr. Karl Kapp
  2. 2. Your Game Masters…aka presentersSharon BollerSteve BollerKarl KappLeanne Batchelder
  3. 3. At Your Tables…• Introduce yourselves….– Your name– Where you work (organization, city, state)– Why you’re here– Your favorite game (and why)• Share this info in your table groups.• Your Mission? Complete intro’s in 15 minutes orless.
  4. 4. What do we even MEAN by game?An activity that has an explicit goal or challenge, rules that guide achievement of the goal, interactivity with either other players or the game environment (or both), and feedback mechanisms that give clear cues as to how well or poorly you are performing. It results in a quantifiable outcome (you win/you lose, you hit the target, etc). Usually generates an emotional reaction in players.
  5. 5. Here’s some examples we’ve producedA Paycheck Away: A tabletop game about homelessness
  6. 6. Here’s some examples we’ve producedThe Grower Game: A digital game about growing rice
  7. 7. Here’s some examples we’ve producedDestroy the BBP: Avoiding blood-borne pathogens
  8. 8. Sounds GREAT but how do I get started?Play games; evaluate what you are playingPlay games; evaluate what you are playingGet familiar w/ game elements & how to use them.Get familiar w/ game elements & how to use them.Think about the learning – and then the game.Think about the learning – and then the game.Dump ADDIE. Go agile instead.Dump ADDIE. Go agile instead.Playtest.Playtest.Did I say playtest?Playtest.Playtest.Did I say playtest?
  9. 9. The Plan for todayPlay Games!Play Games!BREAKBREAKGet a primer on playGet a primer on playThink like a gamer designerThink like a gamer designerCooperate …Cooperate …LUNCHLUNCHBREAKBREAKDiscuss/ReviseDiscuss/ReviseBecome game designersBecome game designersPlaytestPlaytest…Compete. What’s better?…Compete. What’s better?Wrap UpWrap Up
  10. 10. The GameStations for todaySettlers of Catan (1) Settlers of Catan (1) Settlers of Catan (2)Settlers of Catan (2)Forbidden Island (1)Forbidden Island (1)Forbidden Island (2)Forbidden Island (2)iPads iPads 
  11. 11. Evaluate the Games1. What game “dynamics” did your game use? (see p. 13 of handouts)2. What made the game you played fun?3. How did the game motivate/de‐motivate you? (Or what didn’t you like?)4. How did you get feedback on your performance?5. What elements did you see that you could re‐use in a learning game? Why do you think so?
  12. 12. Primer on PlayPlay Games!Play Games!BREAKBREAKGet a primer on playGet a primer on playThink like a gamer designerThink like a gamer designerCooperate …Cooperate …LUNCHLUNCHBREAKBREAKDiscuss/ReviseDiscuss/ReviseBecome game designersBecome game designersPlaytestPlaytest…Compete. What’s better?…Compete. What’s better?Wrap UpWrap Up
  13. 13. • 90% of what we “learn” gets lost WITHOUT REINFORCEMENT or OTHER MEANS.  Red = no reinforcement.The Forgetting CurveYour chance to vote.What percentage of information do we forget within 3 to6 days after a typical learning event – a “click next tocontinue” eLearning course or a classroom lecture?a) 30%b) 50%c) 70%d) 90%
  14. 14. Why games?Play Game“I learned SOmuch by playingthis game. It wastons of fun. Ilearned more byplaying this gamethan any webinar,meeting, ordocument I’veencountered.”“Mind-blowing”“Can youcreatemore stufflike this?”
  15. 15. Why do games work?The short answer?Because they are FUN.
  16. 16. But what’s FUN?• Winning• Mastery• Achieving goals• Triumphing• Collaborating• Exploring and building• Collecting• Problem-solving or strategizing• Role playing or imagining• Mastery• Surprise – surprising others andbeing surprised ourselves.
  17. 17. What’s Required to Learn?Relevant PracticeSpecific, timely feedbackAbilityto retrieve laterRisk of Forgetting Curve!!!
  18. 18. Examples: Feedback Loops“The premise of a feedback loop is simple: Provide people with information about their actions in real time, then give them a chance to change those actions, pushing them toward better behaviors.”Wired Magazine, June 19, 2011www.bottomlineperformance.com
  19. 19. Linking Games to LearningLearning Element Game Elements that MatchMotivation Game goals or challenges, conflict, time, cooperation, reward structures  (feedback, points, achievements),  ‐ all help equate to the “fun” in games.Relevant practice Game goal or challenges, rules within game, reward structures, game loopsFeedback Pretty much a 1:1 here – reward structures in game supply feedback. “Game loop” also supplies feedbackRetrieval later Lots of ways games help with retrieval: Context, story, desire for repeat play, emotion attached to game play.
  20. 20. What the Research says:Selected Findings
  21. 21. Let’s PlayFact or Fishy…
  22. 22. Rules• A statement is presented– If “true” indicate: FactX– If “false” indicate: FishyX• Text Response:Take out your text‐machinesStandard Texting Fees Apply!
  23. 23. Games can influencepeople to behave in a pro-social manner.Is that Fact or Fishy?
  24. 24. Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes: Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8(1), 1‐9.Flying around a virtual worldas a superhero made subjectsnicer in the real world. physical world
  25. 25. Games Can Influence People to Behave in a Pro‐social Manner
  26. 26. Games must be embeddedinto the curriculum to beeffective for learning?Is that Fact or Fishy?
  27. 27. EngagementPedagogyGameEducationalSimulationInstructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Instructional support to help learners understand how to use the game increases instructional effectiveness of the gaming experience.Hays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005‐004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  28. 28. ExampleWouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., &  van der Sek E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta‐Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games.  Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies. 
  29. 29. Games Must be Embedded into the Curriculum to be Effective for Learning.
  30. 30. Games are more effectivethan traditional instructionwhen players work ingroups?Is that Fact or Fishy?
  31. 31. Games are more effective than traditional instruction when players work in groups.
  32. 32. With serious games, both learners playing individually and those playing in a group learn more than the comparison group, but learners who play serious games in a group learn moreWouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., &  vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4).  A Meta‐Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games.  Journal of Educational Psychology.  Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a003131139 Studies. 
  33. 33. 1) An instructional game will only be effective if it is designed to meet specific instructional objectives and was designed as it was intended. 2) Serious games lead to  lead to well‐structured prior knowledge on which learners can build but the effect is only seen over time3) Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction4) An experience as an avatar can change a persons real life perceptions.5) While playing a game, learners will voluntarily do harder problems and more problems.What the Research says:
  34. 34. 6) Instruction with serious games yields higher learning gains than conventional instruction.7) Games are more effective than traditional instruction when players work in groups.8) Games are more effective than traditional instruction when multiple sessions are involved. 9) Games must be embedded into the curriculum to be effective for learning. 10) Games can influence people to behave in a pro‐social manner.11) Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instructionWhat the Research says:
  35. 35. Achievements and Rewards –The Top Three Do’s1. Use measurement achievements rather than completion achievements.2. Make achievements challenging to earn.3. If learning tasks are complicated, focus on mastery orientation, not performance orientation. 
  36. 36. Measurement Achievement: Earned by completing a task to a certain degree. Evaluative in nature.Completion Achievement: Earned by completing a task.Binary – you did it or you didn’t.1) Use measurement achievements –not completion achievements.
  37. 37. 2) Make achievements challenging to earn. NOTE:Achieving a goal increases a learner’s confidenceWhy? – Because moderate difficulty leads to better performance gains and a greater sense of accomplishment. 
  38. 38. 3) If tasks complex, focus on mastery rather than performance orientationPerformance Orientation –Oriented toward comparison with others and others’ assessment of their competence.  Mastery Orientation –Oriented toward achieving a certain level of proficiency – not just a comparing self to how others are doing.  
  39. 39. 3) If tasks complex, focus on mastery rather than performance orientationPerformance Orientation –Negative because….• Results in less risk‐taking• Results in less in‐game exploration.• Only do better w/ this orientation on simple, noncomplex tasks.Mastery Orientation  ‐‐Better because….• Gives players more self‐confidence.• Improves performance on complex tasks.• More accepting of errors; willing to keep tryingDO! Create achievements that acknowledge the effort players are putting forth and support them during challenges. 
  40. 40. Good job! You have properly aligned the antenna by placing it 14 inches from the plane. 
  41. 41. Master the  lingo of gameshttps://www.theknowledgeguru.com/gamedesign/Goal Story Aesthetics ResourcesTime* Conflict Competition CooperationDynamics Levels Boundaries OutcomeRules & ProceduresReward StructuresBalance
  42. 42. Recognize common game dynamicsRace to the finish Acquire territory CollectChase and captureAlign game pieces Push to a Forbidden ActOutwit opponent or gameSolve Rescue or escapeConstruct/ Build
  43. 43. Become a Learning Game Designer: Elements of a Game Design Document 1. Overview of Concept2. Desired Outcomes3. Instructional Objectives4. Tying Assessment to Gameplay5. Game Play Strategy6. Description of Characters (if any)7. Game Environment8. Description of How Game is Played9. Reward Structure10. Look and Feel of Game11. Technical Specifications12. Timeline
  44. 44. Tying Assessment to GameplayConcept to be taughtIn‐Game Activity Assessment of LearningExampleClosing the sale.Select Right Closing the first timeTrack number of attempts
  45. 45. Description of CharactersName/GenderRole/ PositionAttitude  Attire RepresentsJohn ‐malePotential CustomerFriendly Shirt tie, no jacketElusive potential customer.Mary ‐femaleSales Rep Helpful Business CasualProper procedure for initiating potential customer contact.Lou Ann ‐ femaleCo‐Worker Un‐friendlyBusiness CasualProvides critical information regarding pre‐qualification.USER New Sales RepN/A N/A Person who needs to pre‐qualify John.
  46. 46. Cooperate Vs. CompetePlay Games!Play Games!BREAKBREAKGet a primer on playGet a primer on playThink like a gamer designerThink like a gamer designerCooperate …Cooperate …LUNCHLUNCHBREAKBREAKDiscuss/ReviseDiscuss/ReviseBecome game designersBecome game designersPlaytestPlaytest…Compete. What’s better?…Compete. What’s better?Wrap UpWrap Up
  47. 47. Cooperate. Compete. Which is better? And what about conflict?
  48. 48. ConflictConflict‐inflicting damage on other players
  49. 49. CompetitionCompetition‐competing against other players
  50. 50. CooperationCooperation‐working with other players to achieve a goal. 
  51. 51. Become Game DesignersPlay Games!Play Games!BREAKBREAKGet a primer on playGet a primer on playThink like a gamer designerThink like a gamer designerCooperate …Cooperate …LUNCHLUNCHBREAKBREAKDiscuss/ReviseDiscuss/ReviseBecome game designersBecome game designersPlaytestPlaytest…Compete. What’s better?…Compete. What’s better?Wrap UpWrap UpSee p. 14 of handouts
  52. 52. Dump ADDIE; go agile instead (iterative)Playtest. Playtest. Did I say playtest?
  53. 53. The Playtest Process – pp 16‐ 17Part 1:• Pair up with another team. Playtest simultaneously.• One person from each team remains with their game to act as an observer during play AND to provide guidance ifa team gets “stuck” during play• All other team members – play the games!• Playtest for 20 minutes.
  54. 54. The Playtest Process – pp 16‐ 17Part 2:• Take turns giving each other feedback on game.• Observers for each team: Use questions on page 17 of handout to get feedback from playtesters. Use a “round robin” approach to getting answers from players. Get feedback on one team’s game, then switch and get/receive feedback on other game.
  55. 55. The Playtest Process – pp 16‐ 17Part 3:• Return to your original groups. • Determine what revision(s) you want to make to your game and why.• Be prepared to share with large group:• Summary of results of your playtest.• What revision(s) you would make based on results. • Each team will get 5 minutes to share.
  56. 56. Wrap Up!Play Games!Play Games!BREAKBREAKGet a primer on playGet a primer on playThink like a gamer designerThink like a gamer designerCooperate …Cooperate …LUNCHLUNCHBREAKBREAKDiscuss/ReviseDiscuss/ReviseBecome game designersBecome game designersPlaytestPlaytest…Compete. What’s better?…Compete. What’s better?Wrap UpWrap Up
  57. 57. Thank You!
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