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  • 1. CERAMICS Carasco, Allan Gabriel Doliente, Lorenzo Miguel Jacinto, Stephanie Villanueva, Von Kirby
  • 2. Ceramics
    • One of the largest groups of materials with the properties of nonmetals and all are made by firing or burning, often including silicates and metal oxides.
    • Greek term Keramos , meaning "a potter" or "pottery”.
  • 3. Ceramic materials are attractive for several reasons :
    • Cheap in terms of its starting materials.
    • Compared to metals, lightweight and retain their strength up to 1000 ˚C where metals tends to fail.
    • They have electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of value in the computer and electronic industries.
  • 4. History
    • The art of making pottery by forming and burning clay has been practiced from the earliest civilizations.
    • Burnt clayware has been found dating from about 15,000 B.C. and as well developed as an industrial product in Egypt by about 5000 B.C.
    • Formed glass dates from the period 7000-5000 B.C. and was a stable industry in Egypt by about 1500 B.C.
  • 5. Ceramics Industry
    • An important characteristic of the ceramics industry is that it is basic to the successful operation of many other industries.
    • In the Philippines, smuggled ceramics has cause severe effect on the ceramic industry locally. But exporting of ceramic materials is significantly increasing.
  • 6. Uses of Ceramics
    • The ceramics industry is divided in the manufacture of the ff. products:
      • Structural Clay Products
      • Whitewares
      • Refractories
      • Glasses
      • Abrasives
      • Cements
      • Advance Ceramics
      • -Structural
      • -Electrical
      • -Coating
  • 7. Classifications of the Ceramics
    • Traditional Ceramics
    • New Ceramics
  • 8. Ceramic Tile Processes Raw Material Weighing Ball Milling Vibrating Screen and HomoTank Spray Dryer Powder Storage (SILO) Dry Pressing Horizontal Dryer Glazing Silk Screen Printing Roller Heart Kiln
  • 9. Raw Materials
    • The traditional ceramics industry is largely based on various combinations of clay minerals, feldspar and silica.
    • The mineral raw materials used in the ceramic industry are mainly inorganic, nonmetallic, crystalline solids formed by complex geologic processes.
  • 10. Raw Materials
    • Oxygen, silicon, and aluminum together account for 90% of the elements in the earth’s crust , These, together with other minerals compounds of oxygen, constitute the greatest bulk of naturally occurring ceramic raw materials.
  • 11. Raw Materials
    • Clay Minerals
    • Talc and Related Minerals
    • Silica and Silicate Minerals
    • Feldspars and related minerals.
    • Refractory Raw Materials
    Talc Silica Clay
  • 12. Common Types of Clay
    • Kaolin or China Clay
    • Ball Clays
    • Fire Clays
    • Flint Clays
    • Pottery Clay
    • Shale
    • Vitrifying Clays
    • Brick Clays
    • Slip Clays
  • 13. Important Characteristics of Clays in Ceramic Bodies
    • Clays have the ability to form clay-water composition and to maintain their shape and strength during drying and firing
    • They fuse over a temperature range depending on their composition in such a way as to become dense and strong without losing their shape
  • 14. Talc and Related Minerals
    • Talc is a hydrous magnesium silicate which has a layer structure similar to that of the clay minerals.
    • It is an important ceramic raw material for the manufacture of electrical and electronic components
  • 15. Talc and Related Minerals
    • Pyrophyllite
    • Block talc
    • Asbestos
  • 16. Silica and Silicate Minerals
    • Silica is a major ingredient in glass, glazes, enamels, refractories, abrasives, and whiteware compositions.
    • It is widely used because it is inexpensive, hard, chemically stable
  • 17. Silica and Silicate Minerals
    • The major source of silica for the ceramic industry is sandstone, consisting of lightly bonded quartz grains.
    • The sand is frequently mined by loosening the quarts grains with a stream of high-pressure water.
  • 18. Feldspars and Related Minerals
    • Feldspar are anhydrous aluminosilicates containing K+, Na+, and Ca2.; they are present in virtually all igneous rocks.
    • Most production comes from pegmatites which are coarsely crystalline rock formed in the later stages of crystallization of a magma
  • 19. Feldspars and Related Minerals
    • Nepheline syenite
    • Wollastonite
    • Sillimanite
    Sillimanite Wollastonite Nepheline syenite
  • 20. Refractory Raw Materials
    • Alumina
    • Magnesia
    • Dolomite
    • Chrome Ore
    Alumina Dolomite Chrome Ore Magnesia
  • 21. Other Raw Materials
    • Soda ash
    • Borate minerals
    • Fluorspar
    • Phosphate minerals
    • Abrasive raw materials
    Soda Ash Borate Minerals Flourspar
  • 22. Ball Milling
    • Spheres mixed with the stock to be comminuted are rotated inside a large cylindrical container.
    • These operations are often carried out with water
  • 23. Ball Milling Stock Balls Drive rolls Container
  • 24. Spray Dryer
    • Characterized by atominization of a solution or suspension into droplets, followed by drying.
  • 25. Spray Dryer Schematic Diagram of Spray Dryer Particle Trajectory
  • 26. Dry Pressing
    • Forming of the “greenware” tile body.
    • Non-clumping granulates are compressed in steel dies designed appropriately for the part to be manufactured.
  • 27. Glazing
    • The application of glassy coatings on ceramic wares to give them decorative finishes and to make them impervious to moisture
  • 28. Roller Hearth Kiln
    • A roller tunnel kiln for firing a drying refractory material advanced along the refractory rotatable rollers includes an upper section comprising a prefiring zone, a firing zone, a first forced cooling zone, a natural cooling zone and a second forced cooling zone.
  • 29. Roller Hearth Kiln Firing zone Gear system Entrance
  • 30. Traditional Ceramic Processes
    • Preparation of Raw Materials
      • Crushing
      • Types of Equipments Used
          • Jaw Crushers
          • Gyratory Crushers
          • Roll Crushers
          • Hammer Mills
  • 31. Crushing Jaw Crusher Gyratory Crusher Roll Crusher Hammer Mill
  • 32. Traditional Ceramic Processes
      • Grinding
      • Types of Equipments Used
          • Ball mill
          • Roller mill
          • Impact grinding
  • 33. Grinding Ball Mill Roller Mill Impact Grinding
  • 34. Traditional Ceramic Processes
    • B. Shaping Processes
        • Slip Casting
            • Drain Casting
            • Solid Casting
        • Plastic Forming
            • Manual Forming
            • Hand modeling
            • Hand molding
            • Hand throwing
  • 35. Drain Casting
  • 36. Traditional Ceramic Processes
            • Mechanized
            • Jiggering
            • Plastic pressing
            • Extrusion
        • Semi-dry Pressing
        • Dry Pressing
  • 37. Semidry Pressing
  • 38. Traditional Ceramic Processes
    • Drying
    • Firing
    • Glazing
  • 39. New Ceramic Processes
    • Preparation of Raw Materials
        • Freeze Drying
        • Precipitation from solution
    • Shaping
        • Hot pressing
        • Isostatic pressing
        • Doctor-blade process
        • Injection molding
  • 40. New Ceramic Processes
    • Sintering
        • To bond individual grains into a solid mass
        • To increase density
        • To reduce or eliminate porosity
    • Finishing
        • To increase dimensional accuracy
        • To improve surface finish
        • To make minor changes in part geometry
  • 41. New Ceramic Processes Doctor blade Process
  • 42. Factors Affecting Ceramic Process
    • Oxidation
    • Decomposition Reactions
    • Phase Transformations
    • Trapped Gases
    • Non uniform Mixing
    • Over firing
    • Hot Pressing
  • 43. Common Errors in Ceramic Process
    • Firing Shrinkage
    • Warping