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Ceramics
 

Ceramics

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This is from our class group presentation

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    Ceramics Ceramics Presentation Transcript

    • CERAMICS Carasco, Allan Gabriel Doliente, Lorenzo Miguel Jacinto, Stephanie Villanueva, Von Kirby
    • Ceramics
      • One of the largest groups of materials with the properties of nonmetals and all are made by firing or burning, often including silicates and metal oxides.
      • Greek term Keramos , meaning "a potter" or "pottery”.
    • Ceramic materials are attractive for several reasons :
      • Cheap in terms of its starting materials.
      • Compared to metals, lightweight and retain their strength up to 1000 ˚C where metals tends to fail.
      • They have electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of value in the computer and electronic industries.
    • History
      • The art of making pottery by forming and burning clay has been practiced from the earliest civilizations.
      • Burnt clayware has been found dating from about 15,000 B.C. and as well developed as an industrial product in Egypt by about 5000 B.C.
      • Formed glass dates from the period 7000-5000 B.C. and was a stable industry in Egypt by about 1500 B.C.
    • Ceramics Industry
      • An important characteristic of the ceramics industry is that it is basic to the successful operation of many other industries.
      • In the Philippines, smuggled ceramics has cause severe effect on the ceramic industry locally. But exporting of ceramic materials is significantly increasing.
    • Uses of Ceramics
      • The ceramics industry is divided in the manufacture of the ff. products:
        • Structural Clay Products
        • Whitewares
        • Refractories
        • Glasses
        • Abrasives
        • Cements
        • Advance Ceramics
        • -Structural
        • -Electrical
        • -Coating
    • Classifications of the Ceramics
      • Traditional Ceramics
      • New Ceramics
    • Ceramic Tile Processes Raw Material Weighing Ball Milling Vibrating Screen and HomoTank Spray Dryer Powder Storage (SILO) Dry Pressing Horizontal Dryer Glazing Silk Screen Printing Roller Heart Kiln
    • Raw Materials
      • The traditional ceramics industry is largely based on various combinations of clay minerals, feldspar and silica.
      • The mineral raw materials used in the ceramic industry are mainly inorganic, nonmetallic, crystalline solids formed by complex geologic processes.
    • Raw Materials
      • Oxygen, silicon, and aluminum together account for 90% of the elements in the earth’s crust , These, together with other minerals compounds of oxygen, constitute the greatest bulk of naturally occurring ceramic raw materials.
    • Raw Materials
      • Clay Minerals
      • Talc and Related Minerals
      • Silica and Silicate Minerals
      • Feldspars and related minerals.
      • Refractory Raw Materials
      Talc Silica Clay
    • Common Types of Clay
      • Kaolin or China Clay
      • Ball Clays
      • Fire Clays
      • Flint Clays
      • Pottery Clay
      • Shale
      • Vitrifying Clays
      • Brick Clays
      • Slip Clays
    • Important Characteristics of Clays in Ceramic Bodies
      • Clays have the ability to form clay-water composition and to maintain their shape and strength during drying and firing
      • They fuse over a temperature range depending on their composition in such a way as to become dense and strong without losing their shape
    • Talc and Related Minerals
      • Talc is a hydrous magnesium silicate which has a layer structure similar to that of the clay minerals.
      • It is an important ceramic raw material for the manufacture of electrical and electronic components
    • Talc and Related Minerals
      • Pyrophyllite
      • Block talc
      • Asbestos
    • Silica and Silicate Minerals
      • Silica is a major ingredient in glass, glazes, enamels, refractories, abrasives, and whiteware compositions.
      • It is widely used because it is inexpensive, hard, chemically stable
    • Silica and Silicate Minerals
      • The major source of silica for the ceramic industry is sandstone, consisting of lightly bonded quartz grains.
      • The sand is frequently mined by loosening the quarts grains with a stream of high-pressure water.
    • Feldspars and Related Minerals
      • Feldspar are anhydrous aluminosilicates containing K+, Na+, and Ca2.; they are present in virtually all igneous rocks.
      • Most production comes from pegmatites which are coarsely crystalline rock formed in the later stages of crystallization of a magma
    • Feldspars and Related Minerals
      • Nepheline syenite
      • Wollastonite
      • Sillimanite
      Sillimanite Wollastonite Nepheline syenite
    • Refractory Raw Materials
      • Alumina
      • Magnesia
      • Dolomite
      • Chrome Ore
      Alumina Dolomite Chrome Ore Magnesia
    • Other Raw Materials
      • Soda ash
      • Borate minerals
      • Fluorspar
      • Phosphate minerals
      • Abrasive raw materials
      Soda Ash Borate Minerals Flourspar
    • Ball Milling
      • Spheres mixed with the stock to be comminuted are rotated inside a large cylindrical container.
      • These operations are often carried out with water
    • Ball Milling Stock Balls Drive rolls Container
    • Spray Dryer
      • Characterized by atominization of a solution or suspension into droplets, followed by drying.
    • Spray Dryer Schematic Diagram of Spray Dryer Particle Trajectory
    • Dry Pressing
      • Forming of the “greenware” tile body.
      • Non-clumping granulates are compressed in steel dies designed appropriately for the part to be manufactured.
    • Glazing
      • The application of glassy coatings on ceramic wares to give them decorative finishes and to make them impervious to moisture
    • Roller Hearth Kiln
      • A roller tunnel kiln for firing a drying refractory material advanced along the refractory rotatable rollers includes an upper section comprising a prefiring zone, a firing zone, a first forced cooling zone, a natural cooling zone and a second forced cooling zone.
    • Roller Hearth Kiln Firing zone Gear system Entrance
    • Traditional Ceramic Processes
      • Preparation of Raw Materials
        • Crushing
        • Types of Equipments Used
            • Jaw Crushers
            • Gyratory Crushers
            • Roll Crushers
            • Hammer Mills
    • Crushing Jaw Crusher Gyratory Crusher Roll Crusher Hammer Mill
    • Traditional Ceramic Processes
        • Grinding
        • Types of Equipments Used
            • Ball mill
            • Roller mill
            • Impact grinding
    • Grinding Ball Mill Roller Mill Impact Grinding
    • Traditional Ceramic Processes
      • B. Shaping Processes
          • Slip Casting
              • Drain Casting
              • Solid Casting
          • Plastic Forming
              • Manual Forming
              • Hand modeling
              • Hand molding
              • Hand throwing
    • Drain Casting
    • Traditional Ceramic Processes
              • Mechanized
              • Jiggering
              • Plastic pressing
              • Extrusion
          • Semi-dry Pressing
          • Dry Pressing
    • Semidry Pressing
    • Traditional Ceramic Processes
      • Drying
      • Firing
      • Glazing
    • New Ceramic Processes
      • Preparation of Raw Materials
          • Freeze Drying
          • Precipitation from solution
      • Shaping
          • Hot pressing
          • Isostatic pressing
          • Doctor-blade process
          • Injection molding
    • New Ceramic Processes
      • Sintering
          • To bond individual grains into a solid mass
          • To increase density
          • To reduce or eliminate porosity
      • Finishing
          • To increase dimensional accuracy
          • To improve surface finish
          • To make minor changes in part geometry
    • New Ceramic Processes Doctor blade Process
    • Factors Affecting Ceramic Process
      • Oxidation
      • Decomposition Reactions
      • Phase Transformations
      • Trapped Gases
      • Non uniform Mixing
      • Over firing
      • Hot Pressing
    • Common Errors in Ceramic Process
      • Firing Shrinkage
      • Warping