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History of Ceramics By: Danielle Mazure
The start of Ceramics <ul><li>The earliest recorded date for a piece of ceramic is around 6000 B.C.
First bowl/basket was an accident.
Filled basket with clay to keep water in. Once the basket was worn out they threw it in the fire.
Found out that the clay was more dense and less fragile.
Threw pots away when finished and time to travel. </li></ul>
Clay <ul><li>Clay comes from the Earth that is decomposed from rocks and other materials from the Earth for many years.
There will never be a shortage of clay because the Earth is always making more.
Clay feels like a plastic material that can easily be formed to many shapes when it is wet.  </li></ul>
Key Terms Clay:  naturally occuring substance which is a heavy and damp plastic material that ‘sets‘ upon drying and can b...
Key Terms High-fire:  clay and glazes which mature at or above 2192F. Low-fire:  clay and glazes maturing at or below cone...
Woodfiring <ul>Woodfiring is very different from the other ways of firing clay. It's the only technique that the person is...
Continued <ul><li>Woodfiring is another way to glaze/fire ceramic ware.
Ceramics are placed in an outdoor kiln made up of bricks (or other material) equipped with a chimney. Wood is placed insid...
There is a steady flow of wood placed in the kiln at about 10 minute intervals.
Ash from the wood will glaze the ceramics. The colors depend on the type of wood used. </li></ul>
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Ceramic power point

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Ceramic power point

  1. 1. History of Ceramics By: Danielle Mazure
  2. 2. The start of Ceramics <ul><li>The earliest recorded date for a piece of ceramic is around 6000 B.C.
  3. 3. First bowl/basket was an accident.
  4. 4. Filled basket with clay to keep water in. Once the basket was worn out they threw it in the fire.
  5. 5. Found out that the clay was more dense and less fragile.
  6. 6. Threw pots away when finished and time to travel. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Clay <ul><li>Clay comes from the Earth that is decomposed from rocks and other materials from the Earth for many years.
  8. 8. There will never be a shortage of clay because the Earth is always making more.
  9. 9. Clay feels like a plastic material that can easily be formed to many shapes when it is wet. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Key Terms Clay: naturally occuring substance which is a heavy and damp plastic material that ‘sets‘ upon drying and can be changed by heat into a hard, generally dense, material. Bisque - Unglazed ceramic peice purposely fired to an immature temperature. Glaze - A layer of glass fused into place on a ceramic piece. Glazes can be both decorative and as a texture. Ceramic: clay products made permenant by heat (1112F or greater)
  11. 11. Key Terms High-fire: clay and glazes which mature at or above 2192F. Low-fire: clay and glazes maturing at or below cone 04 (~1922F) Electric kiln - Any kiln heated using electrostatic elements. Because no fuel is introduced, electric kilns fire in oxidation. Gas kiln - A kiln which uses natural gas as its fuel. Gas kilns are commonly found in contemporary ceramic studios and factories.
  12. 12. Woodfiring <ul>Woodfiring is very different from the other ways of firing clay. It's the only technique that the person is interacting with the process of firing clay. It's demanding, and there always needs to be at least two people maintaing the fire and making sure that nothing goes wrong. With electric and gas kilns there is no need to keep watch on it every minute. </ul>
  13. 13. Continued <ul><li>Woodfiring is another way to glaze/fire ceramic ware.
  14. 14. Ceramics are placed in an outdoor kiln made up of bricks (or other material) equipped with a chimney. Wood is placed inside the kiln with the ceramic wares.
  15. 15. There is a steady flow of wood placed in the kiln at about 10 minute intervals.
  16. 16. Ash from the wood will glaze the ceramics. The colors depend on the type of wood used. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Continued <ul><li>The woodfiring lasts (depending on the temperature) about seven days total.
  18. 18. The actual firing will last about two-three days, and the cooling down process takes up the rest of the time.
  19. 19. It is important to let the ceramics cool off before they are removed from the kiln. The ceramics will be exposed to the different temperature too fast and they will shatter. </li></ul>
  20. 20. History Of Ceramics <ul><li>The first American Ceramic Society was founded in 1898.
  21. 21. The founders were: Elmer Gorton, Samuel Geijsbeek, Albert Bleininger, Edward Orton, Jr., Willard Richardson, Ellis Lovejoy, Gustav Holl, William Gates, and Carl Giessen.
  22. 22. They came together to share ideas and scientific methods concerning ceramics. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The founders worked as teachers, industrialists, engineers, geologists, chemists and artists.
  24. 24. Together they founded easier and better ways to make ceramic pieces. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Rookwood Academy <ul><li>The Academy was made up of women who specialized in making vases, tea cups, plates, etc. and creating intricate designs on the ceramic ware.
  26. 26. A woman named Maria Longworth Nichols Storer founded the Rookwood Academy in the late 1870s.
  27. 27. The Rookwood Academy was best known for their designs of flowers, Native American portraits, insects, landscapes, and Japanese themes.
  28. 28. Located in Cincinnati, Ohio </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Used for creating round ceramic ware.
  30. 30. Trimming access clay from a ceramic piece (before clay is bisqued).
  31. 31. Even amount of glaze on the ceramic ware. </li></ul><ul>Potter's Wheel </ul>
  32. 32. Continued <ul><li>The first wheel was developed around 3000 B.C.
  33. 33. The wheel began as a platform of wood that you could easily turn by a simple push.
  34. 34. The next wheel developed was around 2000 B.C. The fast wheel was more advanced because it turned on an axel and only needed a push or a kick.
  35. 35. Now we have electric wheels that only require the push of a peddle. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Hand-building <ul><li>Is a technique used for irregular shaped ceramics.
  37. 37. Forming long coils with your hands then stacking them upon one another and then pinched and blended together to form the ceramic ware. </li></ul>
  38. 38. The End
  39. 39. Photos: <ul>Slide 1 </ul>http://simpleparcel.com/catalog/was/supplies%20for%20ceramics.html Slide 5 (left) http://www.flickr.com/photos/cmgart/2448445041/ (right) http://www.flickr.com/photos/suckamc/367921764/ Slide 10 http://www.flickr.com/photos/octalkhan/3260051992/in/photostream/ Slide 12 http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=potter%27s%20wheel Slide 14 http://search.creativecommons.org/?q=handbuilding%20pots

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