URBAN DESIGN: a Case study of
Submitted to:Mrs.Shruti Dhar
• Washington, DC is admired throughout the world for the sweep and grace of its historic streetscapes and open public spaces.
• However, guard huts define the National Mall, rows of concrete planters encircle our public buildings and temporary barriers block
• In November 2001, the National Capital Planning Commission adopted the task force’s recommendations contained in a report
entitled Designing for Security in the Nation’s Capital.
• Among its recommendations, the report called for the preparation of an urban design and security plan to identify permanent
security and streetscape improvements for federal facilities in the Nation’s Capital.
• The Plan is the result of a collaborative effort by the National Capital Planning Commission, the federal and District of Columbia
govern- ments, security agencies, and civic and business organizations.
• Washington D.C. has a central core, dominated by the Capitol and the Washington Monument and standing for the American
• We could call this a stadtkrone, means a city crown
• It is organized principally around the so-called Washington Mall
• Washington D.C. was chosen in 1790 to be the capital at a point mid-way between the North and the South
• Supposed to be a national city, independent of regional and state politics, hence “District”
• Major Pierre Charles L’Enfant chosen to design the city (Paris was designed 60 years later along the lines of Washington D.C.)
• Original plan included the White House (begun 1792) and the Capitol (begun 1793)
National Capital Planning Commission
The Plan proposes concepts for special streets and areas within the city’s Monumental Core and offers a variety of security
solutions such as hardened street furniture, low plinth walls, planters, bollards, and green curbside hedges with embedded
security measures. These Elements can be applied in a variety of ways to meet the security and design needs of particular
National Capital Planning Commission
THE NATIONAL MALL
SOUTHWEST FEDERAL CENTER
The Van Valken burgh concept envisions a pedestrian welcoming precinct in front of the White House with mature trees,
shaded seating areas, and security checkpoints at 15th and 17th Streets of Pennsylvania.
In the 1970s, the existing streetscape along Pennsylvania
Avenue between the White House and the U.S. Capitol has
withstood the test of time.
Today, the mature trees, abundant landscaping and
street furniture are worthy of the Avenue's role as
"America's Main Street.“
The National Capital Urban Design and Security Plan
proposes to install custom-designed hardened street
furniture in the spirit of the existing elements and add new
components as necessary, all aligned within the row of
willow oaks along the street.
Meeting new security requirements offers the
to refurbish the Avenue.
Downtown Washington is one area where federal facilities coexist with private buildings.
Since only a few of the federal buildings are likely to require perimeter security, such components may be needed on only
a few blocks or a portion of a block.
The design maintains a unified streetscape appearance around both public and private buildings and conforms to the
existing standards established by the City and the Downtown Business Improvement District.
It also hardens streetscape elements only where required and avoids unnecessary clutter of security elements.
A hierarchy of streetscape security design relates to Downtown diagonal avenues and grid streets.
In general, security elements can be incorporated into the landscaping along the broad diagonal avenues.
Security along grid streets, with their narrower sidewalks, would include hardened street lighting, benches, bicycle
racks, and tree fence enclosures.
United States Capitol
• The United States Capitol is the meeting place of the U.S. Congress, the legislature of the U.S. federal government.
• Located inWashington, D.C., it sits a top Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall.
• Though it has not been the geographic center of the District of Columbia since the retrocession of Alexandria County in 1847, the
Capitol was initially situated at the absolute center of the District of Columbia and is the origin by which both the quadrants of the
District are divided and the city was planned.
• Officially, both the east and west sides of the Capitol are referred to as fronts.
• Historically, however, only the east front of the building was intended for the arrival of visitors and dignitaries.
• Like the federal buildings for the executive and judicial branches, it is built in the distinctiveneoclassical style and has a white
• White House built in the classical Greco-Roman style
• Designed by James Hoban, an Irish American architect.
• It was Supposed to be substantial enough to reflect the president’s
office, but not imperial enough to be a palace.
THE YARDS PARK
• This riverfront park provides green space to enjoy the outdoors along the river.
• It includes open grassy areas, a waterfall and fountains, a terraced lawn performance venue, recreation trails, a canal basin/wading
pool, and riverside gardens in which to eat and relax.
• One can experience DC’s new waterfront destination and centerpiece of the Capitol Riverfront neighborhood.
• At the Yards Park, we can find open grassy areas and well-landscaped outdoor rooms, a waterfall and canal-like water feature, an
elevated overlook, an iconic bridge and light sculpture, terraced performance venue, and a riverfront boardwalk.
• The Yards Park was built through a public/private partnership between the Federal General Services Administration (GSA), the
District of Columbia, and Forest City Washington.
• The park was designed by M. Paul Friedberg and Partners and is managed by the Capitol Riverfront Business Improvement District.
The Washington Mall
• In 1793,envisioned by Pierre Charles L’Enfant as a meeting place for the masses and was to be lined with significant cultural
• By Mid-19th Century,they used to graze cattle for US troops in Civil War, then as location for soldiers themselves
• Late 19th Century, the site of railroad tracks leading to the Smithsonian Institution
• In1901,designed and supervised by Commission of Fine Arts headed by architects Burnham, McKim, Olmsted, and St. Gaudens
• Part of the City Beautiful Movement and the fashionable Beaux Arts architecture and the implications of Social Darwinism
The Washington Mall
• When completed in 1884, the tallest structure in the world—555 feet, twice as high as the Capitol
• Patterned after Egyptian obelisks and modified by neo-classical simplicity to indicate dignity
• The Washington Monument is on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, commander-in-
chief of the Continental Army and the first American president.
• The monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss is both the world's tallest stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk,
standing 555 feet 51⁄8 inches (169.294 m) tall.
• Taller monumental columns exist, but they are neither all stone nor true obelisks.
• Washington consider the principle founding father and author of America and Lincoln the defender of freedoms and unifier of
North and South
• Daniel Chester French’s statue of Lincoln dominates the inside together with Gettysburg Address and the Second Inaugural
• Frequent place for public demonstrations for civil rights, including Martin Luther King and African Americans as well as women’s
and gay rights groups
• The Lincoln Memorial is an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln.
It is located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument. The architect.t was Henry Bacon,
the sculptor of the primary statue.
• Like other monuments on the National Mall, the memorial is administered by the National Park Service under its National Mall
and Memorial Parks group.
• Memorializes the third president of the United States, the author of the “Declaration of Independence,” and the force behind the
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
• Surrounded by Japanese cherry trees, considered the post-card image of Washington
• Design based on Jefferson’s own architectural plans for his own house (Monticello) and the University of Virginia
• The Jefferson Memorial is managed by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks division. In 2007 it
was ranked fourth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects.