Definition of Zoning,Land use planning,Urban planning,Urban and regional planning,Regional planning,Zones,Zone planning,Land use planning in india,objectives of land use planning,objectives of zone planning
Overview of Planning :Overview of Planning :
Land-use PlanningLand-use Planning
Zoning, land use Planning, Infra structure Services
Zoning Def: Regulation by law of use of land and/or buildings and height and density of
buildings in specific areas for the purpose of securing convenience, health, safety and general
welfare of the community
Objects of Zoning
• Ample opportunity for setting future growth and development of city
• Proper co-ordination of various public amenities like transport, water supply drainage
• Effective tool in town planning schemes
Types of Zoning: Density Zoning, Height zoning, Use zoning
Land Use planning Def: Regulating use of land in efficient and ethical way. It encompasses
Physical Planning - Architecture, Landscape architecture, Urban Design, Urban Planning and
Urban renewal. These take care of selection of physical layout, scale of development, Aesthetics, Costs of
alternates, Selection of materials, Impacts on Landscape and species
Environmental - Regional planning, Spatial Planning, Sustainable development, Transportation
Planning. These involve implications of development and planning, Roadway noise, pollution, surface runoff,
flooding assessment etc.
Environmental Concerns, Sustainability
Environmental degradation is the bane of the modern society. Due to rapid urban
development degradation is occurring at the following levels:
Land – Scarcity
Water – Under ground and surface water depletion
Air – Pollution
Vegetation – Deforestation, ozone depletion, global warming, rising sea levels,
hazards and disasters; Extinction of animal and plant life
Densification – Leading to social crimes and violence
Sustainability is a catch word these days. It means ‘meeting the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. Sustainability can be
achieved by : Efficient land use, less automobile usage and efficient resource management,
less waste generation, restoration of natural systems, good housing, meeting essential needs
for jobs, energy, water and sanitation, healthy social ecology, alternate sources of energy,
sustainable economy, community participation, involvement and preservation of local cultural
Large scale development interventions like Industrialization, raw material extraction and
processing, mega irrigation projects, timber logging are also added value for a sustainable
Socio, Cultural and Economic perspective
Example: A slum located in the middle of a town
Planners view of a space: Visually unattractive, high levels of noise, pollution, inadequate drainage, lack of open
Residents view of the same space: Nice neighbors in terms of social relationships, relatives, local shops keepers,
ease and convenience of access to transit.
The above example shows how each of us view a space. People in urban or rural areas live not only by the
physical choices but also by social and economic choices. Demographic changes like nuclear families, people living
longer, falling infant mortalities have put more pressure on the housing types. Modern changes in the structure of
societies and higher life style expectations have given rise to unemployment, lack of mobility, poverty, homeless
ness, destitution etc. In the poorer sections of the society if the need for better amenities is felt, middle classes
aspire for car ownership thus increasing traffic on the roads. The richer classes aspire for a second home, picnic
spaces and more recreational avenues. Women workforce has also given a new dimension to the social needs of
families. The agglomeration of economies drive the work force in the urban areas, while lack of them drive rural
areas into under-usage.
Most sociologists would argue that cultural changes in the modern society is an un-documented change. Values in
the traditional household no longer hold steam in the cities. For example if plants and animals in a traditional
household are valued as demi-gods, modern householders donot care for them. While the Indian culture has deep
rooted traditions concerning the environment we are not bothered about it now.
Therefore social patterns and cultural trends influence planning policies in a lot of ways. As per the above example
planners cannot put themselves on a pedestal to solve humanity's problems. They would have to understand the
forces acting on the society to strike a vi-media solution.
Poverty is essentially a problem of Inequality
There are three classes of people – Rich, Middle class and the poor. Rich and
middle class are classes which can afford food, clothing and shelter and
poor are those who cannot afford them. These three are considered as
prime areas and other areas are Education, healthcare, recreation and
luxuries of life. The poor cannot compete for jobs because of inadequate
education, segregated housing, and employment discrimination. This leads
to poor pay and irregular employment. They will go through this cycle of
deprivation for generations.
Some theoreticians say all urban problems can be solved with poverty
alleviation. Supplementary incomes, good education and technical skills go
a long way in poverty alleviation. So how to start this process? Urban and
Rural poverty have differing reasons, identification of the reasons and
plans to tackle them would help.
Socio, Cultural and Economic perspective
Politics and Planning
Most politician don't come from planning background. They have general understanding about growth, housing,
transportation etc but their technical know how on each of them is little. Planner have ample opportunity to
educate them on
• Understanding the local context
•Taking into account their views and opinions
•Finding common ground.
By this Planners will be able to inject planning principles into the political process. Understanding the jurisdiction,
power structure, legal structure of what is public/what is not and fine tuning the politicians on such aspects
becomes the duty of the planner. Politicians weigh more value to people’s opinion rather than to that of planners
technical know how, they also have differing perspectives on who is elected and who is appointed. Some times
misinformation also delays the processes. Striking a balance between what is common good and what do
politicians want is a challenge for the planners.
For example: A small town had a minor shopping area which the local government wanted to expand – to
improve tax base for the town and to increase commodity availability to the residents. But residents opposed the
move because it would bring traffic, noise and pollution of trucks. The politicians agreed with the residents.
Planning officials intervention at this stage solved the issue – they suggested that the loading/unloading of trucks
take place during non-working hours and into one storage space, from which distribution may be handled with
smaller vehicles. The proposal was passed at the city council meeting.
Also establishing long-term relationships with politicians also benefits planners because that would establish trust
and reliability on their capacities. Politicians like to work with people whom they know and trust.
Need for legislation In Planning
Municipal Acts, Development controls and regulations
Aesthetics in Planning
Urban Design and Conservation
Management of Human Settlements and built environment
In the developing countries growth and development is very rapid, in comparison to the post industrial
era. Due to the speed of change most of the built environment faces faster deterioration. We are
faced with socio economic and environmental challenges of large proportions. Management of
human settlements thus becomes a prime concern for planners. Built environment cannot be or is not
properly managed though desired because of scarcity of suitably qualified personal, weakness of
institutional systems, and lack of technical capacity.
How to manage
1. Support training programs for administrators and civic officials at all levels
2. Ensure efficient leadership transfer, of know how and technology
3. Encourage Public-private partnership, community, business and economic forums to exchange
4. Include multi sectoral approach
5. Local capacity building ventures
6. Timely exchange
7. Ensure transparency and accountability
8. Consider mediations to resolve conflicts
9. Know about eco cycles
10. Integrate gender sensitive policies
Public participation in Planning process is an important component of the process. Public
participation is encouraged in
•Identification of development priorities
•Implementation of development programs
•Participation and monitoring
•Sharing benefits, managing assets
How people participate:
Public opinion polls, Referenda, Ballot Box, Public hearings, Advocacy planning,
Letters to the editor and public officials, Reorientation of pressure groups, Protests and
demonstrations, Court actions, Public meetings, Workshops and seminars, and Task force.
While public involvement is advised in the decision making process like location of schools,
drinking water, or hospitals, their involvement in the Implementation is also highly
recommended like contribution of labor, cash, material, goods or information for completion of
projects. Feed back from public helps planners modify programs to suit the needs.
Failures and Successes in Physical Planning
Several examples may be quoted as successes and failures in planning. For
example Indus valley civilization epitomized Indian settlement pattern. In the
modern times the City of New Delhi or Chandigarh are good examples of
successful planning ventures. The Le’ Enfant’s plan for Washington DC is
considered to be a success story. Some may be failures too like that of Indira
Aawas Yojana/ Rajiv Gruha kalpa or the 1970’s Slum relocations in Chennai.
But failures and successes cannot be termed as such because
1. There is no definition of what planning success is
2. There is no empirical knowledge of when, in what circumstances planning has
3. There is no method for measuring planning success, no ability to measure
implementation of plans.
In planning modeling techniques we may measure success or failure by comparing
real results to a model-run procedure with several variables. But in a general
framework of planning process estimating failure or success is a complex
system because most success will come with several controversies and some
aspects of a failures might have been successful.