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N. SAI SRIKAR –
318106101016
G. REVANTH -
318106101018
CITY
BEAUTIFUL
MOVEMENT
CITY BEAUTIFUL
MOVEMENT
WHAT ?
The City Beautiful Movement was a reform
philosophy of North American architecture and
urban planning that flourished during the 1890s
and 1900s with the intent of introducing
beautification and monumental grandeur in
cities.
Add A Footer
The movement began in the United States in
response to crowding in tenement districts, a
consequence of high birth rates, increased
immigration and internal migration of rural
populations into cities. The movement
flourished for several decades, and in addition
to the construction of monuments, it also
achieved great influence in urban planning
that endured throughout the 20th century,
particularly in regard to United States public
housing projects.
ORIGIN AND
EFFECT
2
7/16/2021
It was a part of the progressive social reform movement in
North America under the leadership of the upper-middle
class concerned with poor living conditions in all major
cities. The movement, which was originally associated
mainly with Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Washington,
D.C., promoted beauty not only for its own sake, but also to
create moral and civic virtue among urban populations.
WHY ?
BEAUTIFUL
MOVEMENT
MUNICIPAL ART MOVEMENT
1. Fusion of art, architecture, and planning 2.
Beautification rather than functionality 3. Focus on
points in the city: arches, fountains, statues, and
other works of urban design and decoration
CIVIC IMPROVEMENT
• Backed by Municipal Art Movement
• To counterbalance the heavy hand of industrialization
OUTDOOR ART
• Led by Frederic Law Olmsted • Promotion of
park, park system, and parkways
Add A Footer
AMERICA
COLLONIAL SPACES
INFLUENCE OF CITY
BEAUTIOFUL MOVEMENT
2
3
3
7/16/2021
CLASSICAL DESIGN
Neoclassical style: great boulevards, grand
perspectives, grouped public buildings, etc.
4
• Middle- and upper-
middle-class Americans
attempt to refashion their
cities in order to boost
business.
• Aesthetic improvements
• Functional
improvements (“city
practical”): sewerage and
water supply, refuse
collection, active
recreation, and public
transportation
• Promote a harmonious +
social order that would
increase the quality of life
• To express imperial
dominance and racial
exclusiveness.
EUROPE (1930s)
• By totalitarian
dictators to
impose
megalomaniac
visions of glory on
their capitals
(Stalin, Hitler)
WORLD’S COLMBIAN
EXPOSITION
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7/16/2021
Daniel Burnham
The first large-scale elaboration
of the City Beautiful occurred
in Chicago at the 1893 World's
Columbian Exposition. The
planning of the exposition was
directed by architect Daniel
Burnham, who hired architects
from the eastern United States,
as well as the sculptor
Augustus Saint-Gaudens, to
build large-scale Beaux-Arts
monuments that were vaguely
classical with uniform cornice
height. The exposition
displayed a model city of grand
scale, known as the "White
City", with modern transport
systems and no poverty visible.
The exposition is credited with
resulting in the large-scale
adoption of monumentalism for
American architecture for the
next 15 years. Richmond,
Virginia's Monument Avenue is
one expression of this initial
phase.
Born
September 4, 1846
Henderson, New York,
United States
Died
June 1, 1912 (aged 65)
Heidelberg, Germany
Occupation Architect
Practice Burnham and Root
Buildings
Reliance Building,
Flatiron Building,
Union Station
(Washington, D.C.),
Ellicott Square
Building
Projects
Plan of Chicago
World's Columbian
Exposition
LOUISIANA PURCHASE
EXPOSITION
Add A Footer 5
7/16/2021
Emmanuel Louis Masqueray
The popularization begun by the World
Columbian Exposition was increased by the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904, held in
St. Louis. Its commissioner of architects selected
Franco-American architect Emmanuel Louis
Masqueray to be Chief of Design. Within three
years he designed the following fair buildings in
the prevailing Beaux Arts: the Palace of
Agriculture; the cascades and colonnades; the
Palace of Forestry, Fish, and Game; the Palace of
Horticulture; and the Palace of Transportation.
All these were widely emulated in civic projects
across the United States. Shortly after the fair
opened in 1904, Masqueray resigned, having
accepted an invitation from Archbishop John
Ireland in St. Paul, Minnesota to design a
cathedral there in the Beaux-Arts style. Other
celebrated architects of the fair's buildings—
notably Cass Gilbert who designed the Palace of
the Fine Arts, now the Saint Louis Art Museum—
applied City Beautiful ideas from the exposition
throughout their careers.
MC MILLIAN PLAN
Add A Footer 6
7/16/2021
JAMES MC MILLIAN
An early use of the City Beautiful ideal with the
intent of creating social order through
beautification was the McMillan Plan, (1902)
named for Michigan Senator James McMillan.
The plan emerged from the Senate Park
Commission's redesigning of the monumental core
of Washington, D.C. to commemorate the city's
centennial and to fulfill unrealized aspects of the
city plan of Pierre Charles L'Enfant a century
earlier.
The Washington planners, who included
Burnham, Saint-Gaudens, Charles McKim of
McKim, Mead, and White, and Frederick Law
Olmsted, Jr., visited many of the great cities of
Europe. They hoped to make Washington
monumental and green like the European capitals
of the era. The essence of the plan surrounded the
United States Capitol with monumental
government buildings to replace "notorious slum
communities". At the heart of the design was the
creation of the National Mall and eventually
included Burnham's Union Station. The
implementation of the plan was interrupted by
World War I but resumed after the war,
culminating in the construction of the Lincoln
Memorial in 1922
INFLUENCE IN
OTHER CITIES
Add A Footer 7
7/16/2021
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
Chicago
Daniel Burnham's 1909 Plan of Chicago is considered
one of principal documents of the City Beautiful
movement. The plan featured a dynamic new civic
center, axial streets, and a lush strip of parkland for
recreation alongside the city's lakefront. Of these, only
the lakefront park was implemented to any significant
degree.
In 1913, the City of Chicago appointed a Commission
with a mandate to “make Chicago Beautiful.” As part of
the plan, the Pennsylvania Union Railroad Depot was
to be moved to the west side of the City and replaced
with a new modern depot. The West Side Property
Owner’s Association was among those who objected. As
reported by the Chicago Tribune, the Association’s
attorney, Sidney Adler of Loeb & Adler, said, “As I saw
the beautiful picture of the city beautiful we will have
fountains in West Madison Street, with poets and
poetesses walking along Clinton, and the simple
minded residents of the west side, after work is done,
will take their gondolas and row on the limpid bosom of
the Chicago River idlely strumming guitars.”
INFLUENCE IN
OTHER CITIES
Add A Footer 8
7/16/2021
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
Denver
In Denver, Colorado, Mayor Robert W. Speer endorsed City Beautiful planning,
with a plan for a Civic Center, disposed along a grand esplanade that led to the
Colorado State Capitol. The plan was partly realized, on a reduced scale, with
the Greek amphitheater, Voorhies Memorial and the Colonnade of Civic
Benefactors, completed in 1919. The Andrew Carnegie Foundation funded the
Denver Public Library (1910), which was designed as a three-story Greek
Revival temple with a colossal Ionic colonnade across its front; inside it featured
open shelves, an art gallery and a children's room. Monuments and vistas were
an essential feature of City Beautiful urban planning: in Denver, Paris-trained
American sculptor Frederick MacMonnies was commissioned to design a
monument marking the end of the Smoky Hill Trail. The bronze Indian guide he
envisaged was vetoed by the committee and replaced with an equestrian Kit
Carson.
INFLUENCE IN
OTHER CITIES
Add A Footer 9
7/16/2021
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
Louisville
After the Southern Exposition of 1883-87, Louisville
grew rapidly with the advent of the Industrial
Revolution. Specifically, the Old Louisville neighborhood,
that was planned and designed by Frederick Law
Olmsted in the image of the City Beautiful movement,
became the largest Victorian neighborhood in the United
States. Central Park sits in the middle of Old Louisville
and is home to an annual free public Shakespeare
festival. Adjacent to the park is the St. James–Belgravia
Historic District which hosts the annual St. James Court
Art Show every October. South of St. James Court is the
University of Louisville's Belknap Campus which is
home to Grawemeyer Hall and the University of
Louisville Brandeis School of Law. Each of these areas of
Louisville display the features of beautification and
monumental grandeur that typified the City Beautiful
movement of the 1890s.
CITY BEAUTIFUL
MOVEMENT IN AUSTRALIA
Add A Footer 10
7/16/2021
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
Harrisburg
Harrisburg's movement of beautification and
improvement was one of the earliest and most
successful urban reform movements in the
country. It began when local minded residents
became convinced that their city was
unattractive, unhealthy, and filthy, and lacked
the appearance and facilities appropriate to its
status as Pennsylvania's state capital. The
causes of the city's defects were well known:
industrialization in the previous half century had
left the city poorly planned with unpaved streets
and undeveloped water management systems.
Residents of Harrisburg suffered disease and
illnesses caused by the lack of good filtration
systems that could filter the sewage dumped by
populations further up the Susquehanna River. A
disastrous fire that consumed the state capitol in
1897 had spawned new conversation about the
suitability of Harrisburg as a state capital.
THANK
YOU

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City Beautiful

  • 1. SUBMITTED BY- N. SAI SRIKAR – 318106101016 G. REVANTH - 318106101018 CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
  • 2. CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT WHAT ? The City Beautiful Movement was a reform philosophy of North American architecture and urban planning that flourished during the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of introducing beautification and monumental grandeur in cities. Add A Footer The movement began in the United States in response to crowding in tenement districts, a consequence of high birth rates, increased immigration and internal migration of rural populations into cities. The movement flourished for several decades, and in addition to the construction of monuments, it also achieved great influence in urban planning that endured throughout the 20th century, particularly in regard to United States public housing projects. ORIGIN AND EFFECT 2 7/16/2021 It was a part of the progressive social reform movement in North America under the leadership of the upper-middle class concerned with poor living conditions in all major cities. The movement, which was originally associated mainly with Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Washington, D.C., promoted beauty not only for its own sake, but also to create moral and civic virtue among urban populations. WHY ?
  • 3. BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT MUNICIPAL ART MOVEMENT 1. Fusion of art, architecture, and planning 2. Beautification rather than functionality 3. Focus on points in the city: arches, fountains, statues, and other works of urban design and decoration CIVIC IMPROVEMENT • Backed by Municipal Art Movement • To counterbalance the heavy hand of industrialization OUTDOOR ART • Led by Frederic Law Olmsted • Promotion of park, park system, and parkways Add A Footer AMERICA COLLONIAL SPACES INFLUENCE OF CITY BEAUTIOFUL MOVEMENT 2 3 3 7/16/2021 CLASSICAL DESIGN Neoclassical style: great boulevards, grand perspectives, grouped public buildings, etc. 4 • Middle- and upper- middle-class Americans attempt to refashion their cities in order to boost business. • Aesthetic improvements • Functional improvements (“city practical”): sewerage and water supply, refuse collection, active recreation, and public transportation • Promote a harmonious + social order that would increase the quality of life • To express imperial dominance and racial exclusiveness. EUROPE (1930s) • By totalitarian dictators to impose megalomaniac visions of glory on their capitals (Stalin, Hitler)
  • 4. WORLD’S COLMBIAN EXPOSITION Add A Footer 4 7/16/2021 Daniel Burnham The first large-scale elaboration of the City Beautiful occurred in Chicago at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. The planning of the exposition was directed by architect Daniel Burnham, who hired architects from the eastern United States, as well as the sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens, to build large-scale Beaux-Arts monuments that were vaguely classical with uniform cornice height. The exposition displayed a model city of grand scale, known as the "White City", with modern transport systems and no poverty visible. The exposition is credited with resulting in the large-scale adoption of monumentalism for American architecture for the next 15 years. Richmond, Virginia's Monument Avenue is one expression of this initial phase. Born September 4, 1846 Henderson, New York, United States Died June 1, 1912 (aged 65) Heidelberg, Germany Occupation Architect Practice Burnham and Root Buildings Reliance Building, Flatiron Building, Union Station (Washington, D.C.), Ellicott Square Building Projects Plan of Chicago World's Columbian Exposition
  • 5. LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION Add A Footer 5 7/16/2021 Emmanuel Louis Masqueray The popularization begun by the World Columbian Exposition was increased by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904, held in St. Louis. Its commissioner of architects selected Franco-American architect Emmanuel Louis Masqueray to be Chief of Design. Within three years he designed the following fair buildings in the prevailing Beaux Arts: the Palace of Agriculture; the cascades and colonnades; the Palace of Forestry, Fish, and Game; the Palace of Horticulture; and the Palace of Transportation. All these were widely emulated in civic projects across the United States. Shortly after the fair opened in 1904, Masqueray resigned, having accepted an invitation from Archbishop John Ireland in St. Paul, Minnesota to design a cathedral there in the Beaux-Arts style. Other celebrated architects of the fair's buildings— notably Cass Gilbert who designed the Palace of the Fine Arts, now the Saint Louis Art Museum— applied City Beautiful ideas from the exposition throughout their careers.
  • 6. MC MILLIAN PLAN Add A Footer 6 7/16/2021 JAMES MC MILLIAN An early use of the City Beautiful ideal with the intent of creating social order through beautification was the McMillan Plan, (1902) named for Michigan Senator James McMillan. The plan emerged from the Senate Park Commission's redesigning of the monumental core of Washington, D.C. to commemorate the city's centennial and to fulfill unrealized aspects of the city plan of Pierre Charles L'Enfant a century earlier. The Washington planners, who included Burnham, Saint-Gaudens, Charles McKim of McKim, Mead, and White, and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., visited many of the great cities of Europe. They hoped to make Washington monumental and green like the European capitals of the era. The essence of the plan surrounded the United States Capitol with monumental government buildings to replace "notorious slum communities". At the heart of the design was the creation of the National Mall and eventually included Burnham's Union Station. The implementation of the plan was interrupted by World War I but resumed after the war, culminating in the construction of the Lincoln Memorial in 1922
  • 7. INFLUENCE IN OTHER CITIES Add A Footer 7 7/16/2021 CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT Chicago Daniel Burnham's 1909 Plan of Chicago is considered one of principal documents of the City Beautiful movement. The plan featured a dynamic new civic center, axial streets, and a lush strip of parkland for recreation alongside the city's lakefront. Of these, only the lakefront park was implemented to any significant degree. In 1913, the City of Chicago appointed a Commission with a mandate to “make Chicago Beautiful.” As part of the plan, the Pennsylvania Union Railroad Depot was to be moved to the west side of the City and replaced with a new modern depot. The West Side Property Owner’s Association was among those who objected. As reported by the Chicago Tribune, the Association’s attorney, Sidney Adler of Loeb & Adler, said, “As I saw the beautiful picture of the city beautiful we will have fountains in West Madison Street, with poets and poetesses walking along Clinton, and the simple minded residents of the west side, after work is done, will take their gondolas and row on the limpid bosom of the Chicago River idlely strumming guitars.”
  • 8. INFLUENCE IN OTHER CITIES Add A Footer 8 7/16/2021 CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT Denver In Denver, Colorado, Mayor Robert W. Speer endorsed City Beautiful planning, with a plan for a Civic Center, disposed along a grand esplanade that led to the Colorado State Capitol. The plan was partly realized, on a reduced scale, with the Greek amphitheater, Voorhies Memorial and the Colonnade of Civic Benefactors, completed in 1919. The Andrew Carnegie Foundation funded the Denver Public Library (1910), which was designed as a three-story Greek Revival temple with a colossal Ionic colonnade across its front; inside it featured open shelves, an art gallery and a children's room. Monuments and vistas were an essential feature of City Beautiful urban planning: in Denver, Paris-trained American sculptor Frederick MacMonnies was commissioned to design a monument marking the end of the Smoky Hill Trail. The bronze Indian guide he envisaged was vetoed by the committee and replaced with an equestrian Kit Carson.
  • 9. INFLUENCE IN OTHER CITIES Add A Footer 9 7/16/2021 CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT Louisville After the Southern Exposition of 1883-87, Louisville grew rapidly with the advent of the Industrial Revolution. Specifically, the Old Louisville neighborhood, that was planned and designed by Frederick Law Olmsted in the image of the City Beautiful movement, became the largest Victorian neighborhood in the United States. Central Park sits in the middle of Old Louisville and is home to an annual free public Shakespeare festival. Adjacent to the park is the St. James–Belgravia Historic District which hosts the annual St. James Court Art Show every October. South of St. James Court is the University of Louisville's Belknap Campus which is home to Grawemeyer Hall and the University of Louisville Brandeis School of Law. Each of these areas of Louisville display the features of beautification and monumental grandeur that typified the City Beautiful movement of the 1890s.
  • 10. CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT IN AUSTRALIA Add A Footer 10 7/16/2021 CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT Harrisburg Harrisburg's movement of beautification and improvement was one of the earliest and most successful urban reform movements in the country. It began when local minded residents became convinced that their city was unattractive, unhealthy, and filthy, and lacked the appearance and facilities appropriate to its status as Pennsylvania's state capital. The causes of the city's defects were well known: industrialization in the previous half century had left the city poorly planned with unpaved streets and undeveloped water management systems. Residents of Harrisburg suffered disease and illnesses caused by the lack of good filtration systems that could filter the sewage dumped by populations further up the Susquehanna River. A disastrous fire that consumed the state capitol in 1897 had spawned new conversation about the suitability of Harrisburg as a state capital.